Abstract

The birth of terahertz imaging approximately coincides with the birth of the journal Optics Express. The 20th anniversary of the journal is therefore an opportune moment to consider the state of progress in the field of terahertz imaging. This article discusses some of the compelling reasons that one may wish to form images in the THz range, in order to provide a perspective of how far the field has come since the early demonstrations of the mid-1990’s. It then focuses on a few of the more prominent frontiers of current research, highlighting their impacts on both fundamental science and applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  100. K. Yoshioka, I. Katayama, Y. Minami, M. Kitajima, S. Yoshida, H. Shigekawa, and J. Takeda, “Real-space coherent manipulation of electrons in a single tunnel junction by single-cycle terahertz electric field,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 762–765 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  101. V. Jelic, K. Iwaszczuk, P. H. Nguyen, C. Rathje, G. J. Hornig, H. M. Sharum, J. R. Hoffman, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 591–598 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  102. D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
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  103. K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  104. E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(3), 585–590 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  105. J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. C. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 220–231 (2011).
  106. J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. Whitaker, I. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  107. E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  108. C. L. Koch-Dandolo, T. Filtenborg, K. Fukunaga, J. Skou-Hansen, and P. U. Jepsen, “Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting,” Appl. Opt. 54(16), 5123–5129 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  109. J. Dong, J. Bianca Jackson, M. Melis, D. Giovanacci, G. C. Walker, A. Locquet, J. W. Bowen, and D. S. Citrin, “Terahertz frequency-wavelet domain deconvolution for stratigraphic and subsurface investigation of art painting,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26972–26985 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  110. C. L. Koch Dandolo, M. Picollo, C. Cucci, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fra Angelico’s painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI),” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(10), 898 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  111. J. Dong, A. Locquet, M. Melis, and D. S. Citrin, “Global mapping of stratigraphy of an old-master painting using sparsity-based terahertz reflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15098 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  112. A. M. Gomez-Sepulveda, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Radpour, C. L. Koch-Dandolo, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, L. F. Ascencio-Rojas, A. Zarate, G. Hernandez, R. C. Gonzalez-Tirado, M. Insaurralde-Caballero, and E. Castro-Camus, “History of Mexican easel paintings from an altarpiece revealed by non-invasive terahertz time-domain imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(4), 403–412 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  113. A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, and J. Dik, “TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3407–3416 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  114. K. Krügener, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. F. Busch, A. Soltani, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14842 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  115. K. Krügener, S. F. Busch, A. Soltani, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “Non-destructive analysis of material detachments from polychromatically glazed terracotta artwork by THz time-of-flight spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(4), 495–502 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  116. A. S. Skryl, J. B. Jackson, M. I. Bakunov, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz time-domain imaging of hidden defects in wooden artworks: application to a Russian icon painting,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1033–1038 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  117. L. öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: Terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 142(3), 497–500 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  118. J.-P. Caumes, A. Younus, S. Salort, B. Chassagne, B. Recur, A. Ziéglé, A. Dautant, and E. Abraham, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3604–3608 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  119. C. L. Koch Dandolo and P. U. Jepsen, “Wall painting investigation by means of non-invasive terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of subsurface structures buried in historical plasters,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 37(2), 198–208 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  120. G. C. Walker, J. W. Bowen, W. Matthews, S. Roychowdhury, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, I. Hodder, and J. B. Jackson, “Sub-surface terahertz imaging through uneven surfaces: visualizing Neolithic wall paintings in Çatalhöyük,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8126–8134 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  121. X. Wu and K. Sengupta, “On-chip THz spectroscope exploiting electromagnetic scattering with multi-port antenna,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51(12), 3049–3062 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  122. J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-state terahertz superresolution imaging device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  123. A. Redo-Sanchez, B. Heshmat, A. Aghasi, S. Naqvi, M. Zhang, J. Romberg, and R. Raskar, “Terahertz time-gated spectral imaging for content extraction through layered structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12665 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  124. I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  125. K. Su, Y.-C. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Terahertz sensor for non-contact thickness and quality measurement of automobile paints of varying complexity,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4, 432–439 (2014).
  126. S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 021105 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (12)

