Abstract

Measuring the average refractive index (RI) of spherical objects, such as suspended cells, in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) requires a decoupling of RI and size from the QPI data. This has been commonly achieved by determining the object’s radius with geometrical approaches, neglecting light-scattering. Here, we present a novel QPI fitting algorithm that reliably uncouples the RI using Mie theory and a semi-analytical, corrected Rytov approach. We assess the range of validity of this algorithm in silico and experimentally investigate various objects (oil and protein droplets, microgel beads, cells) and noise conditions. In addition, we provide important practical cues for the analysis of spherical objects in QPI.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (4)

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytom. Part A 91, 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, L. Zhong, P. Tang, Y. Yuan, S. Liu, J. Tian, and X. Lu, “Quantitative refractive index distribution of single cell by combining phase-shifting interferometry and AFM imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2532 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics 11e201700145 (2017).

Z. A. Steelman, W. J. Eldridge, J. B. Weintraub, and A. Wax, “Is the nuclear refractive index lower than cytoplasm? Validation of phase measurements and implications for light scattering technologies,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1–10 (2017).

2016 (2)

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Meng, A. J. Traverso, C. W. Ballmann, M. Troyanova-Wood, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Seeing cells in a new light: a renaissance of Brillouin spectroscopy,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 8, 300–327 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

P. Müller, M. Schürmann, and J. Guck, “ODTbrain: a Python library for full-view, dense diffraction tomography,” BMC Bioinforma. 16, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Scarcelli, W. J. Polacheck, H. T. Nia, K. Patel, A. J. Grodzinsky, R. D. Kamm, and S. H. Yun, “Noncontact three-dimensional mapping of intracellular hydromechanical properties by Brillouin microscopy,” Nat. Methods 12, 1132–1134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

W. Jin, Y. Wang, N. Ren, M. Bu, X. Shang, Y. Xu, and H. Wu, “Relation between substructure position of phase objects in optical axial direction and phase information in quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Commun. 312, 137–142 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kus, M. Dudek, B. Kemper, M. Kujawinska, and A. Vollmer, “Tomographic phase microscopy of living three-dimensional cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 046009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
[Crossref]

W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

L. Boyde, A. Ekpenyong, G. Whyte, and J. Guck, “Comparison of stresses on homogeneous spheroids in the optical stretcher computed with geometrical optics and generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7934–7944 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Boyde, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Near- and far-field scattering from arbitrary three-dimensional aggregates of coated spheres using parallel computing,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 26701 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, N. Bursac, and A. Wax, “Whole-cell-analysis of live cardiomyocytes using wide-field interferometric phase microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 706–719 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (6)

H. Suzuki and I.-Y. Sandy Lee, “Calculation of the Mie scattering field inside and outside a coated spherical particle,” Int. J. Phys. Sci. 3, 38–41 (2008).

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Simultaneous cell morphometry and refractive index measurement with dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy and dye-enhanced dispersion of perfusion medium,” Opt. Lett. 33, 744–746 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C.-C. Yu, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1596–1598 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kemmler, “Noninvasive time-dependent cytometry monitoring by digital holography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064002 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. F. Christopher and S. L. Anna, “Microfluidic methods for generating continuous droplet streams,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, R319–R336 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2759 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034005 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 9361–9373 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1984 (1)

M. G. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, “Limitations of imaging with first-order diffraction tomography,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 32, 860–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1975 (1)

K. Iwata and R. Nagata, “Calculation of refractive index distribution from interferograms using the Born and Rytov’s Approximation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14S1, 379–384 (1975).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173, 821–822 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (2)

R. Barer, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature 169, 366–367 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Davies and M. H. F. Wilkins, “Interference microscopy and mass determination,” Nature 169, 541 (1952).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abuhattum, S.

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Achouri, S.

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alberti, S.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

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P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
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N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
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L. Boyde, A. Ekpenyong, G. Whyte, and J. Guck, “Comparison of stresses on homogeneous spheroids in the optical stretcher computed with geometrical optics and generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7934–7944 (2012).
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B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
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B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034005 (2006).
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D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
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A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
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A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
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K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

L. Boyde, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Near- and far-field scattering from arbitrary three-dimensional aggregates of coated spheres using parallel computing,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 26701 (2011).
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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, C. J. Chan, A. E. Ekpenyong, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Chapter 9 - Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Biophysical Methods in Cell Biology, E. K. Paluch, ed. (Academic Press, 2015), pp. 143–159.
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Chan, C. J.

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, C. J. Chan, A. E. Ekpenyong, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Chapter 9 - Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Biophysical Methods in Cell Biology, E. K. Paluch, ed. (Academic Press, 2015), pp. 143–159.
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Chen, B.

