Abstract

The increasing use of white LEDs for indoor illumination provides a significant opportunity for Visible Light Positioning (VLP). The challenge is to design a small, unobtrusive sensor that can be incorporated into mobile devices to provide accurate measurements for triangulation. We present experimental results for a novel angle of arrival (AOA) detector that has been designed for use in a VLP system. The detector is composed of a transparent aperture in an opaque screen that is located above a quadrant photodiode (PD), separated by a known vertical distance. Light passing through the aperture from an LED casts a light spot onto the quadrant PD. The position of this spot, coupled with knowledge of the height of the aperture above the quadrant PD, provides sufficient information to determine both the incident and polar angles of the light. Experiments, using a prototype detector, show that detector is capable of accurate estimation of AOA. The root mean square errors (rMSE) were less than 0.11° for all the measured positions on the test bed, with 90% of positions having an rMSE of less than 0.07°.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (8)

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, P. Liu, J. Chen, S. Han, C. Yu, and J. Yu, “Accuracy analysis and improvement of visible light positioning based on VLC system using orthogonal frequency division multiple access,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32618–32630 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, L. Fan, and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems based on visible light communication: state of the art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2871–2893 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Wu, L. Feng, and A. Yang, “Localization accuracy improvement of a visible light positioning system based on the linear illumination of LED sources,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 7905611 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Theoretical lower bound for indoor visible light positioning using received signal strength measurements and an aperture-based receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 309–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Bergen, X. Jin, D. Guerrero, H. A. L. F. Chaves, N. V. Fredeen, and J. F. Holzman, “Design and implementation of an optical receiver for angle-of-arrival-based positioning,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(18), 3877–3885 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, “Performance analysis of aperture-based receivers for MIMO IM/DD visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1513–1523 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, “A 3D positioning algorithm for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 36(1), 23–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

P. Huynh and M. Yoo, “VLC-based positioning system for an indoor environment using an image sensor and an accelerometer sensor,” Sensors (Basel) 16(6), 783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

S.-Y. Jung, D.-H. Kwon, S.-H. Yang, and S.-K. Han, “Inter-cell interference mitigation in multi-cellular visible light communications,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8512–8526 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

A. M. Nugrowati, W. G. Stam, and J. P. Woerdman, “Position measurement of non-integer OAM beams with structurally invariant propagation,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27429–27441 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arafa, X. Jin, and R. Klukas, “Wireless indoor optical positioning with a differential photosensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1027–1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arafa, A.

A. Arafa, S. Dalmiya, R. Klukas, and J. F. Holzman, “Angle-of-arrival reception for optical wireless location technology,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7755–7766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arafa, X. Jin, and R. Klukas, “Wireless indoor optical positioning with a differential photosensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1027–1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

T. Q. Wang, C. He, and J. Armstrong, “Performance analysis of aperture-based receivers for MIMO IM/DD visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(9), 1513–1523 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Theoretical lower bound for indoor visible light positioning using received signal strength measurements and an aperture-based receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 309–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Wang, Y. A. Sekercioglu, A. Neild, and J. Armstrong, “Position accuracy of time-of-arrival based ranging using visible light with application in indoor localization systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(20), 3302–3308 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Armstrong, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and A. Neild, “Visible light positioning: a roadmap for international standardization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 68–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for indoor visible light positioning using an aperture-based angular-diversity receiver,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bennink, M.

Bergen, M. H.

Biagi, M.

A. M. Vegni and M. Biagi, “An indoor localization algorithm in a small-cell LED-based lighting system,” in 2012 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) (2012) pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Chaves, H. A. L. F.

Chen, J.

Dalmiya, S.

Do, T.-H.

T.-H. Do, J. Hwang, and M. Yoo, “TDoA-based indoor positioning using visible light,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 27(2), 80–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dutta, P.

Y.-S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K.-J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), (2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

J. Luo, L. Fan, and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems based on visible light communication: state of the art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2871–2893 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

N. Wu, L. Feng, and A. Yang, “Localization accuracy improvement of a visible light positioning system based on the linear illumination of LED sources,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 7905611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fredeen, N. V.

Gozse, I.

I. Gőzse, “Optical indoor positioning system based on TFT technology,” Sensors (Basel) 16(1), 19 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, Y.

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

Guerrero, D.

Gurusamy, M.

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haapalinna, A.

Han, S.

Han, S. K.

Han, S.-K.

