Abstract

Laser drop on demand jetting of Cu-base braze droplets was proven a suitable method for joining wires to electrode structures of electronic devices, particularly if the electrical contacts need to withstand high thermal loads. During joining, a braze preform of 600 µm diameter is placed inside a capillary, molten by a laser pulse and subsequently ejected from the capillary by inert gas overpressure similarly to conventional solder ball bumping processes. However, since the liquidus temperature of the used braze material of 990 °C is about 760 °C higher than of standard Sn-based solders used in electronics packaging, the system technology was modified significantly to enable jetting of CuSn alloys. In particular, the beam source emits a five times higher optical output power than standard machines designed for processing Sn-based solders. In addition, a modified capillary made from technical ceramic was machined, to withstand the significantly higher heating- and cooling rates during the process. In order to understand the influence of capillary geometry on droplet detachment, and flight trajectory, two capillary geometries were machined applying a picosecond laser ablation process. Subsequently, stereoscopic high speed videos of droplet detachment and flight phase were analyzed. Using this approach it is possible, to determine droplet flight trajectories, velocities and lateral positional deviations in dependency of relative inert gas overpressure inside the machining head, pulse power and capillary geometry. The findings indicate a significant influence of the capillary geometry and the applied overpressure on the droplet flight trajectory, whereas the role of the laser pulse power seems neglectable.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

2016 (3)

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

2015 (2)

U. Aridogan and I. Basdogan, “A review of active vibration and noise suppression of plate-like structures with piezoelectric transducers,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 26, 1455–1476 (2015).

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

2014 (2)

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

2012 (1)

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

2008 (1)

G. J. Snyder and E. S. Toberer, “Complex thermoelectric materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 105–114 (2008).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Aridogan, U.

U. Aridogan and I. Basdogan, “A review of active vibration and noise suppression of plate-like structures with piezoelectric transducers,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 26, 1455–1476 (2015).

Basdogan, I.

U. Aridogan and I. Basdogan, “A review of active vibration and noise suppression of plate-like structures with piezoelectric transducers,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 26, 1455–1476 (2015).

Basset, M. G.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Beckert, E.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

Brechet, Y.

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Breitschwerdt, H.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

Burkhardt, T.

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

Dippert, J.

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

Dobler, M.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

Drossel, W.-G.

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

Eberhardt, R.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Eiselen, S.

T. Häfner, L. Hofmann, and S. Eiselen, “Einsatz der Simulation zur Optimierung der Abtragsrate beim Strukturieren mittels Pikosekundenlaser,” Tagungsband Laser in der Elektronikproduktion und Feinwerktechnik, 51–55 (2013).

Flössel, M.

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Galan, M.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Gebhardt, S.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Govekar, E.

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

Gude, M.

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Häfner, T.

T. Häfner, L. Hofmann, and S. Eiselen, “Einsatz der Simulation zur Optimierung der Abtragsrate beim Strukturieren mittels Pikosekundenlaser,” Tagungsband Laser in der Elektronikproduktion und Feinwerktechnik, 51–55 (2013).

Heberle, J.

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

Heikkila, J.

J. Heikkila and O. Silven, A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction (1997).

Held, C.

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

Hofmann, L.

T. Häfner, L. Hofmann, and S. Eiselen, “Einsatz der Simulation zur Optimierung der Abtragsrate beim Strukturieren mittels Pikosekundenlaser,” Tagungsband Laser in der Elektronikproduktion und Feinwerktechnik, 51–55 (2013).

Hornaff, M.

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Hugger, F.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

Inza, A. M.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Jeromen, A.

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

Kimme, S.

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

Koerner, C.

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Körner, C.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

Laudisio, M.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Maekawa, K.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Matsuba, Y.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Mäusezahl, M.

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

Michaelis, A.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Mita, M.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Modler, N.

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Niizeki, T.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Papoular, M.

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Perez, M.

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Pohle, C.

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

Radel, T.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

Rhein, S.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

Ribes-Pleguezuelo, P.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Rodríguez, G.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Rodríguez, P.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Roth, S.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Rübner, M.

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Saito, H.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Salvo, L.

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Schmidt, M.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

Schwankl, M.

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Silven, O.

J. Heikkila and O. Silven, A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction (1997).

Singer, R. F.

