Abstract

High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a powerful tool to generate coherent attosecond light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the low conversion efficiency of HHG at the single atom level poses a significant practical limitation for many applications. Enhancing the efficiency of the process defines one of the primary challenges in the application of HHG as an advanced XUV source. In this work, we demonstrate a new mechanism, which in contrast to current methods, enhances the HHG conversion efficiency purely on a single particle level. We show that using a bichromatic driving field, sub-optical-cycle control and enhancement of the tunnelling ionization rate can be achieved, leading to enhancements in HHG efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. Our method advances the perspectives of HHG spectroscopy, where isolating the single particle response is an essential component, and offers a simple route toward scalable, robust XUV sources.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, J. Robert Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Klas, S. Demmler, M. Tschernajew, S. Hädrich, Y. Shamir, A. Tünnermann, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert, “Table-top milliwatt-class extreme ultraviolet high harmonic light source,” Optica 3, 1167–1170 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Patchkovskii and H. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1-electron atomic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. D. Bruner, Z. Mašin, M. Negro, F. Morales, D. Brambila, M. Devetta, D. Faccialà, A. G. Harvey, M. Ivanov, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, V. Serbinenko, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, N. Dudovich, and O. Smirnova, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 369–405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear attosecond metrology by intense isolated attosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kovács, V. Toşa, B. Major, E. Balogh, and K. Varjú, “High-efficiency single attosecond pulse generation with a long-wavelength pulse assisted by a weak near-infrared pulse,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. D. Bruner, H. Soifer, D. Shafir, and N. Dudovich, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 174006 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schütte, P. Weber, K. Kovács, E. Balogh, B. Major, V. Tosa, S. Han, M. J. J. Vrakking, K. Varjú, and A. Rouzée, “Bright attosecond soft X-ray pulse trains by transient phase-matching in two-color high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 23, 33947–33955 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltusška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. Tisch, J. Marangos, and L. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, G. Karras, F. Billard, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, E. Cormier, and O. Faucher, “Harmonic generation and nonlinear propagation: When secondary radiations have primary consequences,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203902 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Soifer, M. Dagan, D. Shafir, B. D. Bruner, M. Yu. Ivanov, V. Serbinenko, I. Barth, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 414, 176–183 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3691 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisšauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltusška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Raz, O. Pedatzur, B. D. Bruner, and N. Dudovich, “Spectral caustics in attosecond science,” Nature Photon. 6, 170–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Tosa, C. Altucci, K. Kovács, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and R. Velotta, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation by two-mid-IR laser fields,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 239–247 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

L. Brugnera, F. Frank, D. J. Hoffmann, R. Torres, T. Siegel, J. G. Underwood, E. Springate, C. Froud, E. I. C. Turcu, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Enhancement of high harmonics generated by field steering of electrons in a two-color orthogonally polarized laser field,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3994–3996 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013803 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-colour multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053413 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nature Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nature Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, “Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. L. Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milošević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynmans path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1993–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986).

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, J. Robert Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alisšauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisšauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltusška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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H. Soifer, M. Dagan, D. Shafir, B. D. Bruner, M. Yu. Ivanov, V. Serbinenko, I. Barth, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 414, 176–183 (2013).
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Déroff, L. L.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. L. Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milošević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynmans path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
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J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
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B. D. Bruner, Z. Mašin, M. Negro, F. Morales, D. Brambila, M. Devetta, D. Faccialà, A. G. Harvey, M. Ivanov, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, V. Serbinenko, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, N. Dudovich, and O. Smirnova, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 369–405 (2016).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
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B. D. Bruner, H. Soifer, D. Shafir, and N. Dudovich, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 174006 (2015).
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H. Soifer, M. Dagan, D. Shafir, B. D. Bruner, M. Yu. Ivanov, V. Serbinenko, I. Barth, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 414, 176–183 (2013).
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O. Raz, O. Pedatzur, B. D. Bruner, and N. Dudovich, “Spectral caustics in attosecond science,” Nature Photon. 6, 170–173 (2012).
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D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nature Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
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Faucher, O.

P. Béjot, G. Karras, F. Billard, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, E. Cormier, and O. Faucher, “Harmonic generation and nonlinear propagation: When secondary radiations have primary consequences,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203902 (2014).
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H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013803 (2010).
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D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nature Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

von Conta, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Bruner, Z. Mašin, M. Negro, F. Morales, D. Brambila, M. Devetta, D. Faccialà, A. G. Harvey, M. Ivanov, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, V. Serbinenko, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, N. Dudovich, and O. Smirnova, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 369–405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, C. Altucci, K. Kovács, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and R. Velotta, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation by two-mid-IR laser fields,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 239–247 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

Walther, H.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. L. Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milošević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynmans path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, P.

Wei, H.

