Abstract

We analyze the effects of the sensor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements for atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color remote sensing using the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands. Using the Gaussian noise model for the sensor noise distribution in the NIR and SWIR bands, some extensive simulations have been carried out to evaluate and assess the effects of sensor NIR and SWIR SNR values on the retrieved normalized water-leaving reflectance spectra ρwN(λ), which are used to derive all ocean or inland water biological and biogeochemical property data. The standard atmospheric correction algorithm for global oceans and inland waters using the two NIR bands, i.e., Gordon and Wang (1994) [Appl. Opt. 33, 443 (1994) Appl. Opt. 46, 1535 (2007)], is assumed in the evaluation. Specifically, the minimum and goal SNR requirements for the NIR and SWIR bands for atmospheric correction are estimated. The minimum SNR values are those with which sufficiently accurate ρwN(λ) can be derived, while the goal SNR requirements are those with which the atmospheric correction algorithms reach to their corresponding inherent limitations (or inherent errors), i.e., no gains can be achieved with further increase of SNR values in the NIR and SWIR bands. Evaluation results show that the minimum SNR requirement for the two NIR bands is ~200–300, while the minimum SNR requirement for the three SWIR bands is ~100. For the goal SNR requirements, the recommendations are SNR’s of ~600 and ~200 for the two NIR bands and three SWIR bands, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  30. W. Shi and M. Wang, “Ocean reflectance spectra at the red, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared from highly turbid waters: A study in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(2), 427–444 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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  43. C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  46. C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  47. M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  48. S. Son and M. Wang, “Water properties in Chesapeake Bay from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 163–174 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  49. M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  50. W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite observations of flood-driven Mississippi River plume in the spring of 2008,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(7), L07607 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  51. W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 104, 35–45 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9331–9342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Ocean reflectance spectra at the red, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared from highly turbid waters: A study in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(2), 427–444 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Son and M. Wang, “Water properties in Chesapeake Bay from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 163–174 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 104, 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite observations of flood-driven Mississippi River plume in the spring of 2008,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(7), L07607 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1980 (2)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aiken, J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoine, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[Crossref]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balch, W. P.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Behnert, I.

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blondeau-Patissier, D.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blonski, S.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cikanek, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, C. O.

Deschamps, P. Y.

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Doerffer, R.

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, T.

El-Sayed, S. Z.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

Evans, R. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

Fischer, J.

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gitelson, A. A.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, M. D.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8670–8684 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 862–871 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harding, J. L. W.

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hladik, C. M.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hodge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huot, J. P.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johnson, B. C.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kilcoyne, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).

Kwiatkowska, E.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S. J.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mannino, A.

Maritorena, S.

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

McClain, C. R.

C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mehta, A.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Melin, F.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Minnet, P. J.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mitomi, Y.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Moore, G. F.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ovidio, F.

Peetermans, W.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pinkerton, M. H.

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
[Crossref]

Qi, L.

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramon, D.

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rausch, K.

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rijkeboer, M.

Robinson, W.

Ruddick, K. G.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schaale, M.

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schalles, J. F.

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shao, X.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Ocean reflectance spectra at the red, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared from highly turbid waters: A study in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(2), 427–444 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 104, 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite observations of flood-driven Mississippi River plume in the spring of 2008,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(7), L07607 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15722–15733 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shroeder, T.

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Siegel, D. A.

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Son, S.

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Son and M. Wang, “Water properties in Chesapeake Bay from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 163–174 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steinmetz, F.

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Tan, L.

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Toratani, M.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Uprety, S.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voss, K.

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: Accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12414–12429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9331–9342 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Ocean reflectance spectra at the red, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared from highly turbid waters: A study in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(2), 427–444 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 104, 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Son and M. Wang, “Water properties in Chesapeake Bay from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 163–174 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite observations of flood-driven Mississippi River plume in the spring of 2008,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(7), L07607 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15722–15733 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45(35), 8951–8963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).

M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4790–4798 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3582–3591 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weng, F.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Werdell, P. J.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, X.

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Z. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210(4465), 60–63 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (12)

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27(5), 862–871 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39(6), 897–912 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3582–3591 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, and T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8670–8684 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang and S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4790–4798 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Aerosol polarization effects on atmospheric correction and aerosol retrievals in ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 45(35), 8951–8963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
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C. Hu, L. Feng, Z. Lee, C. O. Davis, A. Mannino, C. R. McClain, and B. A. Franz, “Dynamic range and sensitivity requirements of satellite ocean color sensors: learning from the past,” Appl. Opt. 51(25), 6045–6062 (2012).
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J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54, 9331–9342 (2015).
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Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

