Abstract

The ever-increasing demand for integrated, low power interconnect systems is pushing the bandwidth density of CMOS photonic devices. Taking advantage of the strong Franz-Keldysh effect in the C and L communication bands, electro-absorption modulators in Ge and GeSi are setting a new standard in terms of device footprint and power consumption for next generation photonics interconnect arrays. In this paper, we present a compact, low power electro-absorption modulator (EAM) Si/GeSi hetero-structure based on an 800 nm SOI overlayer with a modulation bandwidth of 56 GHz. The device design and fabrication tolerant process are presented, followed by the measurement analysis. Eye diagram measurements show a dynamic ER of 5.2 dB at a data rate of 56 Gb/s at 1566 nm, and calculated modulator power is 44 fJ/bit.

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2017 (3)

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J. J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. A. Srinivasan, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gupta, H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, G. Roelkens, K. Saraswat, D. V. Thourhout, P. Absil, and J. V. Campenhout, “56 Gbps germanium waveguide electro-absorption modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 419–424 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, G. Lepage, J. De Coster, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, and J. Van Campenhout, “High-responsivity low-voltage 28-Gb/s Ge p-i-n photodetector with silicon contacts,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 820–824 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, “Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

1958 (2)

W. Franz, “Einfluß eines elektrischen feldes auf eine optische Absorptionskante,” Zeitschrift Naturforschung Teil A 13, 484–489 (1958).

L. V. Keldysh, “Behavior of non-metallic crystals in strong electric fields,” Soviet J. Experimental Theoretical Phys. 6, 763 (1958).

Absil, P.

Ackert, J. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Banakar, M.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J. J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basset, L.

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernabe, S.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Bernier, N.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Brimont, A.

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Bucio, T. D.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Campenhout, J. V.

Cassan, E.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

Chen, H. T.

Chen, Y.

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cristiani, I.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Crozat, P.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dansas, H.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Debnath, K.

Desplanque, L.

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, “Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

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Domínguez Bucio, T.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J. J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
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Dumon, P.

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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
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Fédéli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
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Feng, D.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

Fong, J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fournier, M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

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K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

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A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
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Gambacorti, N.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Gardes, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J. J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Gould, M.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Grabska, K.

Grosse, P.

Gupta, S.

Gutierrez, A. M.

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Halbwax, M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

He, J. J.

Herrera, J.

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Hu, Y.

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, R. M.

Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

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J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
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Jonathan Luff, B.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
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L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Y. Chen, T. Domínguez Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Banakar, K. Grabska, F. Y. Gardes, R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and J. J. He, “Experimental demonstration of an apodized-imaging chip-fiber grating coupler for Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3566–3569 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Kung, C. C.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuramochi, E.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lacava, C.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Levy, J. S.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

K. Li, D. J. Thomson, S. Liu, P. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “A 30 Gb/s cmos driver integrated with silicon photonics MZM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) (2015), pp. 311–314.
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, A. E. J.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Liow, T. Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Littlejohns, C. G.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

K. Li, D. J. Thomson, S. Liu, P. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “A 30 Gb/s cmos driver integrated with silicon photonics MZM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) (2015), pp. 311–314.
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Lo, G. Q.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Lupu, A.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyan, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Maine, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mallinson, C. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchetti, R.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Martí, J.

Mashanovic, G. Z.

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

Mastronardi, L.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Matsuo, S.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Minzioni, P.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Mollot, F.

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, “Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nozaki, K.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

Pantouvaki, M.

Peacock, A. C.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Png, C.

Qian, W.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G.

Reed, G. T.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, D. J. Thomson, S. Liu, P. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “A 30 Gb/s cmos driver integrated with silicon photonics MZM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) (2015), pp. 311–314.
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, R. M. Jenkins, F. Y. Gardes, E. D. Finlayson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “MMI for wavelength filtering and WDM on the SOI platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting (2011), 615–616.
[Crossref]

Reynolds, S. A.

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rivallin, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

Robin, E.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Roelkens, G.

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rouviere, J.-R.

L. Mastronardi, M. Banakar, A. Z. Khokhar, T. Domínguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, N. Bernier, E. Robin, J.-R. Rouviere, H. Dansas, N. Gambacorti, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “SiGe bandgap tuning for high speed eam,” Trans. 231st ECS Meeting 77(6), 59–63 (2017).

Sanchis, P.

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K.

Shafiiha, R.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shakoor, A.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shinya, A.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, S. A.

Stankovic, S.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steffan, A. G.

Takeda, K.

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Teo, S. H. G.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Thomson, D. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, L. Basset, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Ge-on-Si plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for low-cost photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(4), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. G. Littlejohns, Y. Hu, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, S. A. Reynolds, G. Z. Mashanovic, and G. T. Reed, “50 Gb/s silicon photonics receiver with low insertion loss,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Li, D. J. Thomson, S. Liu, P. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “A 30 Gb/s cmos driver integrated with silicon photonics MZM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) (2015), pp. 311–314.
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vitali, V.

C. Lacava, R. Marchetti, V. Vitali, I. Cristiani, G. Giuliani, M. Fournier, S. Bernabe, and P. Minzioni, “Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides,” in Proceedings of Photonics West 2016 (2016).

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum-Well Waveguide Photodetector,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, P. Crozat, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Grosse, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Ten Gbit/s ring resonator silicon modulator based on interdigitated PN junctions,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14690–14695 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” inProceedings of The 9th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2012), pp. 57–59.
[Crossref]

Watts, J. F.

C. G. Littlejohns, M. Nedeljkovic, C. F. Mallinson, J. F. Watts, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, and F. Y. Gardes, “Next generation device grade silicon-germanium on insulator,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, P.

K. Li, D. J. Thomson, S. Liu, P. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “A 30 Gb/s cmos driver integrated with silicon photonics MZM,” in Proceedings of IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC) (2015), pp. 311–314.
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30Ghz silicon platform for photonics system,” in Optical Interconnects Conference (2013), pp. 27–28.

Zhou, Z.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. S. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. Jonathan Luff, and M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electroabsorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 64–73 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ziebell, M.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fédéli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

APL Photonics (1)

K. Nozaki, A. Shakoor, S. Matsuo, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-energy electro-absorption modulator consisting of InGaAsP-embedded photonic-crystal waveguide,” APL Photonics 2(5), 056105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. F. Lampin, L. Desplanque, and F. Mollot, “Detection of picosecond electrical pulses using the intrinsic Franz-Keldysh effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4103–4105 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device cross-section schematics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Overlay of the TE mode distribution (grey contour) and the electric field distribution (coloured contour) at −2 V. (b), the extrapolated electric field along the dashed line compared with different works [32,33].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication steps of the GeSi EAM heterostructure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FIB cross-section of the fabricated device.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 DC opto-electric setup diagram.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured Insertion Loss and Extinction Ratio for different reverse biases, (b) ER, IL ratio for the selected high speed modulation voltage swing.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 High-speed opto-electric setup diagram.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 56 Gbps input electrical eye of 2.2Vpp.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured 56.2 Gb/s device eye diagram with an ER of 5.2 dB.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Equivalent electric circuit.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 S11 Parameter at −3 V.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 EAM time rise measurement and EO bandwidth calculation.

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Table 2 EAM in literature compared to our device.

Equations (1)

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τ r = ( τ o 2 τ e 2 ) .

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