Abstract

With the increasing demands for underwater monitoring and military applications, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) is desired to be an alternative approach to provide higher data rate than acoustic communication. Twisted light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has recently gained increasing interest in diverse areas, especially in free-space and fiber-based optical communications. OAM-based UWOC between underwater and aerial users, a promising technique to enable a variety of applications, which however, has not yet been reported so far. Here we experimentally demonstrate an adaptive water-air-water data information transfer using OAM. According to the feedback information of the received intensity distribution, the reflection element is adjusted for mitigating the misalignment-induced degradation effect due to water level change. The experimental results show favorable performance of the feedback-assisted water-air-water twisted light data information transfer.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (8)

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, A. Wang, L. Zhu, W. Lv, J. Xu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 42(22), 4699–4702 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (10)

Z. Zhu, W. Gao, C. Mu, and H. Li, “Reversible orbital angular momentum photon–phonon conversion,” Optica 3(2), 212–217 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, K. Yao, D. Huang, X. Lin, L. Wang, and Y. Lv, “Performance evaluation of coherent free space optical communications with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror adaptive optics system depending on the Greenwood frequency,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13288–13302 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, Y. Li, B. Liang, J. C. Cheng, and L. Zhang, “Convert acoustic resonances to orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(3), 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “High-dimensional structured light coding/decoding for free-space optical communications free of obstructions,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4827–4830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Munafo, E. Simetti, A. Turetta, A. Caiti, and G. Casalino, “Autonomous underwater vehicle teams for adaptive ocean sampling: a data-driven approach,” Ocean Dyn. 61(11), 1981–1994 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

G. Baiden, Y. Bissiri, and A. Masoti, “Paving the way for a future underwater omni-directional wireless optical communication systems,” Ocean Eng. 36(9), 633–640 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Knoernschild, C. Kim, F. P. Lu, and J. Kim, “Multiplexed broadband beam steering system utilizing high speed MEMS mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7233–7244 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

F. Hanson and S. Radic, “High bandwidth underwater optical communication,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 277–283 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lacovara, “High-bandwidth underwater communications,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 93–102 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, S. Zhou, and J. Cui, “Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks,” Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 8(8), 977–994 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1973 (1)

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alouini, M. S.

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, S.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baghdady, J.

Baiden, G.

G. Baiden, Y. Bissiri, and A. Masoti, “Paving the way for a future underwater omni-directional wireless optical communication systems,” Ocean Eng. 36(9), 633–640 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S.

Ben-Tzvi, P.

Q. Zhou, P. Ben-Tzvi, D. Fan, and A. A. Goldenberg, “Design of fast steering mirror systems for precision laser beams steering,” in IEEE International Workshop on Robotic and Sensors Environments Proceedings (2008), pp. 144–149.

Bissiri, Y.

G. Baiden, Y. Bissiri, and A. Masoti, “Paving the way for a future underwater omni-directional wireless optical communication systems,” Ocean Eng. 36(9), 633–640 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bock, R.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Byrd, M.

Caiti, A.

A. Munafo, E. Simetti, A. Turetta, A. Caiti, and G. Casalino, “Autonomous underwater vehicle teams for adaptive ocean sampling: a data-driven approach,” Ocean Dyn. 61(11), 1981–1994 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

Cao, T.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Cao, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casalino, G.

A. Munafo, E. Simetti, A. Turetta, A. Caiti, and G. Casalino, “Autonomous underwater vehicle teams for adaptive ocean sampling: a data-driven approach,” Ocean Dyn. 61(11), 1981–1994 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Cheng, J. C.

X. Jiang, Y. Li, B. Liang, J. C. Cheng, and L. Zhang, “Convert acoustic resonances to orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(3), 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitre, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B. M.

Courtial, J.

Cui, J.

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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. J.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wills, J.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking (2006), pp. 228–235.
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yan, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

Ye, W.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking (2006), pp. 228–235.
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, L.

X. Jiang, Y. Li, B. Liang, J. C. Cheng, and L. Zhang, “Convert acoustic resonances to orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(3), 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Z.