He, C.

Holzman, J. F.

Hsiao, K.-J.

Y.-S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K.-J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), (2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Huisstede, J.

Huynh, P.

P. Huynh and M. Yoo, “VLC-based positioning system for an indoor environment using an image sensor and an accelerometer sensor,” Sensors (Basel) 16(6), 783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.

T.-H. Do, J. Hwang, and M. Yoo, “TDoA-based indoor positioning using visible light,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 27(2), 80–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikonen, E.

Jin, X.

Jung, S.-Y.

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kärhä, P.

Kim, H. S.

Klukas, R.

A. Arafa, S. Dalmiya, R. Klukas, and J. F. Holzman, “Angle-of-arrival reception for optical wireless location technology,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7755–7766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arafa, X. Jin, and R. Klukas, “Wireless indoor optical positioning with a differential photosensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1027–1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K.-J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), (2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Kwon, D.-H.

Li, H.

J. Luo, L. Fan, and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems based on visible light communication: state of the art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2871–2893 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

Luo, J.

J. Luo, L. Fan, and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems based on visible light communication: state of the art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2871–2893 (2017).
[Crossref]

Neild, A.

Nugrowati, A. M.

Pannuto, P.

Y.-S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K.-J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), (2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Sekercioglu, Y. A.

Son, Y. H.

Song, J.

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

Stam, W. G.

Steendam, H.

H. Steendam, “A 3D positioning algorithm for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 36(1), 23–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Theoretical lower bound for indoor visible light positioning using received signal strength measurements and an aperture-based receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 309–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for indoor visible light positioning using an aperture-based angular-diversity receiver,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Subramaniam, V.

van der Werf, K.

Vegni, A. M.

A. M. Vegni and M. Biagi, “An indoor localization algorithm in a small-cell LED-based lighting system,” in 2012 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) (2012) pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Wang, T. Q.

Wang, Z.

Wei, L.

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

Woerdman, J. P.

Wu, N.

N. Wu, L. Feng, and A. Yang, “Localization accuracy improvement of a visible light positioning system based on the linear illumination of LED sources,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 7905611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Xu, Z.

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

N. Wu, L. Feng, and A. Yang, “Localization accuracy improvement of a visible light positioning system based on the linear illumination of LED sources,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 7905611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. H.

Yang, S.-H.

Yoo, M.

P. Huynh and M. Yoo, “VLC-based positioning system for an indoor environment using an image sensor and an accelerometer sensor,” Sensors (Basel) 16(6), 783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Do, J. Hwang, and M. Yoo, “TDoA-based indoor positioning using visible light,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 27(2), 80–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

Yu, C.

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, P. Liu, J. Chen, S. Han, C. Yu, and J. Yu, “Accuracy analysis and improvement of visible light positioning based on VLC system using orthogonal frequency division multiple access,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32618–32630 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zhang, H.

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (1)

J. Luo, L. Fan, and H. Li, “Indoor positioning systems based on visible light communication: state of the art,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2871–2893 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Armstrong, Y. A. Sekercioglu, and A. Neild, “Visible light positioning: a roadmap for international standardization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(12), 68–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

H. Steendam, “A 3D positioning algorithm for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 36(1), 23–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

N. Wu, L. Feng, and A. Yang, “Localization accuracy improvement of a visible light positioning system based on the linear illumination of LED sources,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 7905611 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wei, H. Zhang, B. Yu, J. Song, and Y. Guan, “Cubic-receiver-based indoor optical wireless location system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7390202 (2016).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Arafa, X. Jin, and R. Klukas, “Wireless indoor optical positioning with a differential photosensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1027–1029 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Zheng, Z. Xu, C. Yu, and M. Gurusamy, “A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 396, 160–168 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Photonic Netw. Commun. (1)

T.-H. Do, J. Hwang, and M. Yoo, “TDoA-based indoor positioning using visible light,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 27(2), 80–88 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

I. Gőzse, “Optical indoor positioning system based on TFT technology,” Sensors (Basel) 16(1), 19 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Huynh and M. Yoo, “VLC-based positioning system for an indoor environment using an image sensor and an accelerometer sensor,” Sensors (Basel) 16(6), 783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for indoor visible light positioning using an aperture-based angular-diversity receiver,” in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

H. Steendam, T. Q. Wang, and J. Armstrong, “Cramer-Rao bound for AOA-based VLP with an aperture-based receiver,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), (2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K.-J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), (2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

