Abstract

Optical properties of poly-silicon material are investigated to be integrated in new silicon photonics devices, such as capacitive modulators. Test structure fabrication is done on 300 mm wafer using LPCVD deposition: 300 nm thick amorphous silicon layers are deposited on thermal oxide, followed by solid phase crystallization anneal. Rib waveguides are fabricated and optical propagation losses measured at 1.31 µm. Physical analysis (TEM ASTAR, AFM and SIMS) are used to assess the origin of losses. Optimal deposition and annealing conditions have been defined, resulting in 400 nm-wide rib waveguides with only 9.2-10 dB/cm losses.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Feautrier, A. S. Ozcan, C. Lavoie, A. Valery, R. Beneyton, C. Borowiak, L. Clément, A. Pofelski, and B. Salem, “Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(22), 225109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yong, W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, J. C. Mikkelsen, Y. Yang, X. Luo, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, H. Bahrami, P. G.-Q. Lo, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “U-shaped PN junctions for efficient silicon Mach-Zehnder and microring modulators in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8425–8439 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

2014 (1)

E. F. Rauch and M. Véron, “Automated crystal orientation and phase mapping in TEM,” Mater. Charact. 98, 1–9 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-Carrier Electrorefraction and Electroabsorption Modulation Predictions for Silicon Over the 1–14-µm Infrared Wavelength Range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, J. D. Ye, and D. L. Kwong, “Influence of RTA and LTA on the Optical Propagation Loss in Polycrystalline Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 480–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. V. Nguyen, “High-density plasma chemical vapor deposition of silicon-based dielectric films for integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 43(1.2), 109–126 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Bonnel, N. Duhamel, L. Haji, B. Loisel, and J. Stoemenos, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-step annealing process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14(12), 551–553 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. Y. W. Seto, “The electrical properties of polycrystalline silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5247–5254 (1975).
[Crossref]

Acosta-Alba, P.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Saadi, A.

Babaud, L.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Bahrami, H.

Batail, E.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

Baudot, C.

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Boeuf, S. Cremer, E. Temporiti, M. Fere, M. Shaw, C. Baudot, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, H. Petiton, P. Le Maitre, M. Traldi, and L. Maggi, “Silicon Photonics R&D and Manufacturing on 300-mm Wafer Platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 286–295 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

Ben Bakir, B.

Benedikovich, D.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Beneyton, R.

C. Feautrier, A. S. Ozcan, C. Lavoie, A. Valery, R. Beneyton, C. Borowiak, L. Clément, A. Pofelski, and B. Salem, “Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(22), 225109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bernier, E.

Blampey, B.

Blanc, R.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

Boeuf, F.

D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ferrotti, B. Blampey, C. Jany, H. Duprez, A. Chantre, F. Boeuf, C. Seassal, and B. Ben Bakir, “Co-integrated 13µm hybrid III-V/silicon tunable laser and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator operating at 25Gb/s,” Opt. Express 24(26), 30379–30401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Boeuf, S. Cremer, E. Temporiti, M. Fere, M. Shaw, C. Baudot, N. Vulliet, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Masini, H. Petiton, P. Le Maitre, M. Traldi, and L. Maggi, “Silicon Photonics R&D and Manufacturing on 300-mm Wafer Platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 286–295 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

Bonnel, M.

M. Bonnel, N. Duhamel, L. Haji, B. Loisel, and J. Stoemenos, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-step annealing process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14(12), 551–553 (1993).
[Crossref]

Borowiak, C.

C. Feautrier, A. S. Ozcan, C. Lavoie, A. Valery, R. Beneyton, C. Borowiak, L. Clément, A. Pofelski, and B. Salem, “Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(22), 225109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bronzi, D.

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Chantre, A.

Clément, L.

C. Feautrier, A. S. Ozcan, C. Lavoie, A. Valery, R. Beneyton, C. Borowiak, L. Clément, A. Pofelski, and B. Salem, “Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(22), 225109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cremer, S.

Crémer, S.

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

Crozat, P.

Douix, M.

M. Douix, D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, S. Crémer, D. Rideau, D. Perez-Galacho, A. Souhaité, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, E. Batail, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and F. Boeuf, “High Efficiency and Low Power Horizontal Capacitive Modulators for 56Gb/s,” in International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (2016).

C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duhamel, N.

M. Bonnel, N. Duhamel, L. Haji, B. Loisel, and J. Stoemenos, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-step annealing process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14(12), 551–553 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dumais, P.

Duprez, H.

Eichler, H. J.

El-Fiky, E.

