Abstract

Planar optical chirality of a metasurface measures its differential response between left and right circularly polarized (CP) lights and governs the asymmetric transmission of CP lights. In 2D ultra-thin plasmonic structures the circular dichroism is limited to 25% in theory and it requires high absorption loss. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a planar chiral all-dielectric metasurface that exhibits giant circular dichroism and transmission asymmetry over 0.8 for circularly polarized lights with negligible loss, without bringing in bianisotropy or violating reciprocity. The metasurface consists of arrays of high refractive index germanium Z-shape resonators that break the in-plane mirror symmetry and induce cross-polarization conversion. Furthermore, at the transmission peak of one handedness, the transmitted light is efficiently converted into the opposite circular polarization state, with a designated geometric phase depending on the orientation angle of the optical element. In this way, the optical component sets before and after the metasurface to filter the light of certain circular polarization states are not needed and the metasurface can function under any linear polarization, in contrast to the conventional setup for geometry phase based metasurfaces. Anomalous transmission and two-dimensional holography based on the geometric phase chiral metasurface are numerically demonstrate as proofs of concept.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev 11, 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” App. Phys. Lett. 108, 221903 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ji, S. W. Wang, X. Liu, H. Guo, and W. Lu, “Hybrid Helix Metamaterials for Giant and Ultrawide Circular Dichroism,” ACS Photonics 3, 2368–2374 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27, 412001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Khanikaev, N. Arju, Z. Fan, D. Purtseladze, F. Lu, J. Lee, P. Sarriugarte, M. Schnell, R. Hillenbrand, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12045 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ma, S. M. Hanham, P. Albella, B. Ng, H. T. Lu, Y. Gong, S. A. Maier, and M. Hong, “Terahertz All-Dielectric Magnetic Mirror Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3, 1010–1018 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

R. Alaee, M. Albooyeh, M. Yazdi, N. Komjani, C. Simovski, F. Lederer, and C. Rockstuhl, “Magnetoelectric coupling in nonidentical plasmonic nanoparticles: Theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115119 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. Nawaz Burokur, A. De Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mat. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-Hologram,” Nano Lett. 15, 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 3, 813820 (2015).

2014 (5)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric Metasurfaces for Complete Control of Phase and Polarization with Subwavelength Spatial Resolution and High Transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnology 10, 937–943 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43722 (2014).

C. Pfeiffer, C. Zhang, V. Ray, L. J. Guo, and A. Grbic, “High performance bianisotropic metasurfaces: Asymmetric transmission of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14, 1021-1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

T. Liu, J. Tan, J. Liu, and H. Wang, “Vectorial design of super-oscillatory lens,” Opt. Express 21, 15090 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: Fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mat. 25, 2517–2534 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is – and what is not – an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7, 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface.,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Hentschel, L. Wu, M. Schäferling, P. Bai, E. P. Li, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of chiral three-dimensional plasmonic oligomers at the onset of charge-transfer plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 10355–10365 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Geffrin, B. García-Cámara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere.,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 4–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, J. D. Borneman, X. Ni, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Bianisotropic effective parameters of optical metamagnetics and negative-index materials,” Proc. IEEE 99, 1691-1700 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 367–375 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1593 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 1–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Menzel, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light at optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V Il’ina, T. Y. Cherezova, and A. V Kudryashov, “Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm: experimental realisation and modification for the problem of formation of multimode laser beams,” Quantum Electron 39, 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured Metal Film with Asymmetric Optical Transmission 2008,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, V. V. Khardikov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” App. Phys. Lett. 90, 12–15 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

X. Chen, B. I. Wu, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, “Retrieval of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E,  71, 046610 (2005). .
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1983 (1)

M. Kerker, D. S. Wang, and C. L. Giles, “Electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spheres,” Opt Express 73, 765–767 (1983).

Alaee, R.