A. M. Weiner, “Editorial: 20 years of Optics Express,” Opt. Express 25(3), 2994–2997 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Valzania, P. Zolliker, and E. Hack, “Topography of hidden objects using THz digital holography with multi-beam interferences,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11038–11047 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Stantchev, D. B. Phillips, P. Hobson, S. M. Hornett, M. J. Padgett, and E. Hendry, “Compressed sensing with near-field THz radiation,” Optica 4(8), 989–992 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, A. Locquet, M. Melis, and D. S. Citrin, “Global mapping of stratigraphy of an old-master painting using sparsity-based terahertz reflectometry,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15098 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Gomez-Sepulveda, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Radpour, C. L. Koch-Dandolo, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, L. F. Ascencio-Rojas, A. Zarate, G. Hernandez, R. C. Gonzalez-Tirado, M. Insaurralde-Caballero, and E. Castro-Camus, “History of Mexican easel paintings from an altarpiece revealed by non-invasive terahertz time-domain imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(4), 403–412 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krügener, S. F. Busch, A. Soltani, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “Non-destructive analysis of material detachments from polychromatically glazed terracotta artwork by THz time-of-flight spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(4), 495–502 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-state terahertz superresolution imaging device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photon. 2(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Klarskov, H. Kim, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2676–2680 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Jelic, K. Iwaszczuk, P. H. Nguyen, C. Rathje, G. J. Hornig, H. M. Sharum, J. R. Hoffman, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface,” Nat. Phys. 13(6), 591–598 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (13)

D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Cocker, D. Peller, P. Yu, J. Repp, and R. Huber, “Tracking the ultrafast motion of a single molecule by femtosecond orbital imaging,” Nature 539(7628), 263–267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yoshioka, I. Katayama, Y. Minami, M. Kitajima, S. Yoshida, H. Shigekawa, and J. Takeda, “Real-space coherent manipulation of electrons in a single tunnel junction by single-cycle terahertz electric field,” Nat. Photonics 10(12), 762–765 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. N. Dolganova, K. I. Zaytsev, A. A. Metelkina, and S. O. Yurchenko, “The active-passive continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 735, 012075 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Miyamoto, A. Yamaguchi, and T. Mukai, “Terahertz imaging system with resonant tunneling diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(3), 032201 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Hack, L. Valzania, G. Gäumann, M. Shalaby, C. P. Hauri, and P. Zolliker, “Comparison of thermal detector arrays for off-axis THz holography and real-time THz imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 16(12), 221 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Hafez, X. Chai, A. Ibrahim, S. Mondal, D. Ferachou, X. Ropagnol, and T. Ozaki, “Intense terahertz radiation and their applications,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093004 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Redo-Sanchez, B. Heshmat, A. Aghasi, S. Naqvi, M. Zhang, J. Romberg, and R. Raskar, “Terahertz time-gated spectral imaging for content extraction through layered structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12665 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Koch Dandolo, M. Picollo, C. Cucci, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fra Angelico’s painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI),” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(10), 898 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 021105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. L. Koch Dandolo and P. U. Jepsen, “Wall painting investigation by means of non-invasive terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of subsurface structures buried in historical plasters,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 37(2), 198–208 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu and K. Sengupta, “On-chip THz spectroscope exploiting electromagnetic scattering with multi-port antenna,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51(12), 3049–3062 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, J. Bianca Jackson, M. Melis, D. Giovanacci, G. C. Walker, A. Locquet, J. W. Bowen, and D. S. Citrin, “Terahertz frequency-wavelet domain deconvolution for stratigraphic and subsurface investigation of art painting,” Opt. Express 24(23), 26972–26985 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

C. L. Koch-Dandolo, T. Filtenborg, K. Fukunaga, J. Skou-Hansen, and P. U. Jepsen, “Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting,” Appl. Opt. 54(16), 5123–5129 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mohr, S. Breuer, G. Giuliani, and W. Elsäßer, “Two-dimensional tomographic terahertz imaging by homodyne self-mixing,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27221–27229 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krügener, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. F. Busch, A. Soltani, E. Castro-Camus, M. Koch, and W. Viöl, “Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14842 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Locatelli, M. Ravaro, S. Bartalini, L. Consolino, M. S. Vitiello, R. Cicchi, F. Pavone, and P. De Natale, “Real-time terahertz digital holography with a quantum cascade laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: in vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakanishi, A. Ito, K. Takayama, I. Kawayama, H. Murakami, and M. Tonouchi, “Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell,” AIP Adv. 5(11), 117129 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. S. Luk, and J. L. Reno, “Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity,” ACS Photonics 2(12), 1763–1768 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Murakami, K. Serita, Y. Maekawa, S. Fujiwara, E. Matsuda, S. Kim, I. Kawayama, and M. Tonouchi, “Scanning laser THz imaging system,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374007 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 841–845 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakic, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Augustin and H.-W. Hubers, “Phase-sensitive passive terahertz imaging at 5-m stand-off distance,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4, 418–424 (2014).

