Abstract

An electrically tunable terahertz (THz) modulator with large modulation depth and low insertion loss is performed with liquid crystal (LC) metamaterial. The modulation depth beyond 90% and insertion loss below 0.5 dB are achievable at normal incidence by exploiting plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect. The PIT spectra can be manipulated by actively controlling the interference between dipole mode and nonlocal surface-Bloch mode with LC. The incident angle tuning effect on PIT spectra shows that the large modulation depth and low insertion loss can remain over a wide range of working angles. The superior property and simplicity of design make this modulator promising in advanced terahertz communication.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (6)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Digital electric field induced switching of plasmonic nanorods using an electro-optic fluid fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 221108 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. B. Pereira, A. R. Camara, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, I. Hernández-Romano, C. J. S. de Matos, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Microsecond switching of plasmonic nanorods in an all-fiber optofluidic component,” Optica 4(8), 864–870 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photoswitching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Fontana, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. Pereira, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Electric field induced orientational order of gold nanorods in dilute organic suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081904 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Lee, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, J. K. Yang, and J. W. Lee, “Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 031103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Sanphuang, W. G. Yeo, J. L. Volakis, and N. K. Nahar, “THz transparent metamaterials for enhanced spectroscopic and imaging measurements,” IEEE T. THz Sci. Technol. 5(1), 117–123 (2015).

C. C. Chen, W. F. Chiang, M. C. Tsai, S. A. Jiang, T. H. Chang, S. H. Wang, and C. Y. Huang, “Continuously tunable and fast-response terahertz metamaterials using in-plane-switching dual-frequency liquid crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2021–2024 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Solvent Doping of PEDOT/PSS: Effect on Terahertz Optoelectronic Properties and Utilization in Terahertz Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(12), 6813–6818 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sajadi, M. Wolf, and T. Kampfrath, “Terahertz-field-induced optical birefringence in common window and substrate materials,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28985–28992 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. Zhang, C. Wang, L. Qin, R. W. Peng, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, and M. Wang, “Dual-mode electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in a terahertz metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3539–3542 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kowerdziej, M. Olifierczuk, J. Parka, and J. Wróbel, “Terahertz characterization of tunable metamaterial based on electrically controlled nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 022908 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

O. Trushkevych, H. Xu, T. Lu, J. A. Zeitler, R. Rungsawang, F. Gölden, N. Collings, and W. A. Crossland, “Broad spectrum measurement of the birefringence of an isothiocyanate based liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 49(28), 5212–5216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. X. He, P. He, S. D. Yoon, P. V. Parimi, F. J. Rachford, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, “Tunable negative index metamaterial using yttrium iron garnet,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 313(1), 187–191 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Al-Naib, I.

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photoswitching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Araujo, L. F.

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Digital electric field induced switching of plasmonic nanorods using an electro-optic fluid fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 221108 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. B. Pereira, A. R. Camara, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, I. Hernández-Romano, C. J. S. de Matos, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Microsecond switching of plasmonic nanorods in an all-fiber optofluidic component,” Optica 4(8), 864–870 (2017).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Axel Zeitler, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beccherelli, R.

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Camara, A. R.

Carvalho, I. C. S.

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. B. Pereira, A. R. Camara, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, I. Hernández-Romano, C. J. S. de Matos, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Microsecond switching of plasmonic nanorods in an all-fiber optofluidic component,” Optica 4(8), 864–870 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Digital electric field induced switching of plasmonic nanorods using an electro-optic fluid fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 221108 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fontana, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. Pereira, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Electric field induced orientational order of gold nanorods in dilute organic suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081904 (2016).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Crossland, W. A.

Cui, X.

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
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Cumming, D. R. S.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Cunningham, J. E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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da Costa, G. K. B.

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J. Fontana, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. Pereira, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Electric field induced orientational order of gold nanorods in dilute organic suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081904 (2016).
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Davies, A. G.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Dhillon, S. S.

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Du, Y.

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
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Ellison, B.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Fontana, J.

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Digital electric field induced switching of plasmonic nanorods using an electro-optic fluid fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 221108 (2017).
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S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. B. Pereira, A. R. Camara, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, I. Hernández-Romano, C. J. S. de Matos, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Microsecond switching of plasmonic nanorods in an all-fiber optofluidic component,” Optica 4(8), 864–870 (2017).
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J. Fontana, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. Pereira, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Electric field induced orientational order of gold nanorods in dilute organic suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081904 (2016).
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G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 3(6), 064007 (2015).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Gölden, F.

Goldsmith, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8912–8919 (2011).
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Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Han, J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8912–8919 (2011).
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Harris, V. G.

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Hernández-Romano, I.

Ho, C. P.

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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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Hsieh, C. F.

Hu, W.

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Huang, C. Y.

Huang, R.

Huang, W. Q.

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P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
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Sajadi, M.

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Savo, S.

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S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
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B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, G. Z.

B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. L.

B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, S.

Wang, S. H.

