Abstract

In this work, we report the development of an external-cavity wavelength-swept amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with high output power and high tuning speed based on an efficient electro-optic effect of beam deflection. The wavelength-swept ASE source is capable of delivering stable output power with averaged intensity of 100 mW in a wide spectrum tuning range of over 80 nm around the wavelength of 1550 nm. The light source will have important applications in optical communications, biomedical imaging, spectral analysis and sensing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (4)

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Johnson, W. Atia, D. C. Flanders, M. Kuznetsov, B. D. Goldberg, N. Kemp, and P. Whitney, “SNR of swept SLEDs and swept lasers for OCT,” Opt. Express 24(10), 11174–11186 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Kovacs effect enhanced broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17760–17768 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Lohmann and R. R. A. Syms, “External cavity laser with a vertically etched silicon blazed grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 120–122 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

B. Pezeshki, “New approaches to laser tuning,” Opt. Photonics News 12(5), 34–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. T. Schremer and C. L. Tang, “External-cavity semiconductor laser with 1000 GHz continuous piezoelectric tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2(1), 3–5 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adler, D. C.

Agranat, A. J.

An, D.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aoki, M.

Arimoto, H.

Atia, W.

Baofeng, D.

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biedermann, B. R.

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

Chao, J. H.

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. J.

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R. T.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chinn, S. R.

Cole, R. H.

Coles, H. J.

Conti, C.

Dalton, L. R.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

DelRe, E.

Di Mei, F.

Duan, B.

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Findeisen-Tandel, S.

Flanders, D. C.

Foshee, J.

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujimoto, M.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujiura, K.

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, B. D.

Guenther, K. H.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hands, P. J. W.

Hendon, C. P.

Himel, M. D.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, R. C.

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Kovacs effect enhanced broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17760–17768 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. Q.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huber, R.

Imai, T.

T. Imai, M. Ueno, Y. Sasaki, and T. Sakamoto, “Analyses of optical rays in KTN optical beam deflectors for device design,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7277–7285 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johnson, B.

Kato, K.

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kemp, N.

Kim, J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kitatani, T.

Kobayashi, J.

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “High-speed optical beam scanning using KTN crystal,” IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), 173–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kosterev, A. A.

Kuznetsov, M.

Lee, K. K. C.

Leung, M. K. K.

Ling, Y.

Liu, A. Q.

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Lohmann, A.

A. Lohmann and R. R. A. Syms, “External cavity laser with a vertically etched silicon blazed grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 120–122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Maki, J. J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mariampillai, A.

McDonald, D.

Miyazu, J.

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

Mott, A. G.

Y. C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Kovacs effect enhanced broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17760–17768 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

Munce, N. R.

Naganuma, K.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okabe, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parravicini, G. B.

Parravicini, J.

Pezeshki, B.

B. Pezeshki, “New approaches to laser tuning,” Opt. Photonics News 12(5), 34–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pierangeli, D.

Ryan, N.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Imai, M. Ueno, Y. Sasaki, and T. Sakamoto, “Analyses of optical rays in KTN optical beam deflectors for device design,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7277–7285 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “High-speed optical beam scanning using KTN crystal,” IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), 173–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, M. Ueno, Y. Sasaki, and T. Sakamoto, “Analyses of optical rays in KTN optical beam deflectors for device design,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7277–7285 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sasaura, M.

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schremer, A. T.

A. T. Schremer and C. L. Tang, “External-cavity semiconductor laser with 1000 GHz continuous piezoelectric tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2(1), 3–5 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shinoda, K.

Spinozzi, E.

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Standish, B. A.

Steier, W. H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sugai, E.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E. A.

Syms, R. R. A.

A. Lohmann and R. R. A. Syms, “External cavity laser with a vertically etched silicon blazed grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 120–122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taboada, J. M.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takei, A.

Tang, C. L.

A. T. Schremer and C. L. Tang, “External-cavity semiconductor laser with 1000 GHz continuous piezoelectric tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2(1), 3–5 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tatsumi, S.

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Toyoda, S.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “High-speed optical beam scanning using KTN crystal,” IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), 173–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, T.

Tsuji, S.

Uchiyama, H.

Ueno, M.