K. Su, Y.-C. Shen, and J. A. Zeitler, “Terahertz sensor for non-contact thickness and quality measurement of automobile paints of varying complexity,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4, 432–439 (2014).

A. S. Skryl, J. B. Jackson, M. I. Bakunov, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz time-domain imaging of hidden defects in wooden artworks: application to a Russian icon painting,” Appl. Opt. 53(6), 1033–1038 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

G. C. Walker, J. W. Bowen, W. Matthews, S. Roychowdhury, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, I. Hodder, and J. B. Jackson, “Sub-surface terahertz imaging through uneven surfaces: visualizing Neolithic wall paintings in Çatalhöyük,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8126–8134 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. D. L. Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunneling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Klarskov, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Iwaszczuk, and P. U. Jepsen, “Experimental three-dimensional beam profiling and modeling of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075012 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Liu, R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, and N. Sakoda, “A tapered parallel-plate waveguide probe for THz near-field reflection imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031101 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, J. Darmo, and M. Tonouchi, “Scanning laser terahertz near-field imaging system,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12959–12965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, M. Mikulics, N. Vieweg, O. Peters, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive terahertz imaging: detection of birefringence and optical axis,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23025–23035 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

S. Yeom, D.-S. Lee, J.-Y. Son, M.-K. Jung, Y. Jang, S.-W. Jung, and S.-J. Lee, “Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2530–2536 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of the terahertz near-field output of parallel-plate waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 558–566 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Yamashita, C. Otani, T. Matsumoto, Y. Midoh, K. Miura, K. Nakamae, K. Nikawa, S. Kim, H. Murakami, and M. Tonouchi, “THz emission characteristics from p/n junctions with metal lines under non-bias conditions for LSI failure analysis,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10864–10873 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Caumes, A. Younus, S. Salort, B. Chassagne, B. Recur, A. Ziéglé, A. Dautant, and E. Abraham, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3604–3608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. C. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 220–231 (2011).

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Adiabatic tip-plasmon focusing for nano-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(24), 3427–3432 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: A near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(3), 585–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: Terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 142(3), 497–500 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Lynch, P. A. Macdonald, H. P. Moyer, and R. G. Nagele, “Passive millimeter wave imaging sensors for commercial markets,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E7–E12 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Superfocusing terahertz waves below λ/250 using plasmonic parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9643–9650 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (11)

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A study of background signals in terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy and their use for scattering probe imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113117 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, and J. Dik, “TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3407–3416 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-R. Huang, Y.-J. Hwang, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, and C.-K. Sun, “All-terahertz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. A. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Rana, I. Kawayama, K. Mavani, K. Takahashi, H. Murakami, and M. Tonouchi, “Understanding the nature of ultrafast polarization dynamics of ferroelectric memory in the multiferroic BiFeO3,” Adv. Mater. 21(28), 2881–2885 (2009).
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Y. C. Shen, L. Gan, M. Stringer, A. Burnett, K. Tych, H. Shen, J. E. Cunningham, E. P. J. Parrott, J. A. Zeitler, L. F. Gladden, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging using optimized binary masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231112 (2009).
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E. Ojefors, U. R. Pfeiffer, A. Lisauskas, and H. G. Roskos, “A 0.65 THz focal-plane array in a quarter-micron CMOS process technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44(7), 1968–1976 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, H. Murakami, and M. Tonouchi, “Transmission-type laser THz emission microscope using a solid immersion lens,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(2), 498–504 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. Whitaker, I. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, M. L. Moravec, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz imaging with compressed sensing and phase retrieval,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 974–976 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y.-S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 162110 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (>25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
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E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
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H. Zhong, A. Redo-Sanchez, and X.-C. Zhang, “Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9130–9141 (2006).
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2005 (8)

