Abstract

Warm dense conditions in titanium foils irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses are diagnosed using an x-ray imaging spectroscopy technique. The line shapes of radially resolved titanium Kα spectra are measured with a toroidally bent GaAs crystal and an x-ray charge-coupled device. Measured spectra are compared with the K-shell emissions modeled using an atomic kinetics – spectroscopy simulation code. Kα line shapes are strongly affected by warm (5-40 eV) bulk electron temperatures and imply multiple temperature distributions in the targets. The spatial distribution of temperature is dependent on the target thickness, and a thin target shows an advantage to generate uniform warm dense conditions in a large area.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (3)

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-magnetic-field and fast-electron current-layer formation by ultraintense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 265002 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Relativistic laser-plasma interaction by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations,” Phys. Plasmas 5(5), 1880–1886 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdallah, J.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglitskiy, Y.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akli, K. U.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allott, R.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Amin, M.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, A.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, A. A.

H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
[Crossref]

Antici, P.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonelli, L.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnett, D.

B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
[Crossref]

Audebert, P.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bae, L. J.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, J.

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldis, H. A.

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Batani, D.

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baton, S. D.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beg, F. N.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bell, A. R.

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernshtam, V.

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, A. C.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghesi, M.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutoux, G.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brambrink, E.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. R. D.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buffechoux, S.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burian, T.

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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Chen, H.

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Chen, M. H.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
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Chen, S. N.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Cho, B. I.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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Chung, H. K.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Chung, H.-K.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Ciricosta, O.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Clark, D.

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Clark, E.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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Clarke, R. J.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Correa, A. A.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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Cowan, T. E.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Creswell, A.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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Davies, J. R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
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J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Dyer, G. M.

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Evans, R. G.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Faenov, A. Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, X.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Faure, J.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
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Fäustlin, R. R.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feldman, S.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fisher, D.

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Forget, P.

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

Förster, E.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fourmaux, S.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fournier, K. B.

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franz, A.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R. R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, J.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaillard, S.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, J. C.

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giuffrida, L.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Glenzer, S. H.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Glinsky, M. E.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gobet, F.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, P.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graves, C.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, J. S.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gregori, G.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gregory, C. D.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guérin, S. M.

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Guillou, P.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Habara, H.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haines, M. G.

J. R. Davies, A. R. Bell, M. G. Haines, and S. M. Guérin, “Short-pulse high-intensity laser-generated fast electron transport into thick solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 56(6), 7193–7203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hájková, V.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hannachi, F.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, S. B.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Hanson, D.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, N.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Heathcote, R.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Heimann, P. A.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Hey, D. S.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Higginbotham, A.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Highbarger, K.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Honrubia, J. J.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Hosokai, T.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Hou, B. X.

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
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Hunter, J. R.

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Jaanimagi, P.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Jacoby, J.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Juha, L.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Kämpfer, T.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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Kanasaki, M.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Kando, M.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Karmakar, A.

B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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Kato, S.

T. Nakamura, S. Kato, H. Nagatomo, and K. Mima, “Surface-magnetic-field and fast-electron current-layer formation by ultraintense laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 265002 (2004).
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Kawachi, T.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Kennedy, B.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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Kern, J.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
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Kettle, B.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Key, M. H.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Khaghani, D.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Khattak, F. Y.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, I.

J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
[Crossref]

King, J. A.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Klein, L.

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
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Kodama, R.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koenig, M.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koslow, I.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
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Kraft, S.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Krol, A.

L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kroupp, E.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kruer, W. L.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krushelnick, K.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krzywinski, J.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancaster, K. L.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Landen, O. L.

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Langdon, A. B.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

B. I. Cho, T. Ogitsu, K. Engelhorn, A. A. Correa, Y. Ping, J. W. Lee, L. J. Bae, D. Prendergast, R. W. Falcone, and P. A. Heimann, “Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 18843 (2016).
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Lee, R.

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lewis, C.

