Abstract

The imaging diagnosis and prognostication of different degrees of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very important for early care and clinical treatment. Especially, the exact recognition of mild TBI is the bottleneck for current label-free imaging technologies in neurosurgery. Here, we report an automatic evaluation method for TBI recognition with terahertz (THz) continuous-wave (CW) transmission imaging based on machine learning (ML). We propose a new feature extraction method for biological THz images combined with the transmittance distribution features in spatial domain and statistical distribution features in normalized gray histogram. Based on the extracted feature database, ML algorithms are performed for the classification of different degrees of TBI by feature selection and parameter optimization. The highest classification accuracy is up to 87.5%. The area under the curve (AUC) scores of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve are all higher than 0.9, which shows this evaluation method has a good generalization ability. Furthermore, the excellent performance of the proposed system in the recognition of mild TBI is analyzed by different methodological parameters and diagnostic criteria. The system can be extensible to various diseases and will be a powerful tool in automatic biomedical diagnostics.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

N. Bajwa, J. Au, R. Jarrahy, S. Sung, M. C. Fishbein, D. Riopelle, D. B. Ennis, T. Aghaloo, M. A. St John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Non-invasive terahertz imaging of tissue water content for flap viability assessment,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 460–474 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Robnik-Šikonja and I. Kononenko, “Theoretical and empirical analysis of ReliefF and RReliefF,” Mach. Learn. 53(1/2), 23–69 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Ghajar, “Traumatic brain injury,” Lancet 356(9233), 923–929 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

L. Breiman, “A Bagging predictors,” Mach. Learn. 24(2), 123–140 (1996).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aghaloo, T.

Ahn, K.-M.

Antaris, A. L.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, J.

Bae, E.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajwa, N.

Bauer, T.

Benifla, M.

D. Shlosberg, M. Benifla, D. Kaufer, and A. Friedman, “Blood-brain barrier breakdown as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6(7), 393–403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borlongan, C. V.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouix, S.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyeson, M. G.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breiman, L.

L. Breiman, “A Bagging predictors,” Mach. Learn. 24(2), 123–140 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brown, E. R.

Castellano, J. M.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chassidim, Y.

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Chen, T.-H.

Chen, W. R.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheon, H.

Cheung, W.-H.

Cho, K.-S.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 064704 (2011).

Cho, S. W.

Choi, H. J.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, H. Cheon, S. W. Cho, S. Lee, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1122–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 064704 (2011).

Chuang, E. Y.

Clark, J. C.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coles, J. P.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Czasch, S.

Dai, H.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dail, W. G.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diao, S.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ennis, D. B.

Feeney, D. M.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishbein, M. C.

Fitzgerald, A.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, A.

D. Shlosberg, M. Benifla, D. Kaufer, and A. Friedman, “Blood-brain barrier breakdown as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6(7), 393–403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fryer, T. D.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, S.-C.

Fu Tsai, Y.

Ghajar, J.

J. Ghajar, “Traumatic brain injury,” Lancet 356(9233), 923–929 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

Hamoda, H. M.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helmer, K.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, G.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshina, H.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

Huh, Y.-M.

Hwang, Y. J.

Ito, H.

Jarrahy, R.

Jeong, K.

Ji, Y. B.

Kan, W.-C.

Kaneko, Y.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-G.

Kaufer, D.

D. Shlosberg, M. Benifla, D. Kaufer, and A. Friedman, “Blood-brain barrier breakdown as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6(7), 393–403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikinis, R.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-R.

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 064704 (2011).

Kim, S.-H.

Koerte, I.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohavi, R.

R. Kohavi, “A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection,” in International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 1995), 1137–1143.

Kononenko, I.

M. Robnik-Šikonja and I. Kononenko, “Theoretical and empirical analysis of ReliefF and RReliefF,” Mach. Learn. 53(1/2), 23–69 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Kononenko, “Estimating attributes: Analysis and extensions of RELIEF,” in European Conference on Machine Learning on Machine Learning(1994), pp. 171–182.
[Crossref]

Kubicki, M.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-C.

Lao, Y.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Lee, S.

Lee, W.-J.

Lee, W.-S.

Li, L.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, A. P.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linn, R. T.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

Lu, J.-T.

Luo, J.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menon, D. K.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minamide, H.

Miyoshi, N.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Murray, H. M.

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, S.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, A.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

Notake, T.

O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Otani, C.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, C.

Park, D. W.

Park, J. Y.

Park, Y.

Pasternak, O.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickard, J. D.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

Pinder, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prager, O.

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purohit, M. P.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rathi, Y.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rice, K.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riopelle, D.

Robnik-Šikonja, M.

M. Robnik-Šikonja and I. Kononenko, “Theoretical and empirical analysis of ReliefF and RReliefF,” Mach. Learn. 53(1/2), 23–69 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H.

Sanberg, P. R.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneiderman, J. S.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoknecht, K.

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shenton, M. E.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shlosberg, D.

D. Shlosberg, M. Benifla, D. Kaufer, and A. Friedman, “Blood-brain barrier breakdown as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6(7), 393–403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siebert, K.

Sim, Y. C.

Singh, R. S.

Smielewski, P.

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, J.-H.

St John, M. A.

Stahl, C. E.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanimirovic, D. B.

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, R. A.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

Suh, J.-S.

