Abstract

The experimental and theoretical study of continuous UV laser beam propagation through thick silver-containing photo-thermo-refractive glass is presented. It is shown for the first time that self-action of UV Gaussian beam in glass results in its self-focusing. The observed linear effect is non-reversible and is caused by the transformation of subnanosized charged silver molecular clusters to neutral state under UV laser radiation. Such transformation is accompanied by the increase of molecular clusters polarizability and the refractive index increase in irradiated area. As a result, an extended positive lens is formed in glass bulk. In a theoretical study of linear self-focusing effect, the “aberration-free” approximation was used, taking into account spatial distribution of induced absorption.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Lumeau and E. D. Zanotto, “A review of the photo-thermal mechanism and crystallization of photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Int. Mater. Rev. 62(6), 348–366 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(9), 2235–2249 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Fedrigo, W. Harbich, and J. Buttet, “Collective dipole oscillations in small silver clusters embedded in rare-gas matrices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(16), 10706–10715 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

1991 (2)

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. A. Ozin and F. Hugues, “Silver atoms and small silver clusters stabilized in zeolite Y: optical spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 87(1), 94–97 (1983).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

G. A. Ozin and H. Huber, “Cryophotoclustering techniques for synthesizing very small, naked silver clusters Agn of known size (where n = 2-5). The molecular metal cluster-bulk metal particle interface,” Inorg. Chem. ACS 17(1), 155–163 (1978).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “The application of Gaussian beam formalism for optical propagation in non-linear media,” Opt. Commun. 27(2), 295–298 (1978).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self-focusing and diffraction of light in non-linear medium,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(5), 609–636 (1968).
[Crossref]

Agafonova, D. S.

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self-focusing and diffraction of light in non-linear medium,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(5), 609–636 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bagrov, I. V.

Boggess, T. F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Buttet, J.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Fedrigo, W. Harbich, and J. Buttet, “Collective dipole oscillations in small silver clusters embedded in rare-gas matrices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(16), 10706–10715 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, P.

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(9), 2235–2249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chernakov, D. I.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Del Fatti, N.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dubrovin, V. D.

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ertl, G.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fedrigo, S.

S. Fedrigo, W. Harbich, and J. Buttet, “Collective dipole oscillations in small silver clusters embedded in rare-gas matrices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(16), 10706–10715 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Félix, C.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Flytzanis, C.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Gorbiak, V. V.

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hamanaka, Y.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Harbich, W.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Fedrigo, W. Harbich, and J. Buttet, “Collective dipole oscillations in small silver clusters embedded in rare-gas matrices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(16), 10706–10715 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, H.

G. A. Ozin and H. Huber, “Cryophotoclustering techniques for synthesizing very small, naked silver clusters Agn of known size (where n = 2-5). The molecular metal cluster-bulk metal particle interface,” Inorg. Chem. ACS 17(1), 155–163 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hugues, F.

G. A. Ozin and F. Hugues, “Silver atoms and small silver clusters stabilized in zeolite Y: optical spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 87(1), 94–97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ignatiev, A. I.

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khokhlov, R. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self-focusing and diffraction of light in non-linear medium,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(5), 609–636 (1968).
[Crossref]

Klyukin, D. A.

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kozlova, D. A.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krykova, V. A.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuchinskii, S. A.

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

Lazareva, K. E.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leontieva, V. S.

Lumeau, J.

J. Lumeau and E. D. Zanotto, “A review of the photo-thermal mechanism and crystallization of photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Int. Mater. Rev. 62(6), 348–366 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mikheeva, O. P.

Nakamura, A.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nikonorov, N. V.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

Omi, S.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ozin, G. A.

G. A. Ozin and F. Hugues, “Silver atoms and small silver clusters stabilized in zeolite Y: optical spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 87(1), 94–97 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. A. Ozin and H. Huber, “Cryophotoclustering techniques for synthesizing very small, naked silver clusters Agn of known size (where n = 2-5). The molecular metal cluster-bulk metal particle interface,” Inorg. Chem. ACS 17(1), 155–163 (1978).
[Crossref]

Panisheva, E. I.