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou, P. Ben-Tzvi, D. Fan, and A. A. Goldenberg, “Design of fast steering mirror systems for precision laser beams steering,” in IEEE International Workshop on Robotic and Sensors Environments Proceedings (2008), pp. 144–149.

Zhou, S.

L. Liu, S. Zhou, and J. Cui, “Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks,” Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 8(8), 977–994 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

Zhu, Z.

Ad Hoc Netw. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (3)

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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Wang, P. Wang, T. Cao, H. Tian, Y. Zhang, and L. Guo, “Performance investigation of underwater wireless optical communication system using M-ary OAMSK modulation over oceanic turbulence,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–15 (2017).

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M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
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P. Lacovara, “High-bandwidth underwater communications,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 93–102 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ocean Dyn. (1)

A. Munafo, E. Simetti, A. Turetta, A. Caiti, and G. Casalino, “Autonomous underwater vehicle teams for adaptive ocean sampling: a data-driven approach,” Ocean Dyn. 61(11), 1981–1994 (2011).
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Ocean Eng. (1)

G. Baiden, Y. Bissiri, and A. Masoti, “Paving the way for a future underwater omni-directional wireless optical communication systems,” Ocean Eng. 36(9), 633–640 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
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K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
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G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
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H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
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C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
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A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
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L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
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J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
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Y. Zhao, J. Xu, A. Wang, W. Lv, L. Zhu, S. Li, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of data-carrying orbital angular momentum-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28743–28751 (2017).
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C. Knoernschild, C. Kim, F. P. Lu, and J. Kim, “Multiplexed broadband beam steering system utilizing high speed MEMS mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7233–7244 (2009).
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W. Liu, K. Yao, D. Huang, X. Lin, L. Wang, and Y. Lv, “Performance evaluation of coherent free space optical communications with a double-stage fast-steering-mirror adaptive optics system depending on the Greenwood frequency,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13288–13302 (2016).
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L. Zhu, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16934–16944 (2016).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

X. Jiang, Y. Li, B. Liang, J. C. Cheng, and L. Zhang, “Convert acoustic resonances to orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(3), 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (4)

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbtial angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. Zhang, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, P. Liao, K. Pang, H. Song, C. Liu, Y. Ren, G. Labroille, P. Jian, D. Starodubov, B. Lynn, R. Bock, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity free-space optical communications between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a UAV using multiplexing of multiple orbital angular-momentum beams,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. (1)

L. Liu, S. Zhou, and J. Cui, “Prospects and problems of wireless communication for underwater sensor networks,” Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 8(8), 977–994 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Q. Zhou, P. Ben-Tzvi, D. Fan, and A. A. Goldenberg, “Design of fast steering mirror systems for precision laser beams steering,” in IEEE International Workshop on Robotic and Sensors Environments Proceedings (2008), pp. 144–149.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking (2006), pp. 228–235.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of collaborative communication scenarios with underwater twisted green light across the air-to-water interface. (a) Communication between an air user and an underwater user. (b) Collaborative communication between an air user and two underwater users. (c) Reflection communication between an air user and two underwater users.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental configuration for feedback-assisted underwater twisted green light communications across the air-to-water interface. Inset is the schematic of the link across the air-to-water interface. Col.: collimator; HWP: half-wave plate; Pol.: polarizer; NDF: neutral density filter; BS: beam splitter; SLM: spatial light modulator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bit-loading parameters for DMT transmission. (a) Measured SNR per subcarrier. (b) Bit allocation per subcarrier (insets are received 16-QAM, 8-QAM and 4-QAM constellations at different subcarriers).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured output and demodulated OAM intensity profiles under three relative surface heights (0 mm, 25 mm and −10 mm) in underwater wireless optical link across the water-to-air interface. (a) Measured input intensity, output intensity and demodulated intensity profiles of Gaussian, OAM+1, OAM+3, OAM+5 modes. (b), (c) Measured output and demodulated OAM+3 intensity profiles under three relative surface heights (0 mm, 25 mm and −10 mm). (b) w/o feedback. (c) w/ feedback.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BER performance with and without feedback under three relative surface heights. (a) Measured BER performance with and without feedback when the water level is raised by 25 mm. (b) Measured BER performance with and without feedback when the water level is lowered by 10 mm.

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