Abstract

Performance assessment of ocean color satellite data has generally relied on statistical metrics chosen for their common usage and the rationale for selecting certain metrics is infrequently explained. Commonly reported statistics based on mean squared errors, such as the coefficient of determination (r2), root mean square error, and regression slopes, are most appropriate for Gaussian distributions without outliers and, therefore, are often not ideal for ocean color algorithm performance assessment, which is often limited by sample availability. In contrast, metrics based on simple deviations, such as bias and mean absolute error, as well as pair-wise comparisons, often provide more robust and straightforward quantities for evaluating ocean color algorithms with non-Gaussian distributions and outliers. This study uses a SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a validation data set to demonstrate a framework for satellite data product assessment and recommends a multi-metric and user-dependent approach that can be applied within science, modeling, and resource management communities.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Rousseaux and W. W. Gregg, “Recent decadal trends in global phytoplankton composition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 29(10), 1674–1688 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Chai and R. R. Draxler, “Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(3), 1247–1250 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. B. Broomell, V. David, and H. H. Por, “Pair-wise comparisons of multiple models,” Judgm. Decis. Mak. 6(8), 821 (2011).

2010 (1)

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

C. J. Willmott, K. Matsuura, and S. M. Robeson, “Ambiguities inherent in sums-of-squares-based error statistics,” Atmos. Environ. 43(3), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, “A Decade of Satellite Ocean Color Observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

C. J. Willmott and K. Matsuura, “Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance,” Clim. Res. 30, 79–82 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The definitions of bias, precision, and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. W. Campbell, “The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13237–13254 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. P. Young, “Condorcet’s theory of voting,” Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 82(4), 1231 (1988).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

C. J. Willmott, “On the validation of models,” Phys. Geogr. 2(2), 184–194 (1981).

1974 (1)

M. H. Birnbaum, “Reply to the Devil’s advocates: Don’t confound model testing and measurement,” Psychol. Bull. 81(11), 854–859 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

F. J. Anscombe, “Graphs in statistical analysis,” Am. Stat. 27(1), 17–21 (1973).

Ackleson, S. G.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Allen, J. I.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, G. W.

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anscombe, F. J.

F. J. Anscombe, “Graphs in statistical analysis,” Am. Stat. 27(1), 17–21 (1973).

Antoine, D.

Bailey, S.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Behrenfeld, M. J.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birnbaum, M. H.

M. H. Birnbaum, “Reply to the Devil’s advocates: Don’t confound model testing and measurement,” Psychol. Bull. 81(11), 854–859 (1974).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brando, V. E.

Brewin, R. J. W.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brockmann, C.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Broomell, S. B.

S. B. Broomell, V. David, and H. H. Por, “Pair-wise comparisons of multiple models,” Judgm. Decis. Mak. 6(8), 821 (2011).

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, “The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(C7), 13237–13254 (1995).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chai, T.

T. Chai and R. R. Draxler, “Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(3), 1247–1250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Craig, S. E.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

d’Andon, O. H.

David, V.

S. B. Broomell, V. David, and H. H. Por, “Pair-wise comparisons of multiple models,” Judgm. Decis. Mak. 6(8), 821 (2011).

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devred, E.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doerffer, R.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Doney, S. C.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowell, M.

Draxler, R. R.

T. Chai and R. R. Draxler, “Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(3), 1247–1250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dutkiewicz, S.

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Emanuel, K.

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eplee, R. E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Feldman, G. C.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Follows, M. J.

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fomferra, N.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franz, B.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6796–6810 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Friedrichs, M. A. M.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Glover, D. M.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gnanadesikan, A.

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grant, M.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gregg, W. W.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Rousseaux and W. W. Gregg, “Recent decadal trends in global phytoplankton composition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 29(10), 1674–1688 (2015).
[Crossref]

Groom, S.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guillocheau, N.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hallberg, R.

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harding, L.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hickman, A. E.

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirata, T.

Horseman, A.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jahn, O.

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jolliff, J.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krasemann, H.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwiatkowska, E.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6796–6810 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavender, S. J.

Lee, Z.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lima, I.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lindsay, K.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loftin, K.

B. A. Schaeffer, K. Loftin, R. P. Stumpf, and P. J. Werdell, “Agencies collaborate, develop a cyanobacteria assessment network,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)96, ••• (2015).

Loisel, H.