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lewis, C. L. S.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Limpouch, J.

H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
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Loetzsch, R.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loupias, B.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, T.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

MacFarlane, J. J.

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machacek, A.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Machacek, A. C.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackinnon, A. J.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Mackinonn, A. J.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Macphee, A.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Magill, J.

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Makita, M.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Malka, V.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancic, A.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancini, R. C.

J. J. MacFarlane, P. Wang, J. Bailey, T. A. Mehlhorn, R. J. Dukart, and R. C. Mancini, “Analysis of K α line emission from aluminum plasmas created by intense proton beams,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 47(4), 2748–2758 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manclossi, M.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maron, Y.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mason, R. J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

Masuda, S.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCanny, T.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

McKeever, K.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Reinholz, H.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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B. A. Remington, D. Arnett, R. P. Drake, and H. Takabe, “Modeling astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory with intense lasers,” Science 284(5419), 1488–1493 (1999).
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Renner, O.

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
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Riley, D.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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Robinson, A. P. L.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Romagnani, L.

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Röpke, G.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Rose, S. J.

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Saiz, E. G.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Sakaki, H.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Sakaki, T.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Santala, M.

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Santala, M. I. K.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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Santos, J. J.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Sauteray, A.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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Scherz, A.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlotter, W.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schönlein, A.

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schramm, U.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwegler, E.

Y. Ping, D. Hanson, I. Koslow, T. Ogitsu, D. Prendergast, E. Schwegler, G. Collins, and A. Ng, “Broadband dielectric function of nonequilibrium warm dense gold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(25), 255003 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sengebusch, A.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, R.

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, R. Shepherd, K. B. Fournier, O. Peyrusse, D. Price, R. Lee, P. Springer, J. C. Gauthier, and L. Klein, “Heating of thin foils with a relativistic-intensity short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(26), 265001 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singhal, R. P.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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Šmíd, M.

O. Renner, M. Šmíd, D. Batani, and L. Antonelli, “Suprathermal electron production in laser-irradiated Cu targets characterized by combined methods of x-ray imaging and spectroscopy,” Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 58(7), 075007 (2016).
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M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Takabe, H.

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S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Tarisien, M.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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Theobald, W.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Tikhonchuk, V.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Tikhonchuk, V. T.

M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
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Toncian, T.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Turner, J. J.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Uschmann, I.

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Vinko, S. M.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Vysin, L.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Wang, P.

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Wang, T.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Wark, J. S.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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Watts, I.

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weber, R. L.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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Wei, M. S.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, L.

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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White, S.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Widmann, K.

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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Wilks, S. C.

S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(9), 1383–1386 (1992).
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Willi, O.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Woerkom, L. V.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woodworth, J.

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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Woolsey, N. C.

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Wu, B.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Zamponi, F.

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Zastrau, U.

B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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Zeil, K.

S. Buffechoux, J. Psikal, M. Nakatsutsumi, L. Romagnani, A. Andreev, K. Zeil, M. Amin, P. Antici, T. Burris-Mog, A. Compant-La-Fontaine, E. d’Humières, S. Fourmaux, S. Gaillard, F. Gobet, F. Hannachi, S. Kraft, A. Mancic, C. Plaisir, G. Sarri, M. Tarisien, T. Toncian, U. Schramm, M. Tampo, P. Audebert, O. Willi, T. E. Cowan, H. Pépin, V. Tikhonchuk, M. Borghesi, and J. Fuchs, “Hot electrons transverse refluxing in ultraintense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 015005 (2010).
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Zepf, M.