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G. F. Christopher and S. L. Anna, “Microfluidic methods for generating continuous droplet streams,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, R319–R336 (2007).
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K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

Cleveland, D. W.

M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
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Cojoc, G.

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics 11e201700145 (2017).

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Cotte, Y.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
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Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
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C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
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C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
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Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
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N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
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H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
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L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytom. Part A 91, 470–481 (2017).
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D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
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B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034005 (2006).
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A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, C. J. Chan, A. E. Ekpenyong, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Chapter 9 - Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Biophysical Methods in Cell Biology, E. K. Paluch, ed. (Academic Press, 2015), pp. 143–159.
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A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics 11e201700145 (2017).

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

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S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Grill, S.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics 11e201700145 (2017).

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
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K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Boyde, A. Ekpenyong, G. Whyte, and J. Guck, “Comparison of stresses on homogeneous spheroids in the optical stretcher computed with geometrical optics and generalized Lorenz-Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 51, 7934–7944 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Boyde, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Near- and far-field scattering from arbitrary three-dimensional aggregates of coated spheres using parallel computing,” Phys. Rev. E 83, 26701 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, C. J. Chan, A. E. Ekpenyong, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Chapter 9 - Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Biophysical Methods in Cell Biology, E. K. Paluch, ed. (Academic Press, 2015), pp. 143–159.
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S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Harris, P. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
[Crossref]

Harris, T.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
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Heida, T.

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Hein, M. Y.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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Herbig, M.

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Herold, C.

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Hocken, R.

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W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
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M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
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A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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Isbach, M.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytom. Part A 91, 470–481 (2017).
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S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Jahnel, M.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jawerth, L.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jimenez, J. C.

W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, Y. Wang, N. Ren, M. Bu, X. Shang, Y. Xu, and H. Wu, “Relation between substructure position of phase objects in optical axial direction and phase information in quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Commun. 312, 137–142 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jourdain, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kak, A. C.

M. G. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, “Limitations of imaging with first-order diffraction tomography,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 32, 860–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. C. Kak and M. G. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (SIAM, 2001).
[Crossref]

Kamm, R. D.

G. Scarcelli, W. J. Polacheck, H. T. Nia, K. Patel, A. J. Grodzinsky, R. D. Kamm, and S. H. Yun, “Noncontact three-dimensional mapping of intracellular hydromechanical properties by Brillouin microscopy,” Nat. Methods 12, 1132–1134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Käs, J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastl, L.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytom. Part A 91, 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kemmler, M.

M. Kemmler, “Noninvasive time-dependent cytometry monitoring by digital holography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kemper, B.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytom. Part A 91, 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kus, M. Dudek, B. Kemper, M. Kujawinska, and A. Vollmer, “Tomographic phase microscopy of living three-dimensional cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 046009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034005 (2006).
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B. Kemper and J. Schnekenburger, “Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative live cell imaging and cytometry,” in Advanced Optical Flow Cytometry: Methods and Disease Diagnoses (Wiley, 2011), pp. 211–237.
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Ketelhut, S.

D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klar, T.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
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Kosmeier, S.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausewitz, P.

D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kühn, J.

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kujawinska, M.

A. Kus, M. Dudek, B. Kemper, M. Kujawinska, and A. Vollmer, “Tomographic phase microscopy of living three-dimensional cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 046009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kürzinger, K.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kus, A.

A. Kus, M. Dudek, B. Kemper, M. Kujawinska, and A. Vollmer, “Tomographic phase microscopy of living three-dimensional cell cultures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 046009 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagier-Tourenne, C.

M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langehanenberg, P.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054009 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsen, L. E.

M. G. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, “Limitations of imaging with first-order diffraction tomography,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 32, 860–874 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. O.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenz, P.

D. Bettenworth, P. Lenz, P. Krausewitz, M. Brückner, S. Ketelhut, D. Domagk, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy,” PLoS ONE 9, e107317 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Q. Zhang, L. Zhong, P. Tang, Y. Yuan, S. Liu, J. Tian, and X. Lu, “Quantitative refractive index distribution of single cell by combining phase-shifting interferometry and AFM imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2532 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

Q. Zhang, L. Zhong, P. Tang, Y. Yuan, S. Liu, J. Tian, and X. Lu, “Quantitative refractive index distribution of single cell by combining phase-shifting interferometry and AFM imaging,” Sci. Rep. 7, 2532 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackenzie, I. R. A.

W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maghelli, N.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P.

Magistretti, P. J.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Simultaneous cell morphometry and refractive index measurement with dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy and dye-enhanced dispersion of perfusion medium,” Opt. Lett. 33, 744–746 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahamid, J.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maharana, S.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, S. M.