Mahowald, N.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mangin, A.

Maritorena, S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, K.

C. J. Willmott, K. Matsuura, and S. M. Robeson, “Ambiguities inherent in sums-of-squares-based error statistics,” Atmos. Environ. 43(3), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Willmott and K. Matsuura, “Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance,” Clim. Res. 30, 79–82 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. J. Willmott, S. M. Robeson, and K. Matsuura, “Climate and Other Models May Be More Accurate Than Reported,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)98, ••• (2017).

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

McClain, C. R.

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, “A Decade of Satellite Ocean Color Observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6796–6810 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

McGillicuddy, D. J.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKinna, L. I. W.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Meister, G.

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, G. Meister, C. R. McClain, and X. Xiong, “Cross calibration of ocean-color bands from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra platform,” Appl. Opt. 47(36), 6796–6810 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Melin, F.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mélin, F.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moore, J. K.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moore, J. L.

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The definitions of bias, precision, and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moore, T. S.

Mouw, C. B.

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Patt, F. S.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Peters, M.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peterson, A. R.

Platt, T.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Por, H. H.

S. B. Broomell, V. David, and H. H. Por, “Pair-wise comparisons of multiple models,” Judgm. Decis. Mak. 6(8), 821 (2011).

Regner, P.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robeson, S. M.

C. J. Willmott, K. Matsuura, and S. M. Robeson, “Ambiguities inherent in sums-of-squares-based error statistics,” Atmos. Environ. 43(3), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Willmott, S. M. Robeson, and K. Matsuura, “Climate and Other Models May Be More Accurate Than Reported,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)98, ••• (2017).

Roesler, C. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rose, K. A.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousseaux, C. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. S. Rousseaux and W. W. Gregg, “Recent decadal trends in global phytoplankton composition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 29(10), 1674–1688 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sathyendranath, S.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, B. A.

B. A. Schaeffer, K. Loftin, R. P. Stumpf, and P. J. Werdell, “Agencies collaborate, develop a cyanobacteria assessment network,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)96, ••• (2015).

Siegel, D. A.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smyth, T.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smyth, T. J.

Steinmetz, F.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stow, C. A.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stramski, D.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stumpf, R. P.

B. A. Schaeffer, K. Loftin, R. P. Stumpf, and P. J. Werdell, “Agencies collaborate, develop a cyanobacteria assessment network,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)96, ••• (2015).

Sullivan, J. M.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Swinton, J.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, T.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thomas, D.

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

Twardowski, M. S.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tzortziou, M.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vecchi, G. A.

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wallhead, P.

C. A. Stow, J. Jolliff, D. J. McGillicuddy, S. C. Doney, J. I. Allen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, K. A. Rose, and P. Wallhead, “Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 4–15 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, B. A.

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The definitions of bias, precision, and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Werdell, J.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, B. Franz, L. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(6), 1319–1330 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820W (2005).

B. A. Schaeffer, K. Loftin, R. P. Stumpf, and P. J. Werdell, “Agencies collaborate, develop a cyanobacteria assessment network,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)96, ••• (2015).

Westberry, T. K.

S. C. Doney, I. Lima, J. K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M. J. Behrenfeld, T. K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D. M. Glover, and T. Takahashi, “Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data,” J. Mar. Syst. 76(1-2), 95–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, G. N.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. a round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Willmott, C. J.

C. J. Willmott, K. Matsuura, and S. M. Robeson, “Ambiguities inherent in sums-of-squares-based error statistics,” Atmos. Environ. 43(3), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Willmott and K. Matsuura, “Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance,” Clim. Res. 30, 79–82 (2005).
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C. J. Willmott, “On the validation of models,” Phys. Geogr. 2(2), 184–194 (1981).

C. J. Willmott, S. M. Robeson, and K. Matsuura, “Climate and Other Models May Be More Accurate Than Reported,” Eos (Wash. D.C.)98, ••• (2017).

Xiong, X.

Young, H. P.