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Witting, T.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltusška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. Tisch, J. Marangos, and L. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wörner, H. J.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu. Ivanov, M.

H. Soifer, M. Dagan, D. Shafir, B. D. Bruner, M. Yu. Ivanov, V. Serbinenko, I. Barth, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 414, 176–183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zaïr, A.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltusška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. Tisch, J. Marangos, and L. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Zeidler, D.

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, J. Robert Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, K.

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Soifer, M. Dagan, D. Shafir, B. D. Bruner, M. Yu. Ivanov, V. Serbinenko, I. Barth, O. Smirnova, and N. Dudovich, “Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation,” Chem. Phys. 414, 176–183 (2013).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. Commun (1)

S. Patchkovskii and H. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1-electron atomic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

B. D. Bruner, Z. Mašin, M. Negro, F. Morales, D. Brambila, M. Devetta, D. Faccialà, A. G. Harvey, M. Ivanov, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, V. Serbinenko, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, N. Dudovich, and O. Smirnova, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields,” Faraday Discuss. 194, 369–405 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Nonlinear attosecond metrology by intense isolated attosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Tosa, C. Altucci, K. Kovács, M. Negro, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and R. Velotta, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation by two-mid-IR laser fields,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 239–247 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kovács, V. Toşa, B. Major, E. Balogh, and K. Varjú, “High-efficiency single attosecond pulse generation with a long-wavelength pulse assisted by a weak near-infrared pulse,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

B. D. Bruner, H. Soifer, D. Shafir, and N. Dudovich, “Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 174006 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Advances in attosecond science,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 062001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Witte, V. T. Tenner, D. W. Noom, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Lensless diffractive imaging with ultra-broadband table-top sources: from infrared to extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (4)

J. Li, X. Ren, Y. Yin, K. Zhao, A. Chew, Y. Cheng, E. Cunningham, Y. Wang, S. Hu, Y. Wu, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3691 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jin, G. Wang, H. Wei, A.-T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Waveforms for optimal sub-keV high-order harmonics with synthesized two- or three-colour laser fields,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, J. Robert Karl, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (1)

O. Raz, O. Pedatzur, B. D. Bruner, and N. Dudovich, “Spectral caustics in attosecond science,” Nature Photon. 6, 170–173 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature Phys. (2)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nature Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, “Atomic wavefunctions probed through strong-field light-matter interaction,” Nature Phys. 5, 412–416 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, E. Bisson, A. Fleischer, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Gating attosecond pulse train generation using multicolor laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013803 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-colour multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
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S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692–2695 (1994).
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P. Béjot, G. Karras, F. Billard, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, E. Cormier, and O. Faucher, “Harmonic generation and nonlinear propagation: When secondary radiations have primary consequences,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203902 (2014).
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D. Faccialà, S. Pabst, B. D. Bruner, A. G. Ciriolo, S. D. Silvestri, M. Devetta, M. Negro, H. Soifer, S. Stagira, N. Dudovich, and C. Vozzi, “Probe of multielectron dynamics in xenon by caustics in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 093902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 183903 (2007).
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I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, “Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
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E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. L. Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltusška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. Tisch, J. Marangos, and L. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by strong-field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Science (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisšauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltusška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the kev X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. L. Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milošević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynmans path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292, 902–905 (2001).
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Other (2)

O. Smirnova and M. Ivanov, “Multielectron high harmonic generation: simple man on a complex plane,” arXiv:1304.2413 (2013). ArXiv.