M. Yamashita, K. Kawase, C. Otani, T. Kiwa, and M. Tonouchi, “Imaging of large-scale integrated circuits using laser-terahertz emission microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(1), 115–120 (2005).
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J. Pearce, H. Choi, D. M. Mittleman, J. White, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz wide aperture reflection tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1653–1655 (2005).
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N. C. J. van der Valk, W. A. M. van der Marel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2802–2804 (2005).
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D. Zimdars, J. A. Valdmanis, J. S. White, G. Stuk, S. Williamson, W. P. Winfree, and E. I. Madaras, “Technology and applications of terahertz imaging non-destructive examination: Inspection of space shuttle sprayed on foam insulation,” AIP Conf. Proc. 760, 570–577 (2005).
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H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5(2), 203–208 (2005).
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V. G. Kolinko, S.-H. Lin, A. Shek, W. Manning, C. Martin, M. Hall, O. Kirsten, J. Moore, and D. A. Wikner, “A passive millimeter-wave imaging system for concealed weapons and explosives detection,” Proc. SPIE 5781, 85–92 (2005).
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Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
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K. Ishihara, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, J.-i. Shikata, K. Ohashi, H. Yokoyama, and H. Ito, “Terahertz near-field imaging using enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(29), L929–L931 (2005).
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2004 (3)

H.-T. Chen, S. Kraatz, G. C. Cho, and R. Kersting, “Identification of a resonant imaging process in apertureless near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 267401 (2004).
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K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, N. C. J. van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, “Antenna effects in terahertz apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2715–2717 (2004).
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S. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), 1–36 (2004).
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2003 (3)

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, and L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(9), 095503 (2003).
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K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
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H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
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2002 (3)

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1381–1383 (2002).
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2001 (4)

K. McClatchey, M. T. Reiten, and R. A. Cheville, “Time resolved synthetic aperture terahertz impulse imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(27), 4485–4487 (2001).
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J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, “Enhanced depth resolution in terahertz imaging using phase-shift interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 835–837 (2001).
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M. Brucherseifer, P. H. Bolivar, H. Klingenberg, and H. Kurz, “Angle-dependent THz tomography - characterization of thin ceramic oxide films for fuel cell applications,” Appl. Phys. B 72(3), 361–366 (2001).
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O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 907–909 (2001).
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2000 (2)

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz radiation imaging of supercurrent distribution in vortex-penetrated YBa2Cu3O7–d thin film strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7366–7375 (2000).
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R. M. Stöckle, Y. D. Suh, V. Deckert, and R. Zenobi, “Nanoscale chemical analysis by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(1-3), 131–136 (2000).
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1999 (3)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
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S. Hadjiloucas, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, “Measurements of leaf water content using terahertz radiation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(2), 142–149 (1999).
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Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “2D measurement and spatio-temporal coupling of few-cycle THz pulses,” Opt. Express 5(11), 243–248 (1999).
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1998 (2)

M. Koch, S. Hunsche, P. Schumacher, M. C. Nuss, J. Feldmann, and J. Fromm, “THz-imaging: a new method for density mapping of wood,” Wood Sci. Technol. 32(6), 421–427 (1998).
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S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
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1997 (1)

1996 (2)

F. Keilmann, D. W. van der Weide, T. Eickelkamp, R. Merz, and D. Stöckle, “Extreme sub-wavelength resolution with a scanning radio-frequency transmission microscope,” Opt. Commun. 129(1-2), 15–18 (1996).
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D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
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1995 (3)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
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F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: optical imaging at 10 angstrom resolution,” Science 269(5227), 1083–1085 (1995).
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B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(16), 1716–1719 (1995).
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1994 (1)

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(11), 1684–1691 (1990).
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1989 (1)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(6), 490–492 (1989).
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1988 (2)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, “Point source terahertz optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(16), 1480–1482 (1988).
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P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 255–260 (1988).
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1976 (1)

Abbot, D.

Abraham, E.