S. J. Lavender, M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, and D. Blondeau-Patissier, “Modification to the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS ocean color images over turbid waters,” Cont. Shelf Res. 25(4), 539–555 (2005).
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Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
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Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Estimation of ocean contribution at the MODIS near-infrared wavelengths along the east coast of the U.S.: Two case studies,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(13), L13606 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite observations of flood-driven Mississippi River plume in the spring of 2008,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(7), L07607 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (3)

M. Wang and W. Shi, “Sensor noise effects of the SWIR bands on MODIS-derived ocean color products,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50(9), 3280–3292 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
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W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
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Int. J. Remote Sens. (4)

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D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
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M. Wang, “A refinement for the Rayleigh radiance computation with variation of the atmospheric pressure,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(24), 5651–5663 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Shroeder, I. Behnert, M. Schaale, J. Fischer, and R. Doerffer, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for MERIS above case-2 waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 28(7), 1469–1486 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding., “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (3)

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(24), 13463–13475 (2013).
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M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(18), 10347–10360 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Cao, X. Xiong, S. Blonski, Q. Liu, S. Uprety, X. Shao, Y. Bai, and F. Weng, “Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor data record verification, validation, and long-term performance monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(20), 11664–11678 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Oceans (1)

L. Qi, Z. Lee, C. Hu, and M. Wang, “Requirement of minimal signal-to-noise ratios of ocean color sensors and uncertainties of ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122(3), 2595–2611 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Oceanogr. (1)

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Ocean reflectance spectra at the red, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared from highly turbid waters: A study in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(2), 427–444 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

W. Shi and M. Wang, “Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea,” Prog. Oceanogr. 104, 35–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (7)

S. Son and M. Wang, “Water properties in Chesapeake Bay from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 163–174 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, W. Shi, and J. Tang, “Water property monitoring and assessment for China’s inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(3), 841–854 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “An assessment of the black ocean pixel assumption for MODIS SWIR bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(8), 1587–1597 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, S. Son, and W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. A. Gitelson, J. F. Schalles, and C. M. Hladik, “Remote chlorophyll-a retrieval in turbid, productive estuaries: Chesapeake Bay case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 109(4), 464–472 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, and W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210(4465), 63–66 (1980).
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Sol. Phys. (1)

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[Crossref]

Other (2)

E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), pp. 1–94.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 TOA ρt(λ) as a function of AOT at 865 nm for the NIR and SWIR bands that are used in atmospheric corrections for the SNR evaluation in the all cases in this study for the aerosol model of (a) M80 and (b) T80.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Error ΔρwN(λ) for wavelengths of the UV (340 nm) to red (670 nm) as a function of the SNR value using the NIR atmospheric correction for the M80 aerosol model with AOT at 865 nm of (a) 0.05, (b) 0.1, (c) 0.2, and (d) 0.3.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Error ΔρwN(λ) for wavelengths of the UV (340 nm) to red (670 nm) as a function of the SNR value using the NIR atmospheric correction for the T80 aerosol model with AOT at 865 nm of (a) 0.05, (b) 0.1, (c) 0.2, and (d) 0.3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Error ΔρwN(λ) for wavelengths of the UV (340 nm) to red (670 nm) and NIR (865 nm) as a function of the SNR value using three SWIR atmospheric corrections for the M80 and T80 aerosol models with AOT at 865 nm of 0.1 for cases of (a) and (b) using the SWIR 1240 & 1640 nm for the M80 and T80 models, (c) and (d) using the SWIR 1240 & 2130 nm for the M80 and T80 models, and (e) and (f) using the SWIR 1640 and 2130 nm for the M80 and T80 models.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Error ΔρwN(λ) for the SNR value from 50 to 800 at the NIR and SWIR bands as a function of the wavelength for the M80 aerosol model with AOT at 865 nm of 0.1 for cases of atmospheric correction using (a) the two NIR bands at 765 and 865 nm, (b) the two SWIR bands at 1240 and 1640 nm, (c) the two SWIR bands at 1240 and 2130 nm, and (d) the two SWIR bands at 1640 and 2130 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Error ΔρwN(λ) for the SNR value from 50 to 800 at the NIR and SWIR bands as a function of the wavelength for the T80 aerosol model with AOT at 865 nm of 0.1 for cases of atmospheric correction using (a) the two NIR bands at 765 and 865 nm, (b) the two SWIR bands at 1240 and 1640 nm, (c) the two SWIR bands at 1240 and 2130 nm, and (d) the two SWIR bands at 1640 and 2130 nm.

Equations (3)

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ρ t (M) ( λ )= ρ t ( λ )+Δ ρ t ( λ )
 SNR ρ t ( λ ) NEΔ ρ t ( λ ) ,
 p( Δ ρ t ( λ ) )= 1 2π σ 2 exp[ 1 2 ( Δ ρ t ( λ ) σ ) 2 ],

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