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Snyder, G. J.

G. J. Snyder and E. S. Toberer, “Complex thermoelectric materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 105–114 (2008).
[PubMed]

Stein, S.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Strauß, M.

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

Suchy, M.

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

Suery, M.

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

Tenner, F.

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

Terada, N.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Toberer, E. S.

G. J. Snyder and E. S. Toberer, “Complex thermoelectric materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 105–114 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Weber, T.

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Wedler, J.

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

Winkler, A.

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

Yamasaki, K.

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).

Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials (1)

M. Schwankl, S. Kimme, C. Pohle, W.-G. Drossel, and C. Körner, “Active Vibration Damping in Structural Aluminum Die Castings via Piezoelectricity - Technology and Characterization,” Adv. Eng. Mater. Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 969–975 (2015).

Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters (1)

M. Perez, Y. Brechet, L. Salvo, M. Papoular, and M. Suery, “Oscillation of liquid drops under gravity: Influence of shape on the resonance frequency,” Europhys. Lett. Europhysics Letters 47, 189–195 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. (1)

K. Maekawa, K. Yamasaki, T. Niizeki, M. Mita, Y. Matsuba, N. Terada, and H. Saito, “Drop-on-Demand Laser Sintering With Silver Nanoparticles for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packaging Manuf. Technol. 2, 868–877 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22, 1330–1334 (2000).

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. (1)

U. Aridogan and I. Basdogan, “A review of active vibration and noise suppression of plate-like structures with piezoelectric transducers,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 26, 1455–1476 (2015).

J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. (1)

S. Stein, J. Heberle, M. Suchy, F. Tenner, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “High Temperature Laser Based Drop on Demand Micro Joining of Thin Metallic Layers or Foils using Bronze Braze Preforms: LAMP 2016,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 11, 111–116 (2016).

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

A. Jeromen, C. Held, E. Govekar, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Modelling of droplet detachment in the laser droplet brazing process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214, 737–749 (2014).

JLMN (1)

S. Stein, J. Dippert, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Laser Drop on Demand Micro Joining for High Temperature Wire Bonding Applications – System Technology And Mechanical Joint Performance,” JLMN 12, 239–247 (2017).

Nat. Mater. (1)

G. J. Snyder and E. S. Toberer, “Complex thermoelectric materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 105–114 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng Optical Engineering (1)

P. Ribes-Pleguezuelo, A. M. Inza, M. G. Basset, P. Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez, M. Laudisio, M. Galan, M. Hornaff, E. Beckert, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Assembly processes comparison for a miniaturized laser used for the Exomars European Space Agency mission,” Opt. Eng Optical Engineering 55, 116107 (2016).

Phys. Procedia (1)

M. Mäusezahl, M. Hornaff, T. Burkhardt, and E. Beckert, “Mechanical Properties of Laser-jetted SAC305 Solder on Coated Optical Surfaces,” Phys. Procedia 83, 532–539 (2016).

Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. (1)

S. Stein, M. Dobler, T. Radel, M. Strauß, H. Breitschwerdt, F. Hugger, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Experimental and numerical investigations regarding laser drop on demand jetting of Cu alloys,” Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 26, 1455 (2017).

Results Phys. (1)

S. Stein, J. Wedler, S. Rhein, M. Schmidt, C. Körner, A. Michaelis, and S. Gebhardt, “A process chain for integrating piezoelectric transducers into aluminum die castings to generate smart lightweight structures,” Results Phys. 7C, 2534–2539 (2017).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

M. Schwankl, M. Rübner, M. Flössel, S. Gebhardt, A. Michaelis, R. F. Singer, and C. Koerner, “Active functionality of piezoceramic modules integrated in aluminum high pressure die castings,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 207, 84–90 (2014).

Other (15)

E. Beckert, T. Burkhardt, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Solder Bumping — A Flexible Joining Approach for the Precision Assembly of Optoelectronical Systems,” in Micro-Assembly Technologies and Applications: IFIP TC5 WG5.5 Fourth International Precision Assembly Seminar (IPAS’2008) Chamonix, France February 10–13,2008, S. Ratchev, S. Koelemeijer, eds. (Springer US, 2008), pp. 139–147.