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

Panysheva, E. I.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Petrovskii, G. T.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Pshenova, A. S.

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Putilin, S. E.

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rabin, I.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

Savvin, V. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Schulze, W.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shakhverdov, T. A.

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sidorov, A. I.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Ignatiev, D. A. Klyukin, V. S. Leontieva, N. V. Nikonorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and A. I. Sidorov, “The formation of luminescent centers in photo-thermo-refractive silicate glasses under the action of UV laser nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(7), 1635–1646 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. V. Bagrov, A. P. Zhevlakov, A. I. Sidorov, O. P. Mikheeva, and V. V. Sudarikov, “Low-threshold limitation of IR radiation in impurity semiconductors,” J. Opt. Technol. 69(2), 77–81 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sieber, C.

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Siiman, L. A.

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Silvennoinen, M.

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Solleau, J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stolyarchuk, M. V.

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sudarikov, V. V.

Sukhorukov, A. P.

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self-focusing and diffraction of light in non-linear medium,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(5), 609–636 (1968).
[Crossref]

Svirko, Yu. P.

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsekhomskii, V. A.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

Tsypkin, A. N.

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tunimanova, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

Vallee, F.

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, V. N.

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “The application of Gaussian beam formalism for optical propagation in non-linear media,” Opt. Commun. 27(2), 295–298 (1978).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “The application of Gaussian beam formalism for optical propagation in non-linear media,” Opt. Commun. 27(2), 295–298 (1978).
[Crossref]

Zanotto, E. D.

J. Lumeau and E. D. Zanotto, “A review of the photo-thermal mechanism and crystallization of photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Int. Mater. Rev. 62(6), 348–366 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhevlakov, A. P.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. A. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hamanaka, A. Nakamura, S. Omi, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, “Ultrafast response of nonlinear refractive index of silver nanocrystals embedded in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(12), 1712–1714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Félix, C. Sieber, W. Harbich, J. Buttet, I. Rabin, W. Schulze, and G. Ertl, “Fluorescence and excitation spectra of Ag4 in an argon matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 313(1–2), 105–109 (1999).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chem. ACS (1)

G. A. Ozin and H. Huber, “Cryophotoclustering techniques for synthesizing very small, naked silver clusters Agn of known size (where n = 2-5). The molecular metal cluster-bulk metal particle interface,” Inorg. Chem. ACS 17(1), 155–163 (1978).
[Crossref]

Int. Mater. Rev. (1)

J. Lumeau and E. D. Zanotto, “A review of the photo-thermal mechanism and crystallization of photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass,” Int. Mater. Rev. 62(6), 348–366 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(9), 2235–2249 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. A. Ozin and F. Hugues, “Silver atoms and small silver clusters stabilized in zeolite Y: optical spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 87(1), 94–97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “The application of Gaussian beam formalism for optical propagation in non-linear media,” Opt. Commun. 27(2), 295–298 (1978).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (4)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Solleau, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in thick media,” Opt. Eng. 30(8), 1228–1236 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24(4), 244613 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, V. D. Dubrovin, A. S. Pshenova, S. E. Putilin, T. A. Shakhverdov, A. N. Tsypkin, N. V. Nikonorov, and A. I. Sidorov, “Formation of luminescent and nonluminescent silver nanoparticles in silicate glasses by near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses and subsequent thermal treatment: the role of halogenides,” Opt. Eng. 55(6), 067101 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. V. Gorbiak, A. I. Sidorov, V. N. Vasilyev, V. D. Dubrovin, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Multilevel optical information recording in silver-containing photosensitive glasses by UV laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 56(4), 047104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (3)

