Abstract

Front side pyramids are the industrial standard for wafer based monocrystalline silicon solar cells. These pyramids fulfill two tasks: They act as anti-reflective structure on the one hand and as a light-trapping structure on the other hand. In recent development smaller pyramids with sizes below 1 µm attract more and more interest. In this paper an optical analysis of periodically arranged front side pyramids is performed. The impact on the reflectance as well as on the useful absorption within the solar cell is investigated depending on the pyramids size, the amount of additional scattering in the system and the quality of the rear side reflector. In contrast to other investigations not only the solar cell, but the full photovoltaic (PV) module stack is considered. This can strongly influence results, as we show in this paper. The results indicate that in a PV module stack with realistic assumptions for the amount of scattering as well as for the rear side reflectance only small differences for pyramids with sizes above 600 nm occur. Preliminary conclusions for random pyramids deduced from these results for periodically arranged pyramids indicate that these differences could become even smaller.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, H. Gebrewold, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1083–A1093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

P. K. Basu, A. Khanna, and Z. Hameiri, “The effect of front pyramid heights on the efficiency of homogeneously textured inline-diffused screen-printed monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Renew. Energy 78, 590–598 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

S. Sivasubramaniam and M. M. Alkaisi, “Inverted nanopyramid texturing for silicon solar cells using interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 119, 146–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

P. P. Altermatt, “Models for numerical device simulations of crystalline silicon solar cells-a review,” J. Comput. Electron. 10(3), 314–330 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Kray, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Theory and experiments on the back side reflectance of silicon wafer solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(1), 1–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Iwata and T. Ohzone, “Numerical solar cell simulation including multiple diffused reflection at the rear surface,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 61(4), 353–363 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1975 (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures,” Commun. ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975).
[Crossref]

Abbott, M. D.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Abdo, I.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alkaisi, M. M.

S. Sivasubramaniam and M. M. Alkaisi, “Inverted nanopyramid texturing for silicon solar cells using interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 119, 146–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altermatt, P. P.

P. P. Altermatt, “Models for numerical device simulations of crystalline silicon solar cells-a review,” J. Comput. Electron. 10(3), 314–330 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baker-Finch, S. C.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Balaji, N.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

Basu, P. K.

P. K. Basu, A. Khanna, and Z. Hameiri, “The effect of front pyramid heights on the efficiency of homogeneously textured inline-diffused screen-printed monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Renew. Energy 78, 590–598 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

Bern, G.

P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

Blakers, A. W.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Bläsi, B.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, H. Gebrewold, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1083–A1093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Höhn, N. Tucher, and B. Bläsi, “Impact of front side pyramid size on the light trapping performance of wafer based silicon solar cells and modules,” in Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2017).

Bräuninger, M.

Brendel, R.

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Brendel, “Sunrays. A versatile ray tracing program for the photovoltaic community,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EUPVSEC) (1994), pp. 1339–1342.

Bühler, C.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cabarrocas, P. R.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

Cariou, R.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caurel, E. G.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cosme, I.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, J.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Daif, O. E.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deparis, O.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Depauw, V.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Drouard, E.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duttagupta, S.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eisenlohr, J.

Filipovic, A.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

Foldyna, M.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. C.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Franklin, E. T.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gebrewold, H.

Glunz, S. W.

D. Kray, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Theory and experiments on the back side reflectance of silicon wafer solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(1), 1–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

Gombert, A.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grant, N. E.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
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Green, M. A.

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hameiri, Z.

P. K. Basu, A. Khanna, and Z. Hameiri, “The effect of front pyramid heights on the efficiency of homogeneously textured inline-diffused screen-printed monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Renew. Energy 78, 590–598 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haug, F.-J.

Hauser, H.

Heidari, B.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heimsath, A.

P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

Herman, A.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hermle, M.

D. Kray, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Theory and experiments on the back side reflectance of silicon wafer solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(1), 1–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoex, B.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Höhn, O.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, H. Gebrewold, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1083–A1093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

O. Höhn, N. Tucher, and B. Bläsi, “Impact of front side pyramid size on the light trapping performance of wafer based silicon solar cells and modules,” in Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2017).

Hoßfeld, W.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iwata, H.

H. Iwata and T. Ohzone, “Numerical solar cell simulation including multiple diffused reflection at the rear surface,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 61(4), 353–363 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jeon, M.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ju, M.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khanna, A.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

P. K. Basu, A. Khanna, and Z. Hameiri, “The effect of front pyramid heights on the efficiency of homogeneously textured inline-diffused screen-printed monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Renew. Energy 78, 590–598 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kho, T. C.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Kiefel, P.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, H. Gebrewold, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1083–A1093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

Kray, D.