M. Havenith, Infrared spectroscopy of molecular clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, DE, 2002).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. A two colour HHG driving field is produced by combining the output of a tunable Optical Parametric Amplifier (OPA) with that of a Ti:S laser at λ = 800 nm. The HHG emission is measured with a flat field XUV spectrometer and the ionization yield is measured using a voltage biased mesh that attracts the ions in the laser focus. See text for further details.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Time delay dependence for HHG enhancement in Krypton atoms. (a) HHG spectra (logarithmic scale) as a function of relative time delay td between the strong generating field (λ = 1300 nm, 700 μJ, 40 fs, intensity 8.4 × 1013 W cm−2) and the weaker assisting field (λ = 800 nm, 120 μJ, 30 fs, intensity 2 × 1013 W cm−2). By convention, td <0 corresponds to the generating field (λ = 1300 nm) arriving before the assisting field λ = 800 nm. (b) Spectrally integrated HHG yield (linear scale) as a function of relative time delay td between the two fields. The enhancement factors used in the paper are simply the HHG signal for the two colour field (i.e. signal at zero time delay) divided by that for the single colour field (baseline signal away from zero time delay).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of HHG spectra and total yields produced by single colour fields (λ = 1300 nm) and two colour fields (λ = 1300 nm and λ = 800 nm). The energy in the strong 1300 nm beam was systematically varied between 520 μJ and 830 μJ (corresponding to intensities between 6.3 × 1013 W cm−2 − 1.0×1014 W cm−2), while the energy of the weak 800 nm beam was fixed at 120 μJ (intensity 2 × 1013 W cm−2). (a) Sample HHG spectral intensities (in logarithmic scale) for the two colour (solid lines) and single colour (dashed lines) fields. The displayed energies (intensities) of the 1300 nm beam are 520 μJ (6.3×1013 W cm−2) (gray lines) and 830 μJ (1.0×1014 W cm−2) (purple lines). (b) Spectrally integrated yields with respect to the 1300 nm beam energy. Dashed black line: single colour field. Solid black line: two colour field. The green dash-dotted lines link the HHG yields, for comparative purposes, from single colour fields and two colour fields with approximately the same total energy: Solid red line: HHG enhancement factors, defined as the ratio of the two colour and single colour yields for each input energy.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scatter plot of single shot HHG and ion yields. The energies (intensities) of the 1300 nm and 800 nm beams were 600 μJ (7.3 × 1013 W cm−2) and 120 μJ (2 × 1013 W cm−2) respectively. The plot shows a sequence of 600 laser shots, and the yields were normalized on a zero to one scale between the minimum and maximum recorded values. The correlation degree is 0.84.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Subcycle ionization dynamics for single colour and two colour fields. (a) Instantaneous field intensity (ponderomotive energy units) for sample single colour and two colour fields. Solid black line: single colour field (λ = 1300 nm, 830 μJ pulse energy, 40 fs duration, intensity 1.0 × 1014 W cm−2). Red solid line: two colour field containing an additional, weaker assisting field (λ = 800 nm, 120 μJ pulse energy, 30 fs duration, intensity 2 × 1013 W cm−2) with zero relative time delay and zero relative CEP with respect to the first field. Blue dashed line: single colour field with the same total energy as the two colour field. Inset: Field intensities (bold lines) and ionization and recombination times (dash-dotted lines) for the single colour (black) and two colour fields (red) within the most dominant optical cycle at the peak of the two colour field envelope. (b) Calculated ionization rates (per 0.1 fs) in Krypton within the pulse envelope for the same fields in (a), shown on a logarithmic scale.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Subcycle dynamics within the ionization window. (a) Subcycle ionization rates for HHG electron trajectories. Calculated subcycle ionization rates (per 0.01 fs) for the single colour (black line) and two colour (red line) within the ionization window (shaded blue regions) for a single dominant cycle at the peak of the field envelope. (b) Subcycle enhancement breakdown within the ionization window for a two colour field. Each ionization time can be mapped to a corresponding HHG energy (red dotted line, right hand axis). Green dotted line: estimated increase in HHG yield due to shortening of the electron trajectory in the two colour field. Solid green line: ionization enhancement for the two colour compared to the single colour field. For both calculations the same field parameters are used: the single colour field is λ = 1300 nm, 830 μJ pulse energy, 40 fs duration, intensity 1.0 ×1014 W cm−2, and the two colour field contains an additional, weaker assisting field at λ = 800 nm, 120 μJ pulse energy, 30 fs duration, intensity 2 × 1013 W cm−2 with zero relative time delay and zero relative CEP with respect to the first field.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated 2D phase matching stability zones for Kr as functions of gas pressure and the ionization fraction for (a) room temperature 295 K and (b) cold atoms at 50 K from a supersonic jet. The length of the gas jet is 0.6 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Calculated relative phase dependence of two-colour enhanced HHG spectra (log scale). We consider the hydrogen atom with Ip= 13.6 eV, very close to that of the Krypton atoms (Ip = 14.0 eV) used in the experiments. The two colour field parameters combines a strong generating field at λ = 1300 nm, 600 μJ, 38 fs, intensity 7.3 × 1013 W cm−2 and a weaker assisting field at λ = 800 nm, 120 μJ, 29 fs, intensity 2 × 1013 W cm−2. These parameters are identical to those used for the single shot measurements in the experiments (Figure 4). (b) Enhanced HHG yield with respect to relative phase, obtained by spectrally integrating the data in (a). The total yields are normalized to the mean over all values of the relative phase. The enhanced yield varies by only ± 10% relative to the average, but more significant variations are seen at the highest energies, where the cutoff energy varies by 20–30 eV, a ± 20% variation.

Equations (1)

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E ( t ) = ( 2 ) ( I 0 0 c ) exp ( 2 ln ( 2 ) t 2 τ 0 2 ) cos ( 2 π c t λ 0 + ϕ 0 + Δ ϕ ) + ( α ) ( 2 ) ( I 0 0 c ) exp ( 2 ln ( 2 ) ( t t d ) 2 τ 1 2 cos ( 2 π c t λ 1 + ϕ 1 )

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