Abstract

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. The desire to reduce costs and increase robustness in real-world applications has motivated the study of coexistence between QKD and intense classical data traffic in a single fiber. Previous works on coexistence in metropolitan areas have used wavelength-division multiplexing, however, coexistence in backbone fiber networks remains a great experimental challenge, as Tbps data of up to 20 dBm optical power is transferred, and much more noise is generated for QKD. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the integration of QKD with a commercial backbone network of 3.6 Tbps classical data at 21 dBm launch power over 66 km fiber. With 20 GHz pass-band filtering and large effective core area fibers, real-time secure key rates can reach 4.5 kbps and 5.1 kbps for co-propagation and counter-propagation at the maximum launch power, respectively. This demonstrates feasibility and represents an important step towards building a quantum network that coexists with the current backbone fiber infrastructure of classical communications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
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P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Y. Wang, W.-S. Bao, C. Zhou, M.-S. Jiang, and H.-W. Li, “Tight finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with unstable sources,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 032335 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

2015 (6)

L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys 17(4), 043027 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, M. A. Itzler, H. Zbinden, and J.-W. Pan, “Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication,” arXiv preprint arXiv:  1501.06261 (2015).

S. Aleksic, F. Hipp, D. Winkler, A. Poppe, B. Schrenk, and G. Franzl, “Perspectives and limitations of QKD integration in metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10359–10373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, D. Lin, C. Wang, W. Liu, S. Fang, J. Peng, P. Huang, and G. Zeng, “Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17511–17519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2012 (2)

K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 83(8), 083111 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys 12(6), 063027 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys 12(10), 103042 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10 Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9600–9612 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6540–6549 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

X.-B. Wang, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with large random errors of light intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 75(5), 052301 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fibre network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(2–3), 533–547 (2000).

1997 (1)

P. D. Townsend, “Simultaneous quantum cryptographic key distribution and conventional data transmission over installed fibre using wavelength-division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett 33(3), 188–190 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics(Academic Press, 2007).

Aleksic, S.

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys 17(4), 043027 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Bao, W.-S.

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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Cai, W.-Q.

Chapuran, T. E.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Chen, H.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, D.-Y. He, Y.-H. Li, Z. Zhou, X.-T. Song, F.-Y. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y.-G. Han, J.-Z. Huang, J.-F. Guo, P.-L. Hao, M. Li, C.-M. Zhang, D. Liu, W.-Y. Liang, C.-H. Miao, P. Wu, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21739–21756 (2014).
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Chen, K.

Chen, L.-K.

L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
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Chen, Q.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
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Chen, S.-J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

Chen, T.-Y.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6540–6549 (2009).
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Chen, W.

Chen, Z.-B.

L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 83(8), 083111 (2012).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6540–6549 (2009).
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Choi, I.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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I. Choi, Y. R. Zhou, J. F. Dynes, Z. Yuan, A. Klar, A. Sharpe, A. Plews, M. Lucamarini, C. Radig, J. Neubert, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, C. Chunnilall, G. Lepert, A. Sinclair, J.-P. Elbers, A. Lord, and A. Shields, “Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23121–23128 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10 Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9600–9612 (2010).
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Chunnilall, C.

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Colvin, A.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” https://arXiv preprint quant-ph/0503058 (2005).

Comandar, L. C. W.

Dallmann, N.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dardy, H.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Debuisschert, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Diamanti, E.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Dianati, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Dixon, A.

K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Du, D.-B.

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 83(8), 083111 (2012).
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Dynes, J.

K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

Dynes, J. F.

B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
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J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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I. Choi, Y. R. Zhou, J. F. Dynes, Z. Yuan, A. Klar, A. Sharpe, A. Plews, M. Lucamarini, C. Radig, J. Neubert, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, C. Chunnilall, G. Lepert, A. Sinclair, J.-P. Elbers, A. Lord, and A. Shields, “Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23121–23128 (2014).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Edwards, T.

J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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Eiselt, M.

Elbers, J.-P.

Elliott, C.

C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” https://arXiv preprint quant-ph/0503058 (2005).

Eraerds, P.

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Erven, C.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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Essiambre, R.-J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
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Fang, S.

Fasel, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Felber, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Foschini, G. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
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Fossier, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Franzl, G.

Fröhlich, B.

B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
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J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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Fujiwara, M.

Fürst, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Gao, Y.

Gautier, J.-D.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Gay, O.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys 12(6), 063027 (2010).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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Goebel, B.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
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Goodman, M. S.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Grangier, P.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Griesser, H.