D. Kray, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Theory and experiments on the back side reflectance of silicon wafer solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(1), 1–15 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lalouat, L.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-D.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lodewijks, K.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, F.

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mandorlo, F.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Massiot, I.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mayer, A.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

McIntosh, K. R.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Mertens, R.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mick, J.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mijkovic, V.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Mueller, T.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muller, J.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, C.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nitz, P.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oh, D.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohzone, T.

H. Iwata and T. Ohzone, “Numerical solar cell simulation including multiple diffused reflection at the rear surface,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 61(4), 353–363 (2000).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peters, M.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phong, B. T.

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures,” Commun. ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975).
[Crossref]

Plieninger, R.

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

Poortmans, J.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poulain, G.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prod’Homme, P.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmiga, C.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

Schöttl, P.

P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

Seassal, C.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shanmugam, V.

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

Shim, G.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sivasubramaniam, S.

S. Sivasubramaniam and M. M. Alkaisi, “Inverted nanopyramid texturing for silicon solar cells using interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 119, 146–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stocks, M.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Thanh Nguyen, H. T.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Trompoukis, C.

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tucher, N.

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, H. Gebrewold, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical simulation of photovoltaic modules with multiple textured interfaces using the matrix-based formalism OPTOS,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1083–A1093 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “3D optical simulation formalism OPTOS for textured silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1720–A1734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

O. Höhn, N. Tucher, and B. Bläsi, “Impact of front side pyramid size on the light trapping performance of wafer based silicon solar cells and modules,” in Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2017).

van Rooyen, D. W.

P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

Walze, G.

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Wang, E.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Werner, J. H.

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

Yi, J.

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zin, N.

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

Commun. ACM (1)

B. T. Phong, “Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures,” Commun. ACM 18(6), 311–317 (1975).
[Crossref]

Energy Procedia (1)

S. Duttagupta, F. Ma, B. Hoex, T. Mueller, and A. G. Aberle, “Optimised Antireflection Coatings using Silicon Nitride on Textured Silicon Surfaces based on Measurements and Multidimensional Modelling,” Energy Procedia 15, 78–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

EuroSun (1)

A. Khanna, P. K. Basu, A. Filipovic, V. Shanmugam, C. Schmiga, A. G. Aberle, and T. Mueller, “Influence of random pyramid surface texture on silver screen-printed contact formation for monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” EuroSun 2004(132), 589–596 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

R. Brendel, M. Hirsch, R. Plieninger, and J. H. Werner, “Quantum efficiency analysis of thin-layer silicon solar cells with back surface fields and optical confinement,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(7), 1104–1113 (1996).
[Crossref]

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P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(1), 243–249 (1987).
[Crossref]

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P. P. Altermatt, “Models for numerical device simulations of crystalline silicon solar cells-a review,” J. Comput. Electron. 10(3), 314–330 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Gombert, C. Bühler, W. Hoßfeld, J. Mick, B. Bläsi, G. Walze, and P. Nitz, “A rigorous study of diffraction effects on the transmission of linear dielectric micro-reflector arrays,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(10), 952–960 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Sivasubramaniam and M. M. Alkaisi, “Inverted nanopyramid texturing for silicon solar cells using interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 119, 146–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Trompoukis, I. Abdo, R. Cariou, I. Cosme, W. Chen, O. Deparis, A. Dmitriev, E. Drouard, M. Foldyna, E. G. Caurel, I. Gordon, B. Heidari, A. Herman, L. Lalouat, K.-D. Lee, J. Liu, K. Lodewijks, F. Mandorlo, I. Massiot, A. Mayer, V. Mijkovic, J. Muller, R. Orobtchouk, G. Poulain, P. Prod’Homme, P. R. Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, J. Poortmans, R. Mertens, O. E. Daif, and V. Depauw, “Photonic nanostructures for advanced light trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(1), 140–155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Tucher, J. Eisenlohr, P. Kiefel, O. Höhn, H. Hauser, M. Peters, C. Müller, J. C. Goldschmidt, and B. Bläsi, “Optical properties of textured sheets: an efficient matrix-based modelling approach,” Proc. SPIE 9630, 96300 (2015).