Deutsches Kupfer-Institut Düsseldorf, “Kupfer-Zinn-Knetlegierungen (Zinnbronzen)”.

V. Giurgiutiu, Structural Health Monitoring with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors (Elsevier/Academic Press, 2008).

A. Preumont, Vibration Control of Active Structures: An Introduction (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

V. Bräutigam, Gießtechnische Integration piezokeramischer Module in Aluminiumdruckgussbauteile.Dissertation der Technischen Fakultät der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (2008).

L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, X. Cheng, C. Wang, J. W. Gu, X. L. Chen, and E. H. Liu, “The Simulation Study of Fluid Physical Properties on Drop Formation of Drop-on-demand Inkjet Printing,” MATEC Web of Conferences 25, 03011 (2015).

Z. Luo, G. Zheng, and L. Wang, “A Study on the Influence of the Nozzle Lead Angle on the Performance of Liquid Metal Electromagnetic Micro-Jetting,” Micromachines 7.

T. Graf and H. Hügel, Laser in der Fertigung. Strahlquellen, Systeme, Fertigungsverfahren, 2nd ed. (Vieweg + Teubner Verlag / GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden, 2009).

S. Stein, J. Heberle, F. J. Gürtler, K. Cvecek, S. Roth, and M. Schmidt, “Influences of Nozzle Material on Laser Droplet Brazing Joints with Cu89Sn11 Preforms: 8th International Conference on Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering LANE 2014,” Physics Procedia, 709–719 (2014).

Vision Research Inc, Phantom v1210. Online: “Manual: Phantom v1210,” https://www.phantomhighspeed.com/Products/High-Speed-Cameras/v1210 .

G. R. Bradski and A. Kaehler, Learning OpenCV. Computer vision with the OpenCV library, 1st ed. (O'Reilly, 2008).

O. Schreer, Stereoanalyse und Bildsynthese. Mit 6 Tabellen (Springer, 2005).

T. Häfner, L. Hofmann, and S. Eiselen, “Einsatz der Simulation zur Optimierung der Abtragsrate beim Strukturieren mittels Pikosekundenlaser,” Tagungsband Laser in der Elektronikproduktion und Feinwerktechnik, 51–55 (2013).

J. Heikkila and O. Silven, A four-step camera calibration procedure with implicit image correction (1997).

S. Stein, S. Roth, N. Modler, M. Gude, T. Weber, and A. Winkler, “Investigations on laser based joining of novel thermo-plastic compatible piezoceramic modules,” in Proceedings of 5th Scientific Symposium Lightweight Design by Integrating Functions (2015).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of laser drop on demand joining process with coordinate system convention; x-axis is perpendicular to the drawing plane [15].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the developed experimental setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 CFD-Simulations of stationary gas velocity fields for conic (geometry 1, left) and diffuser type capillary shapes (geometry 2, right) after applying an overpressure of 125 mbar; cross sectional view [16]. The droplets final position and geometry is indicated by the dashed line.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Detected edges of checkerboard pattern used for calibration (Left) and visualization of the extrinsic parameters of the used convergent stereo camera system with the respective detected calibration pattern planes drawn to scale (A) and magnified (B). The calibration pattern planes are drawn to scale and thus appear small in the visualization.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Exemplary droplet flight trajectory is shown as a projection in x-y-plane (left) and in pseudo 3D (right). PLaser = 160 W; tPulse = 40 ms; PGas = 20 mbar, capillary geometry: diffuser type; mean droplet velocity: 1.346 m/s
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Freeze frame of two videos: Left: Discrete droplet after detachment from the machining head (Conic capillary, PPulse = 130W; Overpressure = 70 mbar); Right: droplet atomization by exceedingly high overpressure (Conic capillary, PPulse = 130W; Overpressure: 110 mbar)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Lateral position deviation at z = 1 mm. Conic capillary geometry.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Lateral position deviation at z = 1 mm. Diffuser capillary geometry.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Results of the stereoscopic evaluation of the average droplet velocity for the conic capillary shape.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Results of the stereoscopic evaluation of the average droplet velocity for the diffuser shaped capillary.

Equations (2)

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L D z =1mm = ( x 0 x z=1mm )²+( y 0 y z=1mm )²
v Droplet = ( x 0 x End )²+( y 0 y End )²+( z 0 z End )² FPS n Frames

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