H. P. Young, “Condorcet’s theory of voting,” Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 82(4), 1231 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

P. J. Werdell, L. I. W. McKinna, E. Boss, S. G. Ackleson, S. E. Craig, W. W. Gregg, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, C. S. Roesler, C. S. Rousseaux, D. Stramski, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, M. Tzortziou, and X. Zhang, “An overview of approaches and challenges for retrieving marine inherent optical properties from ocean color remote sensing,” Prog. Oceanogr. 160, 186–212 (2018).
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Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. (1)

H. P. Young, “Condorcet’s theory of voting,” Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 82(4), 1231 (1988).
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Am. Stat. (1)

F. J. Anscombe, “Graphs in statistical analysis,” Am. Stat. 27(1), 17–21 (1973).

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C. R. McClain, “A Decade of Satellite Ocean Color Observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

C. J. Willmott, K. Matsuura, and S. M. Robeson, “Ambiguities inherent in sums-of-squares-based error statistics,” Atmos. Environ. 43(3), 749–752 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences (1)

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W. W. Gregg, C. B. Mouw, and M. J. Follows, “Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model,” Biogeosciences 12(14), 4447–4481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clim. Res. (1)

C. J. Willmott and K. Matsuura, “Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance,” Clim. Res. 30, 79–82 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ecography (1)

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The definitions of bias, precision, and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Gnanadesikan, K. Emanuel, G. A. Vecchi, G. W. Anderson, and R. Hallberg, “How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L18802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geosci. Model Dev. (1)

T. Chai and R. R. Draxler, “Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature,” Geosci. Model Dev. 7(3), 1247–1250 (2014).
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Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

C. S. Rousseaux and W. W. Gregg, “Recent decadal trends in global phytoplankton composition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 29(10), 1674–1688 (2015).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS Aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(1), 310–319 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, and N. Guillocheau, “Ocean color observations and modeling for an optically complex site: Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C7), C07011 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Normality probability plots of the error distributions for several ocean color models (described in section 2.1). Gaussian distributions would fall onto the dashed 1:1 line, the error distributions have long tails and therefore are non-Gaussian.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The top row are SeaWiFS-GSM, OC3, and OCI derived Chl to in situ Chl match-up scatterplot comparisons. The bottom row histograms shows the distribution of SeaWiFS-GSM, OC3, and OCI derived Chl values. Data were log10 transformed for display.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Log10 residuals histograms and scatterplots the SeaWiFS-to-in situ Chl match-ups. The top row are histograms of log10 summarizing the error distribution of GSM, OC3, and OCI algorithms. The bottom panels are residual plots of the difference between model satellite Chl and the reference in situ values versus reference values. The plots were created with log10 values, but the axes are in Chl units (mg m−3).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Global image of SeaWiFS 14-day OCI-, OC3-, GSM-derived mean Chl, standard deviation, and number of observations (nobs). Satellite imagery analysis provides a means of assessing algorithm behavior and consistency in time and space. The satellite imagery can be used to evaluate algorithm spatial extent of valid retrievals, temporal (e.g., day-to-day or week-to-week) consistency in retrievals, and spatiotemporal distributions of error metrics from compiled satellite pixels. nobs can be used to compare the spatial coverage consistency of the algorithms. These analyses may also be informative where decision support activities prioritize consistent and broad satellite coverage.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 US central east coast regional images of a SeaWiFS14 day OCI and GSM mean Chl, standard deviation, and number of observations (nobs). Additional details in the Fig. 4 caption. The regional image can be helpful in assessing algorithm features at a local level.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the metrics results of bias, MAE, pairwise percent wins and coefficient of variation summarized in star plots across all water types. The plot center represents values that indicate poor algorithm performance, while farthest from center represents the best performance. The numbers represent the value of the best performing algorithm value for each metric.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Summary of performance metric statistics suggested used by the manuscript and others commonly used by the ocean color satellite data products community highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics.

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Table 2 Statistical output comparing algorithm performance of the SeaWIFS-to-in situ Chl validation data set. The highlights indicate which algorithm best performed for each statistical comparison. If results were within 0.02 of best performing they were highlighted simply to emphasize similarly performing algorithms. It is possible to compare suggested approach on the left in addition to r2 and regression slop on the right.

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Table 3 Chl algorithm performance assessed point by point across all water types and by individual water type. The “winner” was the algorithm with the smallest absolute residual in a pair to pair comparison.

Equations (4)

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MAE=  i=1 n | M i O i | n
RMSE=  i=1 n ( M i O i ) 2 n
bias= 10 ^ ( i=1 n log 10 ( M i ) log 10 ( O i ) n )
MAE= 10^( i=1 n | log 10 ( M i ) log 10 ( O i ) | n )

Metrics