Abstract

In optical parametric amplification (OPA) of broadband pulses, a non-collinear angle between the interacting waves is typically introduced in order to achieve broadband phase-matching. Consequently, bandwidth and beam geometry are closely linked. This coupling restricts the geometrical layout of an OPA system. Here, we demonstrate a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) geometry for broadband OPA in which a transverse component is introduced to the QPM grating to impose an additional momentum on the generated wave. This momentum shift detunes the wavelength where the signal and the idler are group-velocity matched, thereby allowing for broadband phase-matching without having to add a non-collinear angle between the interacting waves. We present two experimental configurations making use of this principle, and propose a third configuration with the potential to further simplify ultra-broadband OPA system architectures.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (5)

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B. W. Mayer, C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, M. M. Fejer, and U. Keller, “Sub-four-cycle laser pulses directly from a high-repetition-rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier at 3.4 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4265–4268 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zair, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. M. Heyl, J. Güdde, A. L’Huillier, and U. Höfer, “High-order harmonic generation with μJ laser pulses at high repetition rates,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074020 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Ellenbogen, A. Arie, and S. M. Saltiel, “Noncollinear double quasi phase matching in one-dimensional poled crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 262–264 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hu, X. Liang, B. Zhao, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Broad-Bandwidth Semi-Noncollinear Optical Parametric Amplification in Periodically Poled LiNbO 3 Based on Tilted Quasi-Phase-Matched Gratings,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8A), 5148–5152 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in Chirped Pulse Optical Parametric Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(18), 3323–3325 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Shirakawa and T. Kobayashi, “Noncollinearly phase-matched femtosecond optical parametric amplification with a 2000 cm−1 bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(2), 147–149 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Sub-8-fs pulses from an ultrabroadband optical parametric amplifier in the visible,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1283–1285 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-Order Harmonic generation from Atoms and Ions in the High Intensity Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(24), 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, M. A.

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, T. V.

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashihara, S.

Baer, C. R. E.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, D.

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boll, R.

Bomme, C.

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butkus, R.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in Chirped Pulse Optical Parametric Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cavallari, M.

Cerullo, G.

Charbonneau-Lefort, M.

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chipperfield, L.

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zair, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Colby, E. R.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowan, B.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dachraoui, H.

De Silvestri, S.

Demmler, S.

S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Demmler, A. Klenke, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert, “Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49(17), 172002 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zair, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Di Fraia, M.

Diebold, A.

Driscoll, T. J.

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in Chirped Pulse Optical Parametric Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eidam, T.

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ellenbogen, T.

Emaury, F.

England, R. J.

E. A. Peralta, K. Soong, R. J. England, E. R. Colby, Z. Wu, B. Montazeri, C. McGuinness, J. McNeur, K. J. Leedle, D. Walz, E. B. Sozer, B. Cowan, B. Schwartz, G. Travish, and R. L. Byer, “Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure,” Nature 503(7474), 91–94 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erk, B.

Fejer, M. M.

Gabler, T.

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV x-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gale, G. M.

Gallmann, L.

Gingras, G.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Golling, M.

Gottschall, T.

Graf, T.

Güdde, J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) A three-wave mixing interaction in QPM with arbitrary angles. b) A microscope image of a tilted QPM grating used in one of our experiments (Kg,x = 1138 mm−1 and Kg,z = 161 mm−1). c) The wave vectors diagram for a specific OPA interaction, where the pump and signal are collinear, while a large transverse component was added to the QPM grating. d) The calculated phase-mismatch curves for the interaction geometry shown in c) and for different transverse grating components Kg,x. The longitudinal grating component Kg,z was tuned to keep the minimum of the curves close to 0 mm−1. The turning point of the curve is pushed towards longer wavelengths for large Kg,x
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) The OPCPA setup used to demonstrate the new QPM geometry. SLM: spatial light modulator. DFG: difference-frequency generation. b) The spectrum of the OPCPA seed after the near-IR amplification. c) The spectrum of the mid-IR signal, as measured after the difference-frequency generation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) The amplified spectrum after the first preamplifier. We amplify the whole spectrum and reach an average gain of 13 dB. b) The measured output beam profiles. The idler is separated from the signal and displays a spatial chirp, as expected from Eq. (4). The calculated idler spectrum is superimposed in white.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) The wave vector diagram for the second mid-IR pre-amplifier. The QPM grating used is 2 mm long with Kg,z = 161 mm−1 and Kg,x = 1138 mm−1. The pump non-collinear angle used is θp = 4.4°. b) The calculated phase-mismatch curves for a non-conllinear and a collinear QPM grating. The turning point of the curve is displaced from 2.85 µm to 2.1 µm when using the tilted grating.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) The amplified spectrum after the second mid-IR amplifier. The visible sharp spectral features are expected to originate from a combination of water absorption and gain competition between different parts of the signal spectrum and amplified near-IR seed spectrum. inset: typical mid-IR beam profile after amplification measured in the far-field. b) The phase-mismatch curve for different crystal angles. The turning point is at 2.1 µm and the curve is passing through phase-matching (Δk = 0) with increasing angle. c-d) The calculated peak gain and the measured gain for different crystal angles. The dynamic range of c) was chosen to match that of the measured gain curves in d). The fine spectral structures of (a) lead to a modulated gain spectrum. Since here we are only interested in the overall shape of the gain curves, we applied a low-pass filter on the measured curves (moving average, square window of 2.75 THz). The peak of the gain curve is around 2.1 µm for small angles, while it spreads to the wings for larger crystal angles. This demonstrates that the transverse grating component permitted to move the position of zero GVM back to 2.1 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) The tandem geometry. The first crystal amplifies the short wavelength part of the spectrum while the second crystal amplifies the long wavelength part. b) Calculated phase-mismatch curves showing that the point of minimized GVM is different for both crystals. c) The calculated gain based on the phase-mismatch curves of (b). The difference in peak gain can be explained by the coupling coefficient of the three-wave mixing process becoming lower when moving away from degeneracy; this could be compensated for by adjusting the length of one of the crystals.

Equations (6)

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Δk=| k p k s k i K g |0,
k p cos( θ p ) k s ( ω s ) k i ( ω i )cos( θ i ) K g,z 0,
k p sin( θ p ) k i ( ω i )sin( θ i ) K g,x 0,
θ i = sin 1 ( k p sin( θ p ) K g,x k i ( ω i ) ).
k s ω + k i ω cos( θ i ) k i sin( θ i ) θ i ω =0, k i ω sin( θ i )+ k i cos( θ i ) θ i ω =0.
ν g,s = ν g,i cos( θ i ),

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