R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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M. Bonnel, N. Duhamel, L. Haji, B. Loisel, and J. Stoemenos, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-step annealing process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14(12), 551–553 (1993).
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J. Fujikata, K. Kinoshita, J. Han, T. Horikawa, S. Takahashi, K. Yashiki, M. Kurihara, Y. Hagihara, M. Takenaka, T. Nakamura, K. Kurata, and T. Mogami, “High-Performance Si Optical Modulator with Strained p-SiGe Layer and its Application to 25 Gbps Optical Transceiver,” in Group IV Photonics Interantional Conference (IEEE, 2017), p. WD.3.
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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J. Fujikata, K. Kinoshita, J. Han, T. Horikawa, S. Takahashi, K. Yashiki, M. Kurihara, Y. Hagihara, M. Takenaka, T. Nakamura, K. Kurata, and T. Mogami, “High-Performance Si Optical Modulator with Strained p-SiGe Layer and its Application to 25 Gbps Optical Transceiver,” in Group IV Photonics Interantional Conference (IEEE, 2017), p. WD.3.
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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J. Fujikata, K. Kinoshita, J. Han, T. Horikawa, S. Takahashi, K. Yashiki, M. Kurihara, Y. Hagihara, M. Takenaka, T. Nakamura, K. Kurata, and T. Mogami, “High-Performance Si Optical Modulator with Strained p-SiGe Layer and its Application to 25 Gbps Optical Transceiver,” in Group IV Photonics Interantional Conference (IEEE, 2017), p. WD.3.
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Lee, K. K.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
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L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
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L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, J. D. Ye, and D. L. Kwong, “Influence of RTA and LTA on the Optical Propagation Loss in Polycrystalline Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(7), 480–482 (2010).
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Loisel, B.

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D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
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C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-Carrier Electrorefraction and Electroabsorption Modulation Predictions for Silicon Over the 1–14-µm Infrared Wavelength Range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
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Mogami, T.

J. Fujikata, K. Kinoshita, J. Han, T. Horikawa, S. Takahashi, K. Yashiki, M. Kurihara, Y. Hagihara, M. Takenaka, T. Nakamura, K. Kurata, and T. Mogami, “High-Performance Si Optical Modulator with Strained p-SiGe Layer and its Application to 25 Gbps Optical Transceiver,” in Group IV Photonics Interantional Conference (IEEE, 2017), p. WD.3.
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J. Fujikata, K. Kinoshita, J. Han, T. Horikawa, S. Takahashi, K. Yashiki, M. Kurihara, Y. Hagihara, M. Takenaka, T. Nakamura, K. Kurata, and T. Mogami, “High-Performance Si Optical Modulator with Strained p-SiGe Layer and its Application to 25 Gbps Optical Transceiver,” in Group IV Photonics Interantional Conference (IEEE, 2017), p. WD.3.
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-Carrier Electrorefraction and Electroabsorption Modulation Predictions for Silicon Over the 1–14-µm Infrared Wavelength Range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
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R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
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D. Perez-Galacho, C. Baudot, T. Hirtzlin, S. Messaoudène, N. Vulliet, P. Crozat, F. Boeuf, L. Vivien, and D. Marris-Morini, “Low voltage 25Gbps silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in the O-band,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11217–11222 (2017).
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C. Baudot, M. Douix, S. Guerber, S. Crémer, N. Vulliet, J. Planchot, R. Blanc, L. Babaud, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovich, D. Pérez-Galacho, S. Messaoudène, S. Kerdiles, P. Acosta-Alba, C. Euvrard-Colnat, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and F. Boeuf, “Developments in 300mm silicon photonics using traditional CMOS fabrication methods and materials,” in International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2017).
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R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
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R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J.-M. Fedeli, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljković, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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R. Li, D. Patel, A. Samani, E. El-Fiky, Z. Xing, M. Sowailem, Q. Zhong, and D. V. Plant, “An 80 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Modulator Based on the Principle of Overlapped Resonances,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 1–11 (2017).
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M. Bonnel, N. Duhamel, L. Haji, B. Loisel, and J. Stoemenos, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-step annealing process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 14(12), 551–553 (1993).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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C. Feautrier, A. S. Ozcan, C. Lavoie, A. Valery, R. Beneyton, C. Borowiak, L. Clément, A. Pofelski, and B. Salem, “Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(22), 225109 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Capacitive modulator cross-section and mode electric field propagating through the active region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Rib WG fabrication process flow.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM cross section of rib WG (a) and simulated fundamental mode electric field (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Propagation losses at 1.31 µm for a-Si deposited samples (error bars indicate 3-sigma ranges over 12 chips): (a) full process flow, (b) without densification anneal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 AFM characterization after deposition (100µm2): (a) LT, (b) LP (1 µm2 and 100 µm2) and (c) HT surfaces.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 TEM cross-section of rib WG: (a) STD-750S with densification (amorphous deposition), (b) HT-900 with densification (polycrystalline deposition), (c) typical ASTAR diffraction pattern used for grain orientation mapping and showing amorphous halo characteristics and (d) ASTAR reconstruction (HT-900 sample with densification).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 ASTAR cross section: (a) STD-750 sample with densification, (b) STD-750S sample with densification, (c) LT-900S sample without densification.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary on intrinsic wafer process flow combinations: standard (STD) and High Temperature (HT) samples are processed with densification, half of Low Temperature (LT) and Low Pressure (LP) samples are not.

Tables Icon

Table 2 AFM surface characterization: RMS roughness (nm) as a function of deposition technique, for area or 1 and 100 µm2.

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