M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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A. Y. Faenov, J. Colgan, S. B. Hansen, A. Zhidkov, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, S. A. Pikuz, I. Y. Skobelev, J. Abdallah, H. Sakaki, A. Sagisaka, A. S. Pirozhkov, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, M. Kanasaki, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, M. Kando, Y. Watanabe, T. Kawachi, S. Masuda, T. Hosokai, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo, “Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13436 (2015).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Nakano, A. A. Andreev, and J. Limpouch, “Femtosecond x-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79(4), 469–476 (2004).
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Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. Schönlein, G. Boutoux, S. Pikuz, L. Antonelli, D. Batani, A. Debayle, A. Franz, L. Giuffrida, J. J. Honrubia, J. Jacoby, D. Khaghani, P. Neumayer, O. N. Rosmej, T. Sakaki, J. J. Santos, and A. Sauteray, “Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target,” Europhys. Lett. 114(4), 45002 (2016).
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High Energy Density Phys. (3)

U. Zastrau, A. Sengebusch, P. Audebert, E. Brambrink, R. R. Fäustlin, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster, “High-resolution radial Kα spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laser–matter interaction,” High Energy Density Phys. 7(2), 47–53 (2011).
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H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, and R. W. Lee, “Extension of atomic configuration sets of the Non-LTE model in the application to the Kα diagnostics of hot dense matter,” High Energy Density Phys. 3(1-2), 57–64 (2007).
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J. Kern, S. Feldman, I. Kim, G. Dyer, B. I. Cho, A. C. Bernstein, and T. Ditmire, “Simultaneous imaging of K-α radiation and coherent transition radiation from relativistic-intensity laser-irradiated solid target plasmas,” High Energy Density Phys. 8(1), 60–65 (2012).
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J. Phys. A Math. Theor. (1)

E. Stambulchik, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, E. Kroupp, D. Fisher, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, F. Zamponi, E. Förster, A. Sengebusch, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, and Y. Ralchenko, “Progress in line-shape modeling of K-shell transitions in warm dense titanium plasmas,” J. Phys. A Math. Theor. 42(21), 214056 (2009).
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J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Nakatsutsumi, R. Kodama, Y. Aglitskiy, K. U. Akli, D. Batani, S. D. Baton, F. N. Beg, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, S. N. Chen, D. Clark, J. R. Davies, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, J. S. Green, C. D. Gregory, P. Guillou, H. Habara, R. Heathcote, D. S. Hey, K. Highbarger, P. Jaanimagi, M. H. Key, M. Koenig, K. Krushelnick, K. L. Lancaster, B. Loupias, T. Ma, A. Macphee, A. J. Mackinonn, K. Mima, A. Morace, H. Nakamura, P. A. Norryes, D. Piazza, C. Rousseaux, R. B. Stephans, M. Storm, M. Tampo, W. Theobald, L. V. Woerkom, R. L. Weber, M. S. Wei, and N. C. Woolsey, “Heating of solid target in electron refluxing dominated regime with ultra-intense laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(2), 022063 (2008).
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Laser Part. Beams (1)

R. W. Lee, H. A. Baldis, R. C. Cauble, O. L. Landen, J. S. Wark, A. Ng, S. J. Rose, C. Lewis, D. Riley, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Audebert, “Plasma-based studies with intense x-ray and particle beam sources,” Laser Part. Beams 20(03), 527–536 (2002).
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Phys. Plasmas (6)

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, M. D. Perry, and R. J. Mason, “Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1(5), 1626–1634 (1994).
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S. N. Chen, G. Gregori, P. K. Patel, H.-K. Chung, R. G. Evans, R. R. Freeman, E. G. Saiz, S. H. Glenzer, S. B. Hansen, F. Y. Khattak, J. A. King, A. J. Mackinnon, M. M. Notley, J. R. Pasley, D. Riley, R. B. Stephens, R. L. Weber, S. C. Wilks, and F. N. Beg, “Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils,” Phys. Plasmas 14(10), 102701 (2007).
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M. Makita, G. Nersisyan, K. McKeever, T. Dzelzainis, S. White, B. Kettle, B. Dromey, D. Doria, M. Zepf, C. L. S. Lewis, A. P. L. Robinson, S. B. Hansen, and D. Riley, “Fast electron propagation in Ti foils irradiated with sub-picosecond laser pulses at Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2μm2,” Phys. Plasmas 21(2), 023113 (2014).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, P. Graham, T. McCanny, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, A. Creswell, D. C. W. Sanderson, J. Magill, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, B. Kennedy, and D. Neely, “Observation of a highly directional γ-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids,” Phys. Plasmas 6(5), 2150–2156 (1999).
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L. M. Chen, P. Forget, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Krol, C. C. Chamberlain, B. X. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, “Study of hard x-ray emission from intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser–solid target interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 11(9), 4439–4445 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. E (3)