J.-P. Caumes, A. Younus, S. Salort, B. Chassagne, B. Recur, A. Ziéglé, A. Dautant, and E. Abraham, “Terahertz tomographic imaging of XVIIIth Dynasty Egyptian sealed pottery,” Appl. Opt. 50(20), 3604–3608 (2011).
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E. Abraham, A. Younus, J. C. Delagnes, and P. Mounaix, “Non-invasive investigation of art paintings by terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(3), 585–590 (2010).
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E. Abraham, A. Younus, A. El Fatimy, J. C. Delagnes, E. Nguema, and P. Mounaix, “Broadband terahertz imaging of documents written with lead pencils,” Opt. Commun. 282(15), 3104–3107 (2009).
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Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
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A. J. L. Adam, P. C. M. Planken, S. Meloni, and J. Dik, “TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3407–3416 (2009).
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Aghasi, A.

A. Redo-Sanchez, B. Heshmat, A. Aghasi, S. Naqvi, M. Zhang, J. Romberg, and R. Raskar, “Terahertz time-gated spectral imaging for content extraction through layered structures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12665 (2016).
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Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. A. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 (2009).
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A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
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Ajayan, P. M.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
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Ajili, L.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1381–1383 (2002).
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Ajito, K.

D. M. Charron, K. Ajito, J.-Y. Kim, and Y. Ueno, “Chemical mapping of pharmaceutical cocrystals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging,” Anal. Chem. 85(4), 1980–1984 (2013).
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Alhathlool, R.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakic, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
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Ascencio-Rojas, L. F.

A. M. Gomez-Sepulveda, A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Radpour, C. L. Koch-Dandolo, S. C. Rojas-Landeros, L. F. Ascencio-Rojas, A. Zarate, G. Hernandez, R. C. Gonzalez-Tirado, M. Insaurralde-Caballero, and E. Castro-Camus, “History of Mexican easel paintings from an altarpiece revealed by non-invasive terahertz time-domain imaging,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 38(4), 403–412 (2017).
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Astley, V.

V. Astley, H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A study of background signals in terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy and their use for scattering probe imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113117 (2009).
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V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
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H. Zhan, V. Astley, M. Hvasta, J. A. Deibel, D. M. Mittleman, and Y.-S. Lim, “The metal-insulator transition in VO2 studied using terahertz apertureless near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 162110 (2007).
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Atkin, J. M.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Adiabatic tip-plasmon focusing for nano-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(24), 3427–3432 (2010).
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Augustin, S.

S. Augustin and H.-W. Hubers, “Phase-sensitive passive terahertz imaging at 5-m stand-off distance,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4, 418–424 (2014).

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P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, “Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 255–260 (1988).
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Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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Bagsican, F. R.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
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Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: in vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Bakunov, M. I.

Baraniuk, R. G.

M. F. Duarte, M. A. Davenport, D. Takhar, J. N. Laska, T. Sun, K. F. Kelly, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Single-pixel imaging via compressive sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 25(2), 83–91 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. L. Chan, M. L. Moravec, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz imaging with compressed sensing and phase retrieval,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 974–976 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
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Barker, D. H.

Bartalini, S.

M. Locatelli, M. Ravaro, S. Bartalini, L. Consolino, M. S. Vitiello, R. Cicchi, F. Pavone, and P. De Natale, “Real-time terahertz digital holography with a quantum cascade laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13566 (2015).
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Basov, D. N.

D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
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Beere, H.

M. Rochat, L. Ajili, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1381–1383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Beigang, R.

S. Krimi, J. Klier, J. Jonuscheit, G. von Freymann, R. Urbansky, and R. Beigang, “Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(2), 021105 (2016).
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Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: in vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
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Bertling, K.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakic, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers - a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berweger, S.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Adiabatic tip-plasmon focusing for nano-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(24), 3427–3432 (2010).
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Bianca Jackson, J.

Bitzer, A.

L. öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: Terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 142(3), 497–500 (2010).
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Blanchard, F.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
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Boivin, L.

Bolivar, P. H.

M. Brucherseifer, P. H. Bolivar, H. Klingenberg, and H. Kurz, “Angle-dependent THz tomography - characterization of thin ceramic oxide films for fuel cell applications,” Appl. Phys. B 72(3), 361–366 (2001).
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Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: A near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
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Bowen, J.