Guo, G.-C.

Guo, J.-F.

Hadfield, R. H.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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Han, Y.-G.

Han, Z.-F.

Hao, P.-L.

Happe, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Hasani, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Hasegawa, T.

He, D.-Y.

Hentschel, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Henzen, L.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Hipp, F.

Hiskett, P.

M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Honjo, T.

Huang, D.

Huang, J.-Z.

Huang, M.-Q.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Huang, P.

Hübel, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Humer, G.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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Jiang, M.

Jiang, M.-S.

Y. Wang, W.-S. Bao, C. Zhou, M.-S. Jiang, and H.-W. Li, “Tight finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with unstable sources,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 032335 (2016).
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Jiang, X.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Monat, L.

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R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fibre network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(2–3), 533–547 (2000).

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Natarajan, C. M.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Nolan, D.

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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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Peng, C.-Z.

Peng, J.

Peng, W.

Penty, R.

K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

Penty, R. V.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fibre network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(2–3), 533–547 (2000).

M. S. Goodman, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. Jackel, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, S. McNown, N. Nweke, J. T. Blake, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Quantum cryptography for optical networks: a systems perspective,” in The 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2003. LEOS 2003 (IEEE, 2003), pp. 1040–1041 vol. 2.
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C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA quantum network,” https://arXiv preprint quant-ph/0503058 (2005).

Plews, A.

Poppe, A.

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Sharpe, A.

Sharpe, A. W.

B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
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J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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Sharpe, A. W. S.

B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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Shields, A.

Shields, A. J.

B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Sibson, P.

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Sinclair, A.

Song, X.-T.

Straw, A.

J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Sun, W.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
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Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tam, W. W.

J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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Tam, W.-B.

B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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Tam, W.-S.

Tamaki, K.

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Tang, Y.-L.

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Tanner, M. G.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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Tavares, J.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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Terai, H.

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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Yin, H.-L.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Z.-Q.

Yoshino, K.

You, L.

You, L.-X.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

Young, R. J.

Yu, Z.-W.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Yuan, Z.

B. Fröhlich, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, L. C. W. Comandar, W.-S. Tam, A. Plews, A. W. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Long-distance quantum key distribution secure against coherent attacks,” Optica 4(1), 163–167 (2017).
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J. F. Dynes, W. W. Tam, A. Plews, B. Fröhlich, A. W. Sharpe, M. Lucamarini, Z. Yuan, C. Radig, A. Straw, T. Edwards, and A. J. Shields, “Ultra-high bandwidth quantum secured data transmission,” Sci. Rep 6, 35149 (2016).
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B. Fröhlich, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, A. W. S. Sharpe, W.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum secured gigabit optical access networks,” Sci. Rep 5, 18121 (2015).
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K. Patel, J. Dynes, I. Choi, A. Sharpe, A. Dixon, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. X 2(4), 041010 (2012).

Yuan, Z. L.

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zavriyev, A.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
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Zbinden, H.

J. Zhang, M. A. Itzler, H. Zbinden, and J.-W. Pan, “Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication,” arXiv preprint arXiv:  1501.06261 (2015).

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys 12(6), 063027 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Zeilinger, A.

Zeilinger, and A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, G.

Zhang, C.-M.

Zhang, F.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, M. A. Itzler, H. Zbinden, and J.-W. Pan, “Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication,” arXiv preprint arXiv:  1501.06261 (2015).

X.-L. Liang, J.-H. Liu, Q. Wang, D.-B. Du, J. Ma, G. Jin, Z.-B. Chen, J. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 83(8), 083111 (2012).
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Zhang, L.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

X. Yang, H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Wang, W. Peng, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detector with on-chip bandpass filter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16267–16272 (2014).
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Zhang, Q.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W.-J.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

Zhao, Q.

Y.-L. Tang, H.-L. Yin, Q. Zhao, H. Liu, X.-X. Sun, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, S.-J. Chen, L. Zhang, L.-X. You, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, C.-Y. Lu, X. Jiang, X. Ma, Q. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over untrustful metropolitan network,” Phys. Rev. X 6(1), 011024 (2016).

Zhao, Y.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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Zhou, C.

Y. Wang, W.-S. Bao, C. Zhou, M.-S. Jiang, and H.-W. Li, “Tight finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with unstable sources,” Phys. Rev. A 94(3), 032335 (2016).
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Zhou, F.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
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Zhou, Y. R.

