Abstract

We demonstrate a non-flickering 100 m long-distance RGB visible light communication (VLC) transmission based on a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. Experimental bit-error rate (BER) measurements under different camera ISO values and different transmission distances are evaluated. Here, we also experimentally reveal that the rolling shutter effect- (RSE) based VLC system cannot work at long distance transmission, and the under-sampled modulation- (USM) based VLC system is a good choice.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).
  9. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  10. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Shi, J. He, J. He, R. Deng, Y. Wei, F. Long, Y. Cheng, and L. Chen, “Multilevel modulation scheme using the overlapping of two light sources for visible light communication with mobile phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15905–15912 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. D. Robert, “Undersampled frequency shift on-off keying (UFSOOK) for camera communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings of WOCC’13 (IEEE, 2013), pp. 645–648.
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (6)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, J. He, J. He, R. Deng, Y. Wei, F. Long, Y. Cheng, and L. Chen, “Multilevel modulation scheme using the overlapping of two light sources for visible light communication with mobile phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15905–15912 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. W.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, Y. T.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M. T.

Cheng, Y.

Chi, Y. C.

Chow, C. W.

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Deng, R.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

He, J.

He, J. H.

Hsieh, D. H.

Hsieh, H. C.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. F.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Kuo, H. C.

Li, C. Y.

H. H. Lu, C. Y. Li, H. W. Chen, Z. Y. Yang, X. Y. Lin, M. T. Cheng, C. K. Lu, and T. T. Shih, “45 Gb/s PAM4 transmission based on VCSEL with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 5023–5026 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, X. Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

Long, F.

Lu, C. K.

Lu, H. H.

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Retamal, J. R. D.

Robert, R. D.

R. D. Robert, “Undersampled frequency shift on-off keying (UFSOOK) for camera communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings of WOCC’13 (IEEE, 2013), pp. 645–648.
[Crossref]

Shi, J.

Shih, T. T.

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, W. C.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, L. Y.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Y.

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. C.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. Y.

Yeh, C. H.

Youn, C. H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, C. W. Chen, H. C. Hsieh, and Y. T. Chen, “Beacon jointed packet reconstruction scheme for mobile-phone based visible light communications using rolling shutter,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(6), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24362–24367 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, J. He, J. He, R. Deng, Y. Wei, F. Long, Y. Cheng, and L. Chen, “Multilevel modulation scheme using the overlapping of two light sources for visible light communication with mobile phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15905–15912 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (2)

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. F. Huang, and G. R. Lin, “Tricolor R/G/B laser diode based eye-safe white lighting communication beyond 8 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, L. Y. Wei, and C. W. Chow, “Using a single VCSEL source employing OFDM downstream signal and remodulated OOK upstream signal for bi-directional visible light communications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15846 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. D. Robert, “Undersampled frequency shift on-off keying (UFSOOK) for camera communications (CamCom),” in Proceedings of WOCC’13 (IEEE, 2013), pp. 645–648.
[Crossref]

P. Luo, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, X. Tang, and H. M. Tsai, “Undersampled phase shift on-off keying for camera communication,” in Proceedings of WCSP’14, (IEEE, 2014).
[Crossref]

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proceedings of OWC’12 (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup of the non-flickering 100 m long distance RGB VLC transmission system; (b) implementation of the UFSOOK modulation format.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Decoding algorithm of the RGB UFSOOK VLC signal. (b) Measured normalized intensity response of camera under different LED modulation frequencies.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured frame images representing (a) light “OFF”, (b) “ON” and (c) “Half-ON”. The total grayscale values in from frame 1 to frame 2000 of the (d) R, (f) G, and (g) B color channel respectively. (e) A magnified section from frame 844 to frame 856.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured BER performances of non-flickering (a) R, (b) G and (c) B VLC transmissions respectively under different free-space distances and at different ISO values, when all the RGB LEDs are on, and only one LED is on.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Image captured by the CMOS image sensor at transmission distance of 3 m and 7 m.

Metrics