V. D. Dubrovin, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, T. A. Shakhverdov, and D. S. Agafonova, “Luminescence of silver molecular clusters in photo-thermo-refractive glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(4), 753–759 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, and N. V. Nikonorov, “Luminescence quenching and recovering in photo-thermo-refractive silver-ion doped glasses,” Opt. Mater. 38, 233–237 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. I. Chernakov, A. I. Sidorov, M. V. Stolyarchuk, D. A. Kozlova, V. A. Krykova, and N. V. Nikonorov, “The effect of UV irradiation on the refractive index modulation in photo-thermo-refractive glasses: mechanisms and application,” Opt. Mater. 76(2), 155–161 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (4)

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, V. A. Tsekhomskiǐ, and K. E. Lazareva, “Effect of a dielectric shell of a silver nanoparticle on the spectral position of the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle in photochromic glass,” Opt. Spectrosc. 107(5), 705–707 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. Klyukin, A. I. Sidorov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, M. Silvennoinen, and Yu. P. Svirko, “Formation of luminescence centers and nonlinear optical effects in silver-containing glasses under femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 119(3), 456–459 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “New ways to use photosensitive glasses for recording volume phase holograms,” Opt. Spectrosc. 73(2), 237–241 (1992).

S. A. Kuchinskii, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panisheva, and I. V. Tunimanova, “Properties of volume phase holograms on multichromatic glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1296–1300 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. Fedrigo, W. Harbich, and J. Buttet, “Collective dipole oscillations in small silver clusters embedded in rare-gas matrices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(16), 10706–10715 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, A. P. Sukhorukov, and R. V. Khokhlov, “Self-focusing and diffraction of light in non-linear medium,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(5), 609–636 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Origin of self-focusing of nanosecond pulses in ZnSe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, eds. T. Deutsch, J. Goldsmith, D. Killinger, and G. Valley, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest (OSA, 1995).

V. Klimov and A. Sharonova, Nanoplasmonics (Pan Stanford Publishing, 2014).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).

www.OptiGrate.com

www.ondax.com .

www.pd-ld.com .

N. V. Nikonorov, A. I. Sidorov, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Silver Nanoparticles in Oxide Glasses: Technologies and Properties,” in Silver Nanoparticles, D.P. Perez, ed., Vukovar, InTech, 2010.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Luminescence of PTR glass excited by semiconductor laser with parallel beam and λ = 405 nm. (a): before He-Cd laser irradiation; (b): after He-Cd laser irradiation; (c): after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 350 °C during 1 h. The directions of He-Cd and semiconductor laser beams were from right to left.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 1 - Diameter of luminescent area via distance after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 350 °C during 1 h.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Luminescence spectra of PTR glass before He-Cd laser irradiation (1), after He-Cd laser irradiation (2), and after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 350 °C during 1 h (3). Excitation wavelength is 360 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical density spectra of PTR glasses before He-Cd laser irradiation (1); after He-Cd laser irradiation (2); after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 350 °C during 1 h (3); and after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 550 °C during 2 h (3).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photos of the sample (a) and its luminescence (b) after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 550 °C during 2 h. Excitation wavelength is 405 nm. Scale is 10 mm. Insets: views in glass cross-section.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Diameters of absorbing areas via distance after He-Cd laser irradiation and thermal treatment at T = 550 °C during 1 h (2) and 2 h (3) (see also Fig. 4).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated normalized radiation intensity (λ = 325 nm) via distance. 1 – for constant absorption coefficient, 2 – taking into account the dependence of absorption coefficient on intensity for constant beam diameter, 3 - taking into account the dependence of absorption coefficient on intensity and self-focusing.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Calculated dependence of beam diameter (1) and radius curvature of wavefront (2) on distance.

Equations (3)

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Δn( r )=Δn( 0 )exp( 2 r 2 R )Δn( 0 )( 1 2 r 2 a R 2 ),
f m = a R m 2 4Δ n m ΔL  .
( A m B m C m D m )=( 1ΔL/ n 0 f m ΔL/ n 0 1/ f m 1 ).

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