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6, 393–397 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Simultaneous cell morphometry and refractive index measurement with dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy and dye-enhanced dispersion of perfusion medium,” Opt. Lett. 33, 744–746 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 9361–9373 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maucort, G.

Melhuish, I. C.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Int. Biol. Quant. Biosci. Nano Macro 4, 280–284 (2012).

Meng, Z.

Mokbel, D.

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

Monneret, S.

Moon, T. J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81, 767–784 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moratal, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, P.

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics 11e201700145 (2017).

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Müller, M. Schürmann, and J. Guck, “ODTbrain: a Python library for full-view, dense diffraction tomography,” BMC Bioinforma. 16, 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, C. J. Chan, A. E. Ekpenyong, K. J. Chalut, and J. Guck, “Chapter 9 - Refractive index measurements of single, spherical cells using digital holographic microscopy,” in Biophysical Methods in Cell Biology, E. K. Paluch, ed. (Academic Press, 2015), pp. 143–159.
[Crossref]

S. Girardo, N. Träber, K. Wagner, G. Cojoc, C. Herold, R. Goswami, R. Schlüßler, S. Abuhattum, A. Taubenberger, F. Reichel, D. Mokbel, M. Herbig, M. Schürmann, P. Müller, T. Heida, A. Jacobi, J. Thiele, C. Werner, and J. Guck are preparing an article to be called “Standardized microgel beads as elastic cell mechanical probes.”

P. Müller, M. Schürmann, and J. Guck, “The Theory of Diffraction Tomography,” ArXiv e-prints 1507.00466 [q-bio.QM] (2015).

Myers, E. W.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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Nagata, R.

K. Iwata and R. Nagata, “Calculation of refractive index distribution from interferograms using the Born and Rytov’s Approximation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14S1, 379–384 (1975).
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Nguyen, F.

H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nia, H. T.

G. Scarcelli, W. J. Polacheck, H. T. Nia, K. Patel, A. J. Grodzinsky, R. D. Kamm, and S. H. Yun, “Noncontact three-dimensional mapping of intracellular hydromechanical properties by Brillouin microscopy,” Nat. Methods 12, 1132–1134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nichtl, A.

M. Ringler, A. Schwemer, M. Wunderlich, A. Nichtl, K. Kürzinger, T. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Shaping emission spectra of fluorescent molecules with single plasmonic nanoresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 203002 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytom. Part A 65A, 88–92 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pan, L.

W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, A.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, K.

G. Scarcelli, W. J. Polacheck, H. T. Nia, K. Patel, A. J. Grodzinsky, R. D. Kamm, and S. H. Yun, “Noncontact three-dimensional mapping of intracellular hydromechanical properties by Brillouin microscopy,” Nat. Methods 12, 1132–1134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Erratum: Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 418 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31, 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Pavillon, A. Benke, D. Boss, C. Moratal, J. Kühn, P. Jourdain, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Cell morphology and intracellular ionic homeostasis explored with a multimodal approach combining epifluorescence and digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 3, 432–436 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polacheck, W. J.

G. Scarcelli, W. J. Polacheck, H. T. Nia, K. Patel, A. J. Grodzinsky, R. D. Kamm, and S. H. Yun, “Noncontact three-dimensional mapping of intracellular hydromechanical properties by Brillouin microscopy,” Nat. Methods 12, 1132–1134 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polymenidou, M.

M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

H. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2759 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poser, I.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pozniakovski, A.