U. Zastrau, P. Audebert, V. Bernshtam, E. Brambrink, T. Kämpfer, E. Kroupp, R. Loetzsch, Y. Maron, Y. Ralchenko, H. Reinholz, G. Röpke, A. Sengebusch, E. Stambulchik, I. Uschmann, L. Weingarten, and E. Förster, “Temperature and K α-yield radial distributions in laser-produced solid-density plasmas imaged with ultrahigh-resolution x-ray spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. E 81(2), 026406 (2010).
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S. B. Hansen, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, K. B. Fournier, R. Shepherd, H. Chen, K. Widmann, S. C. Wilks, Y. Ping, H. K. Chung, A. Niles, J. R. Hunter, G. Dyer, and T. Ditmire, “Temperature determination using K α spectra from M -shell Ti ions,” Phys. Rev. E 72(3), 036408 (2005).
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B. I. Cho, J. Osterholz, A. C. Bernstein, G. M. Dyer, A. Karmakar, A. Pukhov, and T. Ditmire, “Characterization of two distinct, simultaneous hot electron beams in intense laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. E 80(5), 055402 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (2)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

M. I. K. Santala, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, E. Clark, M. Tatarakis, K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, T. McCanny, I. Spencer, R. P. Singhal, K. W. D. Ledingham, S. C. Wilks, A. C. Machacek, J. S. Wark, R. Allott, R. J. Clarke, and P. A. Norreys, “Effect of the plasma density scale length on the direction of fast electrons in relativistic laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(7), 1459–1462 (2000).
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M. Manclossi, J. J. Santos, D. Batani, J. Faure, A. Debayle, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and V. Malka, “Study of ultraintense laser-produced fast-electron propagation and filamentation in insulator and metal foil targets by optical emission diagnostics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 125002 (2006).
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B. I. Cho, K. Engelhorn, S. M. Vinko, H. K. Chung, O. Ciricosta, D. S. Rackstraw, R. W. Falcone, C. R. D. Brown, T. Burian, J. Chalupský, C. Graves, V. Hájková, A. Higginbotham, L. Juha, J. Krzywinski, H. J. Lee, M. Messersmidt, C. Murphy, Y. Ping, N. Rohringer, A. Scherz, W. Schlotter, S. Toleikis, J. J. Turner, L. Vysin, T. Wang, B. Wu, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, R. W. Lee, B. Nagler, J. S. Wark, and P. A. Heimann, “Resonant Kα spectroscopy of solid-density aluminum plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 245003 (2012).
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Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion (1)

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup (not scaled).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Averaged Kα emission image (top), (b) spectra from different lateral target positions (middle), and (c) Able-inverted experimental spectra of the warm dense titanium foils of 10, 5, and 1 μm thicknesses (bottom). Kα1 emission strengths are normalized to the unity. For clarity, vertical offsets are applied.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Ti Kα spectra at different bulk electron temperatures. Bulk temperature in eV are indexed to each curve. The spectra are peak-normalized.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental data (red solid line) for (a) 10 μm and (b) 1 μm targets compared with simulations. Single temperature spectra (black dash lines), and best-fits by mixing two spectra (black solid line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electron temperature distributions for three targets of different thicknesses. The average bulk temperatures (square - solid line) were determined with two different values of Tbulk (grey shade). The 5 eV lines shows the low-limit of Kα diagnostics as a temperature sensor, and temperatures below this line are not shown.

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