Abstract

We present a theoretical investigation of the isolated extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse propagating in the ionizing gas induced by a synchronized strong infrared (IR) laser, with the numerical solution of the nonadiabatic one-dimensional propagation model. Upon scanning the relative delay between the XUV and the IR pulse, it is found that the delay-dependent XUV transmission spectrogram exhibits the unique pattern that is controllable by the chirp of the XUV pulse. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this kind of spectrum modulation can be attributed to the term of the light energy loss involved in the propagation equation. The characteristics of the spectrum modulation dependent on the XUV chirp might provide an all-optical way for the reconstruction of the XUV spectral phase.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  19. M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, and R. Li, “Attosecond chirp effect on the transient absorption spectrum of laser-dressed helium atom,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7707–7718 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, “Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(9), 1595–1608 (1994).
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    [Crossref]
  24. L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, and R. Li, “Attosecond chirp effect on the transient absorption spectrum of laser-dressed helium atom,” Opt. Express 25(7), 7707–7718 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

P.-L. He, C. Ruiz, and F. He, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase Characterization for an Isolated Attosecond Pulse by Angular Streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 203601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9858–9869 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Suda and T. Takeda, “Effects of Nonlinear Chirp on the Self-Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Optical Pulses,” Applied Sciences 2(2), 549–557 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

Agostini, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ardana-Lamas, F.

Argenti, L.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bardsley, J. N.

Baykusheva, D.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bothschafter, E. M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buth, C.

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carré, B.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chauvet, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-J.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

P. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Correa, R. E.

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
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DeLong, K. W.

Dimauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
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Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
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Downer, M. C.

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
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Fiess, M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
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Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaumnitz, T.

Geissler, M.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gilbertson, S.

Gustafsson, E.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, F.

P.-L. He, C. Ruiz, and F. He, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase Characterization for an Isolated Attosecond Pulse by Angular Streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 203601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
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He, P.-L.

P.-L. He, C. Ruiz, and F. He, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase Characterization for an Isolated Attosecond Pulse by Angular Streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 203601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzner, S.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huppert, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, A.

Jiménez-Galán, Á.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnsson, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, I.

Kane, D. J.

Khalil, M.

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosik, E. M.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Liu, C.

Loh, Z.-H.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mairesse, Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marante, C.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martín, F.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matthews, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauritsson, J.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9858–9869 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ott, C.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pabst, S.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Penetrante, B. M.

Pertot, Y.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poletto, L.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pymer, A. K.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, C.

P.-L. He, C. Ruiz, and F. He, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase Characterization for an Isolated Attosecond Pulse by Angular Streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 203601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santra, R.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayres, G. S.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnürer, M.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweinberger, W.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Siders, C. W.

Smirnova, O.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sommer, A.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suda, A.

A. Suda and T. Takeda, “Effects of Nonlinear Chirp on the Self-Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Optical Pulses,” Applied Sciences 2(2), 549–557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Svoboda, V.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, T.

A. Suda and T. Takeda, “Effects of Nonlinear Chirp on the Self-Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Optical Pulses,” Applied Sciences 2(2), 549–557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tehlar, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thumm, U.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timmers, H.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

Varjú, K.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

von Conta, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, W. M.

Wörner, H. J.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gaumnitz, A. Jain, Y. Pertot, M. Huppert, I. Jordan, F. Ardana-Lamas, and H. J. Wörner, “Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27506–27518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Z.

Zhang, C. H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Zheng, Y.

Applied Sciences (1)

A. Suda and T. Takeda, “Effects of Nonlinear Chirp on the Self-Phase Modulation of Ultrashort Optical Pulses,” Applied Sciences 2(2), 549–557 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41(13), 132001 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, G. S. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13(5), 472–478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493(7430), 75–78 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Argenti, Á. Jiménez-Galán, C. Marante, C. Ott, T. Pfeifer, and F. Martín, “Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 91(6), 061403 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C. H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, A. Scrinzi, M. Schnürer, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Light propagation in field-ionizing media: extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2930–2933 (1999).
[Crossref]

P.-L. He, C. Ruiz, and F. He, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase Characterization for an Isolated Attosecond Pulse by Angular Streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(20), 203601 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-Referencing, Spectrally, or Spatially Encoded Spectral Interferometry for the Complete Characterization of Attosecond Electromagnetic Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of Attosecond Pulse Trains Using an Adiabatic Phase Expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, and S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovačev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science 302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The spectrum of the XUV pulse after propagating through a rare-gas medium, calculated for (a) only using the plasma term in Eq. (3), and (b) only using the absorption term in Eq. (4) O.C represents the optical cycle of the 800-nm IR pulse.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The calculated XUV spectra under different conditions. In 2(a), both the IR and the XUV fields are included in the calculation of the electron density in Eq. (4), but the total electric field E( t )does not take the XUV field into consideration. In 2(b), the electron density is calculated from the IR field only and the XUV pulse is included in the total electric field E( t ). In 2(c), the XUV field is not taken into account for the calculation of both the electron density and the total electric field.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated XUV modulation spectra using 1D co-propagation model upon scanning the relative delay between the intense 800nm IR laser pulse and the attosecond XUV pulse with three different atto-chirp rates: (a) ξ=3, (b) ξ=0, (c) ξ=3. The modulated spectra clearly shows a half-cycle periodicity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The mean photon energy obtained by five different attosecond chirps: ξ=4 (black-squares), ξ=2 (red-circles), ξ=0 (purple-lower-triangles), ξ=2(green-rhombus), ξ=4 (blue-upper-triangles), extracted from Fig. 3. The 800nm IR laser intensity is fixed at I IR =3× 10 14 w/ c m 2 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The calculated XUV spectra modulation using the redefined XUV field in Eq. (10) with different attosecond chirps: (a) Φ 2 =0, Φ 3 =50, (b) Φ 2 =4, Φ 3 =50, and (c) Φ 2 =4, Φ 3 =50. Other simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. (1).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 the fitted slope from Fig. 4 as a function of chirp rate parameter.

Equations (10)

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- 2iω c E ˜ IR ( z,ω ) z = G ˜ ( z,ω ),
E ˜ XUV ( z,ω ) z = i 2 cω μ 0 P ˜ NL ( z,ω ).
J P ( t ) t = e 2 m e n e (t)E(t),
J abs ( t ) t = I P t ( n ˙ e (t) E(t) )= I p t ( n ˙ e ( t ) E IR ( t )+ E XUV ( tτ ) ),
A( τ,ω )=| E ω 2 (τ,L) E ω 2 (2 T L ,L) |,
A IR ( t )=Re( i 1 ω IR I IR exp( i[ ω IR t+ f IR ]2ln2 t 2 τ IR 2 ) ),
A XUV ( t-τ )=Re( i 1 ω XUV I XUV 1iξ exp( i[ ω XUV ( t-τ )+ f XUV ]2ln2 ( tτ ) 2 τ XUV 2 ( 1iξ ) ) ).
E ˜ (ω,τ)= I P L 2 ε 0 n(ω,τ)c + n ˙ e (t+τ) E 2 IR (t+τ) E XUV (t) e iωt dt,
f( τ )= + ωA( ω,τ )dω + A( ω,τ )dω .
E XUV ( ω )= I XUV 2a exp{ ( ω ω XUV ) 2 4a ( 1+i Φ 2 )i ( ω ω XUV ) 3 Φ 3 12a ω XUV }.

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