Zhou, Y.-H.

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(19), 190501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, W.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys 12(10), 103042 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.-X.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, K.-H.

L.-J. Wang, K.-H. Zou, W. Sun, Y. Mao, Y.-X. Zhu, H.-L. Yin, Q. Chen, Y. Zhao, F. Zhang, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Long-distance copropagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channels,” Phys. Rev. A 95(1), 012301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. A. Patel, J. F. Dynes, M. Lucamarini, I. Choi, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, R. V. Penty, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051123 (2014).
[Crossref]

L.-J. Wang, L.-K. Chen, L. Ju, M.-L. Xu, Y. Zhao, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, T.-Y. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081108 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[Crossref]

arXiv preprint arXiv (1)

J. Zhang, M. A. Itzler, H. Zbinden, and J.-W. Pan, “Advances in InGaAs/InP single-photon detector systems for quantum communication,” arXiv preprint arXiv:  1501.06261 (2015).

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Nat. Commun (1)

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun 8, 13984 (2017).
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New J. Phys (6)

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys 11(10), 105001 (2009).
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P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legre, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys 12(6), 063027 (2010).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys 12(10), 103042 (2010).
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R. Kumar, H. Qin, and R. Alléaume, “Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels,” New J. Phys 17(4), 043027 (2015).
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Opt. Express (9)

D. Huang, D. Lin, C. Wang, W. Liu, S. Fang, J. Peng, P. Huang, and G. Zeng, “Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with 1 Mbps secure key rate,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17511–17519 (2015).
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S. Aleksic, F. Hipp, D. Winkler, A. Poppe, B. Schrenk, and G. Franzl, “Perspectives and limitations of QKD integration in metropolitan area networks,” Opt. Express 23(8), 10359–10373 (2015).
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T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, L.-K. Chen, L.-J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27217–27225 (2010).
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I. Choi, Y. R. Zhou, J. F. Dynes, Z. Yuan, A. Klar, A. Sharpe, A. Plews, M. Lucamarini, C. Radig, J. Neubert, H. Griesser, M. Eiselt, C. Chunnilall, G. Lepert, A. Sinclair, J.-P. Elbers, A. Lord, and A. Shields, “Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23121–23128 (2014).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10 Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9600–9612 (2010).
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T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6540–6549 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Field configurations of the experiment. The single yellow line represents the deployed two fiber links between communication stations. b) Spectrum of the CC measured at Zhucheng. The 200 Gbps channels are shown as the root-raised cosine waveforms, while the 100 Gbps channels are shown as the Gaussian waveforms. c) Coexistence schematics of the experiment. The wavelengths of QKD, sync, and data signals are 1310 nm, 1490 nm, 1528 ∼ 1538 nm, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Secure key rate (a) and QBER (b) of QKD as a function of CC optical power. Solid squares: co-propagation; solid circles: counter-propagation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photon count rate generated by SRS. By sending classical signals through the 66 km field fiber along either the same direction of QKD signals (co-propagation, solid squares) or the opposite direction (counter-propagation, solid circles), photons are recorded by the SPDs. During this process, no QKD signals are transmitted. At each point, four SPD count rates are averaged. For co-propagation and counter-propagation, G654-130 fiber exhibits the lowest SRS photon count rates, with ∼ 60% reduction compared with the G652 fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated secure key rates of QKD as a function of distance for co-propagation (solid lines) and counter-propagation (dashed lines) with 21 dBm launch power in G654-110-2 fiber. The red lines represent the results with the QKD system in the experiment, while the black lines represent the results using SNSPDs instead of InGaAs/InP SPDs for the QKD system. The solid red dot represents the measured result in the experiment.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The stability test of secure key rate in three fibers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Q-factor (a) and OSNR (b) of CC system as the function of optical power in G654-110 fiber by applying 62.5 GHz and 50 GHz bandwidth carriers, respectively. G654-110: no co-existence; G654-110-1: co-propagation; G654-110-2: counter-propagation.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Field fibers specifications

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Table 2 Simulation results of QSNR and secure key rate in different cases. The attenuation coefficients of standard fiber and low-loss fiber are 0.337 dB/km at 1310 nm and 0.197 dB/km at 1550 nm, and 0.288 dB/km at 1310 nm, 0.174 dB/km at 1550 nm, respectively.

Equations (1)

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QSNR = 10 l o g 10 ( N actual ( 1 P after e d ) N SRS + N dark + N after ) ,

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