J. B. Jackson, J. Bowen, G. C. Walker, J. Labaune, G. Mourou, M. Menu, and K. Fukunaga, “A survey of terahertz applications in cultural heritage conservation science,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 220–231 (2011).

Bowen, J. W.

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, I. Brener, T. S. Luk, and J. L. Reno, “Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity,” ACS Photonics 2(12), 1763–1768 (2015).
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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
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S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
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Breuer, S.

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, J. Garritano, S. Sung, N. Bajwa, D. B. Bennett, B. Nowroozi, P. Tewari, J. W. Sayre, J.-P. Hubschman, S. X. Deng, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: in vivo sensing and imaging results,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 184–196 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Brucherseifer, P. H. Bolivar, H. Klingenberg, and H. Kurz, “Angle-dependent THz tomography - characterization of thin ceramic oxide films for fuel cell applications,” Appl. Phys. B 72(3), 361–366 (2001).
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IEICE Electron. Express (1)

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S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, M. Mikulics, N. Vieweg, O. Peters, B. Scherger, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive terahertz imaging: detection of birefringence and optical axis,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23025–23035 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A photograph and a THz transmission image of a portion of an automobile dashboard, consisting of a ~1 cm layer of foam padding sandwiched between two black polyethylene sheets. The THz image clearly reveals an air bubble defect embedded in the foam. Adapted from [10].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reconstructed 2D images of a hollow-core Teflon cylinder filled with α-Lactose at a terahertz frequency of (a) 0.19THz and (b) 0.54THz. A homodyne self-mixing technique is applied to measure the 1D projections of the object, from which the 2D image is reconstructed using the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. The 2D images reveal the dimensions of the hollow core Teflon cylinder, and also allow for an identification of the α-Lactose filling by its specific absorption line. Reproduced from [36] with permission of the authors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Beam profiles for a THz beam generated via the two-color air plasma mechanism, measured using a camera based on a microbolometer focal-plane array. (a) the unfocused beam exhibits a conical profile, although (b) it is close to a Lorentzian profile when focused. Reproduced from [49], with permission of the authors.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) An illustration of the imaging setup from [60]. A digital micromirror device is used to spatially modulate an optical pump beam, which is then projected onto a silicon wafer. The photoexcited carriers in the silicon lead to a similar spatial modulation of the coincident THz pulse, which then passes through an object on the other side of the Si wafer, and is then measured using a single-element THz detector. The inset shows an optical image of a resolution test target (cartwheel), which is a gold patter on the Si wafer. The lower panels (b)-(g) illustrate the results. On the left-hand side, several images are assembled with different Si wafer thicknesses. The right-hand panels show the corresponding predictions. Reproduced from [60] with permission of the authors.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 LTEM images of LSI fabricated by 180nm process (a) without and (b) with a defect. The localization of LSI defects is one of key issues for the current and future LSI developments [69]. CMOS indicated by the red arrow in (b) includes a signal line disconnected artificially while fabricating, which makes the LTEM amplitude smaller, and the corresponding CMOS image becomes darker. (c) Note that the fs laser pulses are irradiated from the back side and the THz signals are detected from the back side because the front side is covered by metal layers. A GaP solid immersion lens is attached to the back side of the LSI, to improve the spatial resolution [70]. The whole LTEM image size is 30 × 30 mm2, and a resolution estimated by the transition width from 20% to 80% of the amplitude is 360 nm as indicated in (d). Images courtesy of M. Tonouchi, used by permission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spatial distribution of the longitudinal (z) component of the THz field at the output of a tapered parallel-plate metal waveguide. Here, the plates are tapered in both transverse dimensions: the plate width (x) and the plate separation (y) both taper down to roughly 100 μm at the waveguide output facet. The field is measured using a scattering-probe technique [84], with a tapered metal probe with an apex size of ~10 μm. Adapted from [86].
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) A tomographic cut of the air gap obtained from the terahertz time-of-flight measurements. (b) An X-ray computed tomography cut of the same air gap. The two measurements both allow determination of the air-gap width, but THz imaging is a portable technology that does not require the use of ionizing radiation. Reproduced from [115] with permission of the authors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 – A summary of the typical specifications of four types of commercially available focal plane arrays that can be used to visualize THz beams. Experimental comparisons of some of these cameras has been discussed in [46].

Metrics