Sun, C. K.

Sung, S.

Tang, M.

Taylor, Z. D.

Tseng, T.-F.

van Loveren, H.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vu, M.-A.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-C. Kan, W.-S. Lee, W.-H. Cheung, V. P. Wallace, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of knee cartilage,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(3), 967–974 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, H. Minamide, M. Tang, T. Notake, H. Ito, and H. Ito, “Study of water concentration measurement in thin tissues with terahertz-wave parametric source,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15504–15512 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westin, C.-F.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wunder, A.

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyss-Coray, T.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, L.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xing, D.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, M.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, S.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zafonte, R.

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-D.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

X.-D. Zhang, H. Wang, A. L. Antaris, L. Li, S. Diao, R. Ma, A. Nguyen, G. Hong, Z. Ma, J. Wang, S. Zhu, J. M. Castellano, T. Wyss-Coray, Y. Liang, J. Luo, and H. Dai, “Traumatic brain injury imaging in the second near-infrared window with a molecular fluorophore,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6872–6879 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Yang, D. Xing, Y. Lao, D. Yang, L. Zeng, L. Xiang, and W. R. Chen, “Noninvasive monitoring of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic rehabilitation with laser-induced photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243902 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Park, H. J. Choi, K.-S. Cho, K.-R. Kim, and J.-H. Son, “Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 064704 (2011).

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, “Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Brain Imaging Behav. (1)

M. E. Shenton, H. M. Hamoda, J. S. Schneiderman, S. Bouix, O. Pasternak, Y. Rathi, M.-A. Vu, M. P. Purohit, K. Helmer, I. Koerte, A. P. Lin, C.-F. Westin, R. Kikinis, M. Kubicki, R. A. Stern, and R. Zafonte, “A review of magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury,” Brain Imaging Behav. 6(2), 137–192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Res. (2)

D. M. Feeney, M. G. Boyeson, R. T. Linn, H. M. Murray, and W. G. Dail, “Responses to cortical injury: I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the rat,” Brain Res. 211(1), 67–77 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, Y. Kaneko, E. Bae, C. E. Stahl, Y. Wang, H. van Loveren, P. R. Sanberg, and C. V. Borlongan, “Severity of controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in rats and mice dictates degree of behavioral deficits,” Brain Res. 1287, 157–163 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Epilepsia (1)

A. Wunder, K. Schoknecht, D. B. Stanimirovic, O. Prager, and Y. Chassidim, “Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction in animal disease models,” Epilepsia 53(Suppl 6), 14–21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

J. P. Coles, T. D. Fryer, P. Smielewski, K. Rice, J. C. Clark, J. D. Pickard, and D. K. Menon, “Defining ischemic burden after traumatic brain injury using 15O PET imaging of cerebral physiology,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 24(2), 191–201 (2004).
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Lancet (1)

J. Ghajar, “Traumatic brain injury,” Lancet 356(9233), 923–929 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach. Learn. (2)

M. Robnik-Šikonja and I. Kononenko, “Theoretical and empirical analysis of ReliefF and RReliefF,” Mach. Learn. 53(1/2), 23–69 (2003).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Neurol. (1)

D. Shlosberg, M. Benifla, D. Kaufer, and A. Friedman, “Blood-brain barrier breakdown as a therapeutic target in traumatic brain injury,” Nat. Rev. Neurol. 6(7), 393–403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

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R. Kohavi, “A study of cross-validation and bootstrap for accuracy estimation and model selection,” in International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 1995), 1137–1143.

I. Kononenko, “Estimating attributes: Analysis and extensions of RELIEF,” in European Conference on Machine Learning on Machine Learning(1994), pp. 171–182.
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J. Shi, Y. Wang, D. Xu, C. Yan, L. Tang, P. Duan, Y. He, H. Liu, T. Chen, H. Feng, and J. Yao, “Biomedical diagnosis of cerebral ischemia with continuous-wave THz imaging,” in41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2016).
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H. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Shi, L. Chen, K. Ma, L. Tang, T. Chen, D. Xu, J. Yao, and H. Feng, “High-sensitivity terahertz imaging of traumatic brain injury in a rat model,” in The 17th International Conference on Brain Edema and Cellular Injury (2017).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Biological terahertz imaging and automatic evaluation system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histologic manifestations of sham and different degrees of TBI tissues at visible and TTC staining examination.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 THz images of sham, mild, moderate, and severe TBI samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Preprocessing of terahertz images consisting of rotation rectification, the selection of ROI, and standardization of ROI for feature extraction of ML.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Four typical THz images of (a) sham, (b) mild, (c) moderate, and (d) severe TBI tissues are selected to demonstrate the feature extraction from the THz image database. (e) Transmittance distribution features extraction method in spatial domain. (f) The normalized gray histograms of the ROI of (a)-(d) and statistical distribution features extraction method in gray histogram.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The weights of different serial number of features captured by ReliefF algorithm. The total classification accuracy of (b) kNN, (c) SVM, and (d) RF with different parameters as the number of features increasing from 1 to 499, which are obtained by LOOCV.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The ROC curve and AUC scores for (a) sham, (b) mild, (c) moderate, and (d) severe TBI recognition when the three ML algorithms reach the highest accuracy.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The precision, sensitivity, and specificity of the mild TBI recognition when the three ML algorithms reach the highest accuracy

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