Abstract

A dual lasing channel Terahertz Quantum Cascade laser (THz QCL) based on GaAs/Al0.17Ga0.83As material system is demonstrated. The device shows the lowest reported threshold current density (550A/cm2 at 50K) of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs material system based scattering-assisted (SA) structures and operates up to a maximum lasing temperature of 144K. Dual lasing channel operation is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The combination of low frequency emission, dual lasing channel operation, low lasing threshold current density and high temperature performance make such devices ideal candidates for low frequency applications, and initiates the design strategy for achieving high-temperature performance terahertz quantum cascade laser with wide frequency coverage at low frequency.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), R123–R181 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Albo and Q. Hu, “Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131108 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

H. Yasuda, “Intervalley scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with GaSb and InGaSb wells,” AIP Adv. 8(2), 025125 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of Interface Roughness Scattering on the Performance of GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers-erratum,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of interface roughness scattering on the performance of GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(3), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Liang, L. Tao, and Q. Wang, “Recent developments of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–18 (2017).

Y. Yang, D. Burghoff, J. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Achieving comb formation over the entire lasing range of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(19), 3888–3891 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

M. A. Belkin and F. Capasso, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources,” Phys. Scr. 90(11), 118002 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” ‎,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Albo and Q. Hu, “Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131108 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “2.1 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19689–19697 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, S. G. Razavipour, Z. Wasilewski, and D. Ban, “An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(26), 31951–31959 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏΩ/kB,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 166–171 (2011).

2009 (1)

H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, “Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10322–10329 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. V. Meshkov, “Tunneling of electrons from a two-dimensional channel into the bulk,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91(2252), 198 (1986).

1982 (1)

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), R123–R181 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abbott, R. R.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aers, G.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Albo, A.

Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of Interface Roughness Scattering on the Performance of GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers-erratum,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of interface roughness scattering on the performance of GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(3), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Albo and Q. Hu, “Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, S. G. Razavipour, Z. Wasilewski, and D. Ban, “An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(26), 31951–31959 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” ‎,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42–47 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

M. A. Belkin and F. Capasso, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources,” Phys. Scr. 90(11), 118002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
[Crossref]

Blakemore, J. S.

J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and other major properties of gallium arsenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), R123–R181 (1982).
[Crossref]

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, D.

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Belkin and F. Capasso, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers: high performance room temperature terahertz sources,” Phys. Scr. 90(11), 118002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. W. I.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏΩ/kB,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 166–171 (2011).

Chen, L.

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Clarke, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cocker, T. L.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K. B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D. R. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dean, P.

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dupont, E.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellison, B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Escorcia-Carranza, I.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Faist, J.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Octave-spanning semiconductor laser,” ‎,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 42–47 (2015).
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Fathololoumi, S.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fice, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Flores, Y. V.

Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of Interface Roughness Scattering on the Performance of GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers-erratum,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1 (2017).
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Y. V. Flores and A. Albo, “Impact of interface roughness scattering on the performance of GaAs/AlxGa1–xAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(3), 1–8 (2017).
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Freeman, J.

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fu, W.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Gao, L.

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
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Gensch, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Goldsmith, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Grant, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Hasnain, G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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Hirakawa, K.

H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
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Hoffmann, M. C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Hosako, I.

H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, S. J.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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Hu, Q.

Y. Yang, D. Burghoff, J. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Achieving comb formation over the entire lasing range of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42(19), 3888–3891 (2017).
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A. Albo and Q. Hu, “Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131108 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏΩ/kB,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 166–171 (2011).

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
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Huber, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Huggard, P. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, “Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10322–10329 (2000).
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Jensen, J. R.

K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, “Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10322–10329 (2000).
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Jirauschek, C.

Johnston, M. B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Khanal, S.

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
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S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “2.1 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19689–19697 (2015).
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Koch, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Konishi, K.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Korter, T. M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Krozer, V.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Kumar, S.

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Khanal, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “2.1 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19689–19697 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏΩ/kB,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 166–171 (2011).

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
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Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Laframboise, S. R.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
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S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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Langbein, W.

K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, “Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10322–10329 (2000).
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Leosson, K.

K. Leosson, J. R. Jensen, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, “Exciton localization and interface roughness in growth-interrupted GaAs/AlAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10322–10329 (2000).
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Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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Li, L.

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Liang, G.

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Lindskog, M.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
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Linfield, E. H.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. C.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Lucyszyn, S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Markelz, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Meshkov, S. V.

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Moglestue, C.

R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
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Naftaly, M.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Palankovski, V.

R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
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Paoloni, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Pardo, D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Pelve, E.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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Quay, R.

R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
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Razavipour, S. G.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, S. G. Razavipour, Z. Wasilewski, and D. Ban, “An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(26), 31951–31959 (2013).
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E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rea, S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Renaud, C.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Reno, J. L.

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
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S. Kumar, C. W. I. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A 1.8-THz quantum cascade laser operating significantly above the temperature of ℏΩ/kB,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 166–171 (2011).