M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” App. Phys. Lett. 108, 221903 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Alaee, M. Albooyeh, M. Yazdi, N. Komjani, C. Simovski, F. Lederer, and C. Rockstuhl, “Magnetoelectric coupling in nonidentical plasmonic nanoparticles: Theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Albella, P.

Z. Ma, S. M. Hanham, P. Albella, B. Ng, H. T. Lu, Y. Gong, S. A. Maier, and M. Hong, “Terahertz All-Dielectric Magnetic Mirror Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3, 1010–1018 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Geffrin, B. García-Cámara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere.,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albooyeh, M.

R. Alaee, M. Albooyeh, M. Yazdi, N. Komjani, C. Simovski, F. Lederer, and C. Rockstuhl, “Magnetoelectric coupling in nonidentical plasmonic nanoparticles: Theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. Nawaz Burokur, A. De Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mat. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi and A. Faraon, “Fundamental limits of ultrathin metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 7, 43722 (2014).

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric Metasurfaces for Complete Control of Phase and Polarization with Subwavelength Spatial Resolution and High Transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnology 10, 937–943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

A. B. Khanikaev, N. Arju, Z. Fan, D. Purtseladze, F. Lu, J. Lee, P. Sarriugarte, M. Schnell, R. Hillenbrand, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12045 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

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Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-Hologram,” Nano Lett. 15, 3122–3127 (2015).
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Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-Hologram,” Nano Lett. 15, 3122–3127 (2015).
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R. Alaee, M. Albooyeh, M. Yazdi, N. Komjani, C. Simovski, F. Lederer, and C. Rockstuhl, “Magnetoelectric coupling in nonidentical plasmonic nanoparticles: Theory and applications,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115119 (2015).
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G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
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X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10365 (2015).
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R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 4–7 (2011).
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M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1593 (2010).
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J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
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Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
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A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured Metal Film with Asymmetric Optical Transmission 2008,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
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V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, V. V. Khardikov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” App. Phys. Lett. 90, 12–15 (2007).
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Zhou, J.

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 4–7 (2011).
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Zhu, A.

J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
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N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
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J. Hu, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, A. Zhu, X. Zhu, P. Guo, B. Cao, and C. Wang, “All-dielectric metasurface circular dichroism waveplate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41893 (2017).
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ACS Nano (1)

M. Hentschel, L. Wu, M. Schäferling, P. Bai, E. P. Li, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of chiral three-dimensional plasmonic oligomers at the onset of charge-transfer plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 10355–10365 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

R. Ji, S. W. Wang, X. Liu, H. Guo, and W. Lu, “Hybrid Helix Metamaterials for Giant and Ultrawide Circular Dichroism,” ACS Photonics 3, 2368–2374 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Ma, S. M. Hanham, P. Albella, B. Ng, H. T. Lu, Y. Gong, S. A. Maier, and M. Hong, “Terahertz All-Dielectric Magnetic Mirror Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3, 1010–1018 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mat. (2)

X. Ding, F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. Nawaz Burokur, A. De Lustrac, Q. Wu, C. W. Qiu, and A. Alù, “Ultrathin pancharatnam-berry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency,” Adv. Mat. 27, 1195–1200 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: Fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mat. 25, 2517–2534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mat. (1)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-Efficiency Dielectric Huygens’ Surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 3, 813820 (2015).

App. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, and Y. Chen, “Giant optical gyrotropy due to electromagnetic coupling,” App. Phys. Lett. 90, 12–15 (2007).
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M. Odit, P. Kapitanova, P. Belov, R. Alaee, C. Rockstuhl, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Experimental realisation of all-dielectric bianisotropic metasurfaces,” App. Phys. Lett. 108, 221903 (2016).
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IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 367–375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev (1)