A. M. Vegni and M. Biagi, “An indoor localization algorithm in a small-cell LED-based lighting system,” in 2012 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) (2012) pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

S. Cincotta, A. Neild, C. He, and J. Armstrong, “Visible light positioning using an aperture and a quadrant photodiode,” in 2017 IEEE Globecom Workshops (2017), pp. 1–6.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Quadrant PD showing individual quadrants and narrow gap, and (b) Receiver structure with received light spot overlapping the quadrant PD
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light spot, shown in yellow, overlapping a quadrant PD. In (a) we show how the displacement in x is determined using the photocurrents from the left and right quadrant pairs. In (b), we show how the displacement in y is determined using the photocurrents from the top and bottom quadrant pairs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 σ e 2 for varying AOA and varying vertical distance, H, between the transmitter and the receiver, (a) shows the values of H used in the experiment and (b) shows more typical values of H that are encountered in positioning applications. The variance is larger for large arrival angles and large values of H due to the reduced received optical power.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Block diagram of the experimental set-up. The transmitter circuit, shown on the left, drives a white LED that outputs a 200 kHz sine wave. The light from the LED passes through the aperture and is received by the quadrant PD, shown on the right. It is then amplified and captured by a digitizer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photograph of the experiment. The transmitter, in the red box, moves along the optical rail that is highlighted in red. The receiver, in the blue box, moves along the optical rail that is highlighted in blue.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic showing possible movement of transmitter and receiver
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Estimated incident angle vs true incident angle for all measured positions, demonstrating the accuracy of the QADA. The color patches represent error bars of one standard deviation. Insets at different magnifications for clarity.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental results showing root mean square error for varying AOA
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulation and experimental results for root mean square error in incident angle detection. The experimental results, shown in colour, are closely matched to the simulation results, shown in black.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation parameters

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p x (t)= i 1 (t)+ i 4 (t)+ N 1 (t)+ N 4 (t) i 2 (t)+ i 3 (t)+ N 2 (t)+ N 3 (t)
p y (t)= i 1 (t)+ i 2 (t)+ N 1 (t)+ N 2 (t) i 3 (t)+ i 4 (t)+ N 3 (t)+ N 4 (t)
p x (t)= A 1 (t)+ A 4 (t) A 2 (t)+ A 3 (t) =={ L PD + x 1 (t) L PD , L PD < x 1 (t)0 L PD L PD x 1 (t) ,0< x 1 (t)< L PD
x 1 (t)={ L PD ( p x (t)1 ), L PD < x 1 (t)0 L PD L PD p x (t) ,0< x 1 (t)< L PD
x ^ 1 [ k+M 2B ]={ 1 M n=k k+M1 L PD ( p x [ n 2B ]1 ) , L PD < x 1 [ k+M 2B ]0 1 M n=k k+M1 L PD L PD p x [ n 2B ] ,0< x 1 [ k+M 2B ]< L PD
h c (t)= (m+1) A j (t) 2π d 2 (t) cos m ( ϕ(t) ) T s ( ψ(t) )g( ψ(t) )cos( ψ(t) )
i j (t)= R P T A j (t) cos 2 ( ψ(t) ) π d 2 (t)
N 0 =2qR p n AΔλ
σ n 2 = N 0 B
p x (t)={ 2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD 2 +2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD x 1 (t)+ N 1 (t)+ N 4 (t) 2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD 2 + N 2 (t)+ N 3 (t) = L PD + x 1 (t)+ E 1 (t) L PD + E 2 (t) , L PD < x 1 (t)0 2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD 2 + N 1 (t)+ N 4 (t) 2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD 2 2 k 1 cos 4 ( ψ(t) ) L PD x 1 (t)+ N 2 (t)+ N 3 (t) = L PD + E 1 (t) L PD x 1 (t)+ E 2 (t) ,0< x 1 (t)< L PD
σ e (t) 2 = ( 1 2 k 1 cos 4 ( arctan( x 1 (t) 2 + y 1 (t) 2 /h ) ) L PD ) 2 ×2 σ n 2 = π 2 ( H+h ) 4 q p n AΔλB R P T 2 L PD 2 cos 8 ( ψ(t) )
p x (t)= L ap + x 1 (t) L ap x 1 (t) , L ap x 1 (t) L ap
x 1 (t)= L ap ( p x 1) (1+ p x ) , L ap x 1 (t) L ap

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