T. Imai, M. Ueno, Y. Sasaki, and T. Sakamoto, “Analyses of optical rays in KTN optical beam deflectors for device design,” Appl. Opt. 56(25), 7277–7285 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “High-speed optical beam scanning using KTN crystal,” IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), 173–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. Zhao, X. Wang, and P. Wu, “Electric-field control of the ferro-paraelectric phase transition in Cu:KTN crystals,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28776–28782 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weidmann, D.

Whitney, P.

Wieser, W.

Wilkinson, T. D.

Wu, P.

Yagi, S.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamagishi, S.

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, J.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, V. X. D.

Yao, X.

Yin, S.

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Kovacs effect enhanced broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17760–17768 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. M.

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, Q.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, S. Yagi, and K. Naganuma, “Resolution enhancement of KTa1-xNbxO3 electro-optic deflector by optical beam shaping,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102201 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, S. Yagi, and J. Kobayashi, “First estimation of power consumption of KTaxNb1-xO3 crystal upon application of high voltage under high frequency,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, and J. Kobayashi, “350 kHz large-angle scanning of laser light using KTa1−xNbxO3 optical deflector,” Electron. Lett. 50(25), 1965–1966 (2014).
[Crossref]

IECE Trans. Electron. (1)

Y. Sasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, J. Kobayashi, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, S. Yamagishi, M. Yamada, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic deflector based on KTN crystal for phase-stable swept light source for OCT,” IECE Trans. Electron. E99(C), 250–256 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. Lu, and D. Y. Tang, “Continuous wavelength tuning in micromachined Littrow external-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

M. D. Himel, X. Shi, X. Q. Hu, M. G. Moharam, and K. H. Guenther, “Electrooptic beam deflection using the leaky mode of a planar waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3(10), 921–923 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Lohmann and R. R. A. Syms, “External cavity laser with a vertically etched silicon blazed grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(1), 120–122 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. T. Schremer and C. L. Tang, “External-cavity semiconductor laser with 1000 GHz continuous piezoelectric tuning range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 2(1), 3–5 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. DelRe, E. Spinozzi, A. J. Agranat, and C. Conti, “Scale-free optics and diffractionless waves in nanodisordered ferroelectrics,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 39–42 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

B. Pezeshki, “New approaches to laser tuning,” Opt. Photonics News 12(5), 34–38 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

Y.-C. Chang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Broadband large field of view electro-optic modulators using potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8847, 88470L (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Sakamoto, J. Yamaguchi, M. Ueno, T. Imai, T. Sakamoto, M. Fujimoto, M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, E. Sugai, and S. Yagi, “Electro-optic KTN deflector stabilized with 405-nm light irradiation for wavelength-swept light source,” Proc. SPIE 10100, 101000H (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Tatsumi, Y. Sasaki, S. Toyoda, T. Imai, J. Kobayashi, and T. Sakamoto, “700-kHz beam scanning using electro-optic KTN planar optical deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9744, 97440L (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wang, D. Baofeng, S. Tang, and J. Foshee, “KTN-based electro-optic beam scanner,” Proc. SPIE 7135, 713538 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Zhu, J. H. Chao, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, M. Ueno, and J. Kobayashi, “High-speed optical beam scanning using KTN crystal,” IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ), 173–176 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the high-power wavelength-swept ASE source design. A: Littrow configuration with a reflection-type grating; B: three-prism beam expender; C: cylindrical concave lens; D: KTN crystal placed on a thermoelectric controller (TEC); E: polarizer; F: polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber with GRIN lens; G: a semiconductor optical amplifier; H: optical detector (or optical spectrum analyzer).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Wavelength tuning as a function of bias voltage. Multiple measurements were taken to verify the repeatability and stability of the light source system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characterization of the beam output under different operation current of the BOA. Beam output power without (a) or with three-prism beam expender (b). Linewidth without (c) or with three-prism beam expender (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EO wavelength tuning of beam output under 500 mA amplifier current.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of swept-wavelength range on applied voltage with Squared-wave and Sawtooth-wave electric fields.

Equations (4)

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λ=asin(Δθ+ θ 0 ) ,
β(x)= n 0 3 g 11 e 2 N 2 L(x d 2 + εV eNd ) ,
β( d 2 )= n 0 3 g 11 eNLε V d ,
λ(V)=c n 0 3 g 11 eNLε V V 0 d + λ 0 ,

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