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
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Ridler, N.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Sekine, N.

H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
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R. Quay, C. Moglestue, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, “A Temperature Dependent Model for the Saturation Velocity in Semiconductor Materials,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 3(1–2), 149–155 (2000).
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Shams, H.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Shen, V. O.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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Sibik, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Simoens, F.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Stöhr, A.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Tao, L.

G. Liang, L. Tao, and Q. Wang, “Recent developments of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–18 (2017).

Taylor, Z. D.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Valavanis, A.

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
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Vitiello, M. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Vogl, P.

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Wacker, A.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, C. W. I. Chan, M. Lindskog, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, A. Wacker, Q. Hu, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “An indirectly pumped terahertz quantum cascade laser with low injection coupling strength operating above 150 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203107 (2013).
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E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
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Wallace, V. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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G. Liang, L. Tao, and Q. Wang, “Recent developments of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–18 (2017).

Wasilewski, Z.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
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E. Dupont, S. Fathololoumi, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. Aers, S. R. Laframboise, M. Lindskog, S. G. Razavipour, A. Wacker, D. Ban, and H. C. Liu, “A phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction based terahertz quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073111 (2012).
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S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, and H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
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Williams, G. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Xu, C.

S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
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C. Xu, S. G. Razavipour, Z. Wasilewski, and D. Ban, “An investigation on optimum ridge width and exposed side strips width of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(26), 31951–31959 (2013).
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Yang, K.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Yang, Y.

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda, “Intervalley scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with GaSb and InGaSb wells,” AIP Adv. 8(2), 025125 (2018).
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H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
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Zhao, L.

S. Khanal, L. Gao, L. Zhao, J. L. Reno, and S. Kumar, “High-temperature operation of broadband bidirectional terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32978 (2016).
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Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
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Zhu, J.

A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
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H. Yasuda, “Intervalley scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with GaSb and InGaSb wells,” AIP Adv. 8(2), 025125 (2018).
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B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, G. Hasnain, V. O. Shen, E. Pelve, R. R. Abbott, and S. J. Hsieh, “High sensitivity low dark current 10 μm GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 851–853 (1990).
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S. G. Razavipour, E. Dupont, C. W. I. Chan, C. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, Q. Hu, and D. Ban, “A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041111 (2014).
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H. Yasuda, T. Kubis, P. Vogl, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, and K. Hirakawa, “Nonequilibrium Green’s function calculation for four-level scheme terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151109 (2009).
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B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
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A. Valavanis, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, L. Li, L. Chen, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and P. Dean, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
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G. Liang, L. Tao, and Q. Wang, “Recent developments of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–18 (2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Conduction band diagram at Electric Field of 15.4kV/cm (a) and 17.5kV/cm (b). (c) Simulation of scattering time between states 3-1 (green), states 2-1 (red), states 3-2 (blue), states 5-4 (brown) and states 4-3 (pink) versus electric field at 30K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Current Density-Voltage curve at 40K and Light-Current density curve after lasing threshold from 20K to 130K.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated JV curve (orange solid line) in comparison with experimental IV curve at 90K (black circles). Schottky junction voltage drop of 1.2V is considered. (b)Simulated optical gain (non-lasing case) between states 4-3 (red) and 3-2 (green) in comparison between measured Light-Voltage curve (black dots) at 30K. A Schottky voltage drop of 1.2V is assumed. Two channels are distinguished by light curve, while the 4-3 transition dominates the first channel and switch to second channel while 4-3 optical gain becomes too weak.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Normalized output light intensity of first peak (black dots) and second peak (red dots) in Light-Current curve versus temperature in plot of (1 P out (T) P outmax ) with fits (dashed lines). Two peaks shows different trends until 113K. (b) Conduction band diagram shows possible inter module leakage path from states 4 and 3 to state l. The energy spacing between states 4-l and states 3-l are 5.4meV and 14.7meV respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental lasing spectra (blue solid lines) in comparison with simulated optical gain of states 4-3(red dashed line), states 3-2 (green dashed line) and total (black solid line) at 30K under different bias. The main center frequency of state 3-2 at different bias is labeled as red solid line to show contrast with experimental center frequency which is determined by total optical gain.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Scattering-assisted based THz QCL structure key parameters and performance summary.

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Table 2 Interface roughness scattering, LO phonon scattering and leakage to continuum calculation for different barrier height at lattice temperature of 160K and applied electric field of 15.5kV/cm.

Equations (5)

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N 2D m π 2 k B Texp( E act k B T ),
N 2DLE = E1 E b m π 2 T(E,F) [1+exp( E E f K B T )] 1 dE,
T(E,F)=exp[2 0 Zc dz 2 m b ( E b EeFz) / ]
J=e ( N 2D + N 2DLE ) L p v(F)
v(F)= μF [1+ (μF/ v sat ) 2 ] 1 2 ,

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