L. Jing, Z. Wang, R. Maturi, B. Zheng, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Shen, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, and H. Chen, “Gradient Chiral Metamirrors for Spin-Selective Anomalous Reflection,” Laser Photonics Rev 11, 1700115 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Huang, W. T. Chen, W. Y. Tsai, P. C. Wu, C. M. Wang, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Aluminum plasmonic multicolor meta-Hologram,” Nano Lett. 15, 3122–3127 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14, 1021-1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, N. I. Zheludev, V. V. Khardikov, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Asymmetric transmission of light and enantiomerically sensitive plasmon resonance in planar chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 7, 1996–1999 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured Metal Film with Asymmetric Optical Transmission 2008,” Nano Lett. 8, 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. Wang, F. Cheng, T. Winsor, and Y. Liu, “Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications,” Nanotechnology 27, 412001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (5)

J. M. Geffrin, B. García-Cámara, R. Gómez-Medina, P. Albella, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, R. Vaillon, F. González, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. J. Sáenz, and F. Moreno, “Magnetic and electric coherence in forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere.,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Khanikaev, N. Arju, Z. Fan, D. Purtseladze, F. Lu, J. Lee, P. Sarriugarte, M. Schnell, R. Hillenbrand, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of the microscopic origin of circular dichroism in two-dimensional metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12045 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface.,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnology (1)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric Metasurfaces for Complete Control of Phase and Polarization with Subwavelength Spatial Resolution and High Transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnology 10, 937–943 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the chiral metasurface with giant transmission difference to left- and right-circularly polarized lights. The RCP and LCP lights are represented with blue and brown colors, respectively. The structure consists of germanium Z-shape resonators on SiO2 substrate, and the inset shows the geometrical parameters W1 = 205 nm, W2 = 410 nm, L1 = 205 nm, L2 = 205 nm, thickness H = 500 nm, and periodicity Px = Py = 900 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmission spectra for LCP and RCP incidences in forward and backward directions. (b) Transmission and reflection circular dichroisms of the metasurface. (c) Transmission spectra of the metasurface under x and y linear polarization incidences.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The transmission coefficients txx, itxy, ityx, and −tyy of the metasurface. Inset: polarization eigenstates at 1655 nm, showing two co-rotating elliptical polarizations. (b) The co- and cross-polarization transmittance coefficients TLL, TRL, TLR, and TRR of the metasurface.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The magnetic near-field and electric vector, and (b) the electric near-field distributions in the Z-shape resonator under RCP incidence, at λ = 1655 nm. (c, d) The magnetic and electric near-field under LCP incidence, at λ = 1655 nm. (e, f) The magnetic and electric near-field under RCP incidence, at λ = 2000 nm. The subfigures in the same rows are in the same scale.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmission spectra for Z-shaped chiral resonator array with different orientation angle α under RCP (solid lines) and LCP (dashed lines) incidences. (b) The transmittance and phase of TLR under different rotation angles at 1655 nm, showing transmittance constantly larger than 0.7 and the nearly linear phase range covering from 0 to 360 degrees.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Top: schematic of a supercell consisting of eight Z-shape resonators that provide a gradient phase increase from 0 to 7 4 π. Bottom: Ex fields of the anomalously refracted waves with RCP plane wave normal incidence at 1655 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The target image for the 2D hologram. (b) Phase distribution of the metasurface with 100×100 unit pixels. (c) The generated hologram under RCP incidence at 1655 nm, showing a bright lion head logo. (d) The hologram under LCP incidence, showing a reversed logo, with greatly reduced amplitude. The holograms under (e) x-polarization and (f) y-polarization.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The geometry parameters of the eight chiral meta-atoms for different geometric phases.

Equations (3)

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( t l l t l r t r l t r r ) = 1 2 ( t x x + t y y + i ( t y x t x y ) t x x t y y i ( t x y + t y x ) t x x t y y + i ( t y x + t x y ) t x x + t y y i ( t x y t y x ) )
(   E t r E t l ) = 1 2 ( t x x + t y y t x x t y y 2 i t x y t x x t y y + 2 i t x y t x x + t y y ) (   E i r E i l )
(   E t r E t l ) = 1 2 ( t l l e i 2 α t l r e i 2 α t r l t r r ) (   E 0 r E 0 l )

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