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Renew. Energy (1)

P. K. Basu, A. Khanna, and Z. Hameiri, “The effect of front pyramid heights on the efficiency of homogeneously textured inline-diffused screen-printed monocrystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Renew. Energy 78, 590–598 (2015).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

M. Ju, N. Balaji, C. Park, H. T. Thanh Nguyen, J. Cui, D. Oh, M. Jeon, J. Kang, G. Shim, and J. Yi, “The effect of small pyramid texturing on the enhanced passivation and efficiency of single c-Si solar cells,” RSC Advances 6(55), 49831–49838 (2016).
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P. Schöttl, P. Kiefel, A. Heimsath, G. Bern, and D. W. van Rooyen, “Novel ray tracing tool for solar applications,” in preparation.

K. R. McIntosh, Simulation Optical Losses in Solar Cells and Modules. Tutorial at the 44th IEEE-PVSC, Washington (2017).

ITRPV, International Technology Roadmap for Photovoltaic. 2016 Results, 8th ed. (2017).

P. Wang, Z. Liu, K. Xu, D. J. Blackwood, M. Hong, A. G. Aberle, R. Stangl, and I. M. Peters, “Periodic Upright Nanopyramids for Light Management Applications in Ultrathin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics, 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

PV-Lighthouse, “Wafer and Module Ray Tracer,” www.pvlighthouse.com.au .

R. Brendel, “Sunrays. A versatile ray tracing program for the photovoltaic community,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EUPVSEC) (1994), pp. 1339–1342.

Sentaurus TCAD, Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) (Synopsys).

J. P. Hugonin and P. Lalanne, “RETICOLO CODE 2D for the diffraction by stacks of lamellar 2D crossed gratings,” Institut d'Optique, Plaiseau, France (2005).

K. R. McIntosh, T. C. Kho, K. C. Fong, S. C. Baker-Finch, Y. Wan, N. Zin, E. T. Franklin, D. Wang, M. D. Abbott, N. E. Grant, E. Wang, M. Stocks, and A. W. Blakers, “Quantifying the optical losses in back-contact solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2014), pp. 115–123.
[Crossref]

O. Höhn, N. Tucher, and B. Bläsi, “Impact of front side pyramid size on the light trapping performance of wafer based silicon solar cells and modules,” in Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2017).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the different investigated systems. The rear side reflectance as well as the pyramid size is varied later in this work. For systems (c) and (d), EVA and glass are displayed and modeled as one medium.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Weighted Reflectance of the different investigated systems shown in Fig. 1 depending on the pyramid size. The ray optically treated pyramids are shown as “RO”
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Depiction of the scatter distribution f R,Phong and the scatter angle γ scatter . For an angle on incidence of 20° and a W-value of 50 that corresponds to a scatter angle of 11.4°, the scatter distribution is shown in the right graph.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Graphical representation of a scattering redistribution matrix as used in the OPTOS formalism. Each column corresponds to a constant angle of incidence, while each row corresponds to an outgoing angle. Light that hits the virtual phong interface (see description below) is scattered and thereby distributed around the original angle. The scatter angle was chosen to be θ scatter =11.4° for the depicted case.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sketch of the implementation of scattering. After each interaction with the pyramidal interface the light is scattered.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Symmetry element of a transmission redistribution matrix (normal light incidence from air, transmission through the encapsulation into the silicon, pyramids of 1 µm period, wavelength 1100 nm). a) The diffraction orders of the pyramids with 1µm period can be clearly distinguished. Additional scattering with an angle of 5.7° in b) and 11.4° in c) leads to a broader redistribution of the diffracted intensity.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Modeled photocurrent (in the range of 800-1200 nm) of system (d) depending on the scatter angle and the rear side reflectance ( R rear ) for different pyramid sizes.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Modeled photocurrent (in the range of 800-1200 nm) of system (d) for a rear side reflectance of 90% depending on the pyramid size for different scatter angles. The scatter angle of 11.4° is highlighted, as this is at the moment the experimentally most relevant.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Modeled absorptance and R mode of the system shown in Fig. 1(d) (Full solar module stack without scattering and a rear side reflection of 1). Additionally a system is shown that has a Lambertian light distribution after transmission into the solar cell.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= 400nm 1200nm AM1.5 g Phot (λ) R spectral (λ)dλ 400nm 1200nm AM1.5 g Phot (λ)dλ ,
f R,Phong = cos W ( θ out θ in ).
γ scatter =arccos[ ( 1 e ) 1/W ].
R mode = M Silicon / M Air ,

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