A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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W. Jin, Y. Wang, N. Ren, M. Bu, X. Shang, Y. Xu, and H. Wu, “Relation between substructure position of phase objects in optical axial direction and phase information in quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Commun. 312, 137–142 (2014).
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A. Patel, H. O. Lee, L. Jawerth, S. Maharana, M. Jahnel, M. Y. Hein, S. Stoynov, J. Mahamid, S. Saha, T. M. Franzmann, A. Pozniakovski, I. Poser, N. Maghelli, L. A. Royer, M. Weigert, E. W. Myers, S. Grill, D. Drechsel, A. A. Hyman, and S. Alberti, “A liquid-to-solid phase transition of the ALS protein FUS accelerated by disease mutation,” Cell 162, 1066–1077 (2015).
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B. Kemper, D. Carl, J. Schnekenburger, I. Bredebusch, M. Schäfer, W. Domschke, and G. von Bally, “Investigation of living pancreas tumor cells by digital holographic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 034005 (2006).
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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
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W.-Y. Wang, L. Pan, S. C. Su, E. J. Quinn, M. Sasaki, J. C. Jimenez, I. R. A. Mackenzie, E. J. Huang, and L.-H. Tsai, “Interaction of FUS and HDAC1 regulates DNA damage response and repair in neurons,” Nat. Neurosci. 16, 1383–1391 (2013).
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M. Polymenidou, C. Lagier-Tourenne, K. R. Hutt, C. F. Bennett, D. W. Cleveland, and G. W. Yeo, “Misregulated RNA processing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” Brain Res. 1462, 3–15 (2012).
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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9, 1068–1076 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Simulated quantitative phase images of a sphere with a radius of 2.5 μm and a refractive index (RI) of 1.36 embedded in a medium with an RI of 1.333 at a wavelength of 550 nm. Each quadrant shows a phase image for one of the scattering models described in the text. The phase image of the optical path difference (OPD) edge-detection approach (lower right quadrant) was modeled with the OPD projection approach using the parameters obtained from the detected edge (edge shown in white in the upper left quadrant). (b) Difference between the scattering models and the Mie model (upper left quadrant in (a)) in % of the maximum OPD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Errors, left column: for refractive index (RI) and right column: for radius when using (a,b) the optical path difference (OPD) edge-detection approach or the proposed 2D fitting algorithm with either (c,d) the OPD projection approach, (e,f) the Rytov approximation, or (g,h) Mie theory. The ground truth data were generated from 9600 Mie simulations with an RI of the medium of 1.333 (water), and a grid size of 128×128 px. The lateral simulation size was 4r for r < 5λ (vacuum wavelength λ, sphere radius r) to capture diffraction effects and 3r for r > 10λ to enable Mie simulations for larger spheres, with a linear transition in-between. Initial values for the 2D fit were obtained using the OPD edge-detection approach. The cross and the square depict the spheres shown in Figs. 1 and 3. The asterisk marks a region where 2D fitting fails due to large phase gradients (see text).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) For different initial parameters of RI and radius (dots at the border) and for several noise levels (color code), the phase images were fitted with our new fitting algorithm using the Rytov approximation. For each case, the fitting process, which took on average seven iterations, is shown as a dotted line. The red square indicates the exact value. The green triangle indicates the value obtained with the OPD edge-detection approach. (b) Phase image of a sphere with a radius of 14.5 wavelengths (λ) and a refractive index (RI) of nsph = 1.40 embedded in water (nwater = 1.333) computed with Mie theory with 5 % noise added (see text for noise definition). Scale bar, 10 λ. c) Radial residual profiles for the 5 % noise case (profile indicated in (b)) for selected iterations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental quantitative phase images (1st column), corresponding 2D fits with Mie theory (2nd column), and resulting fit residuals (3rd column) for liquid droplets (a–f), microgel beads (g–m) and HL60 cells (n–t). The scale bar is 5 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Box plots of refractive index distributions determined for (a) a time series of a FUS protein droplet (23 frames), (b) microgel beads (N=39), (c) HL60 cells measured with quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QLSI) (N=55), and (d) HL60 cells measured with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) (N=84). The algorithms used are described in the text: Mie theory (yellow), the systematically corrected Rytov approximation using Eq. (3) (orange), the Rytov approximation (red), the OPD projection approach (blue) and the OPD edge-detection approach (green). Boxes extend from the lower to upper quartile values of the data, with a line at the median. Whiskers span 1.5 × interquartile range. Dashed lines show the mean of the Mie data.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Accuracy of the scattering models. The shaded regions indicate the range of validity for each model with a relative error in refractive index (RI) Δn below 0.1% and a relative error in radius Δr below 1% (see Eqs. (3) and (4)). The OPD edge-detection approach is excluded because of its strong dependence on image resolution. The range of average RI values found for most cells (see e.g. [4,9,10,34,37,38,48]) is indicated in green. To provide orientation to the reader, the RI values (normalized to water by multiplication of nsph with nwater/nmed with nwater=1.333) and radii (converted to wavelengths) of the samples shown in figure 4, are displayed as individual labels.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the Refractive Index (mean ± SD) for the Data Presented in Fig. 5

Equations (12)

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Δ n = n measured n exact n exact ,
Δ r = r measured r exact r exact .
n Ryt-SC = n Ryt + ( 1.936 x 2 0.012 x ) n med
r Ryt-SC = r Ryt ( 2.431 x 2 0.753 x + 1.001 )
with x = n Ryt n med 1
1.0 n sph n med 1.08 , and
3 λ r sph 20 λ
U ^ B ( k D ) = i π 2 π exp ( i k m l D ( M 1 ) ) k m M F ^ ( k D k m s 0 ) ,
F ^ sph ( k ) = 2 R 2 2 π k j 1 ( k R )
u R , sph ( r ) = exp ( 1 { U ^ B , sph ( k D ) } )
u sph ( r ) = 1 + u R , sph ( r ) .
b c = max ( λ , 0.05 r 0 ) .

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