Weightman, P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. P.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

Wróbel, J.

R. Kowerdziej, M. Olifierczuk, J. Parka, and J. Wróbel, “Terahertz characterization of tunable metamaterial based on electrically controlled nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 022908 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. B.

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. H.

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

Xu, D. H.

Xu, H.

Xu, W. W.

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yahiaoui, R.

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

F. Yan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Solvent Doping of PEDOT/PSS: Effect on Terahertz Optoelectronic Properties and Utilization in Terahertz Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(12), 6813–6818 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K.

I. S. Lee, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, J. K. Yang, and J. W. Lee, “Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 031103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yeo, W. G.

V. Sanphuang, W. G. Yeo, J. L. Volakis, and N. K. Nahar, “THz transparent metamaterials for enhanced spectroscopic and imaging measurements,” IEEE T. THz Sci. Technol. 5(1), 117–123 (2015).

Yoon, S. D.

Y. X. He, P. He, S. D. Yoon, P. V. Parimi, F. J. Rachford, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, “Tunable negative index metamaterial using yttrium iron garnet,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 313(1), 187–191 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeitler, J. A.

Zhai, X.

B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. H.

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Z. G.

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G. C.

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, Z. X.

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, L. Cong, I. Al-Naib, and R. Singh, “Active photoswitching of sharp Fano resonances in THz metadevices,” Adv. Mater. 29(3), 1603355 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, N. Singh, and C. Lee, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analog in terahertz MEMS metamaterial,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(4), 541–547 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal metamaterial absorber spatial light modulator for THz applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 275–279 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Yahiaoui, M. Manjappa, Y. K. Srivastava, and R. Singh, “Active control and switching of broadband electromagnetically induced transparency in symmetric metadevices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 021101 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li, J. B. Wu, S. L. Jiang, R. F. Su, C. H. Zhang, C. T. Jiang, G. C. Zhou, B. B. Jin, L. Kang, W. W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. H. Wu, “Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092601 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Etcheverry, L. F. Araujo, I. C. S. Carvalho, W. Margulis, and J. Fontana, “Digital electric field induced switching of plasmonic nanorods using an electro-optic fluid fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(22), 221108 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Kowerdziej, M. Olifierczuk, J. Parka, and J. Wróbel, “Terahertz characterization of tunable metamaterial based on electrically controlled nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 022908 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Fontana, G. K. B. da Costa, J. M. Pereira, J. Naciri, B. R. Ratna, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and I. C. S. Carvalho, “Electric field induced orientational order of gold nanorods in dilute organic suspensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(8), 081904 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Lee, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, J. K. Yang, and J. W. Lee, “Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(3), 031103 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. THz Sci. Technol. (1)

V. Sanphuang, W. G. Yeo, J. L. Volakis, and N. K. Nahar, “THz transparent metamaterials for enhanced spectroscopic and imaging measurements,” IEEE T. THz Sci. Technol. 5(1), 117–123 (2015).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. X. Wang, X. Zhai, G. Z. Wang, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “A novel dual-band terahertz metamaterial absorber for a sensor application,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(1), 014504 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

Y. X. He, P. He, S. D. Yoon, P. V. Parimi, F. J. Rachford, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, “Tunable negative index metamaterial using yttrium iron garnet,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 313(1), 187–191 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. Du, H. Tian, X. Cui, H. Wang, and Z. X. Zhou, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal terahertz phase shifter driven by transparent polymer electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(19), 4138–4142 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

F. Yan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Solvent Doping of PEDOT/PSS: Effect on Terahertz Optoelectronic Properties and Utilization in Terahertz Devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(12), 6813–6818 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. Axel Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(4), 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hangyo, “Development and future prospects of terahertz technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 120101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Wang, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, G. H. Shao, P. Chen, L. J. Liang, B. B. Jin, P. H. Wu, H. Qian, Y. N. Lu, X. Liang, Z. G. Zheng, and Y. Q. Lu, “Broadband tunable liquid crystal terahertz waveplates driven with porous graphene electrodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e253 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. Isić, B. Vasić, D. C. Zografopoulos, R. Beccherelli, and R. Gajić, “Electrically tunable critically coupled terahertz metamaterial absorber based on nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 3(6), 064007 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Y. Chen, Manipulating THz radiation using novel metamaterials towards functional passive and active devices (Oklahoma State University, 2012), chap.4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed modulator design, with a unit cell and metal strip zoomed in. (b) The LC molecules orientation with or without voltage, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmittance spectra at Lx = 90 μm, Ly = 40 μm, l = 55 μm, w = 8 μm, t = 20μm, n1 = 1 and n2 = 1.5. (b) Distributions of the electric field in x-z plane at the frequencies of 2.3 THz and 3.2 THz, respectively. The color represents the electric field strength and the arrows represent the direction of the electric field, the unit of color scale is V/m.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmittance spectra with different period Lx from 90 μm to 115 μm, interval is 5 μm. (b) Transmittance spectra with different n1 from 1 to 1.5, interval is 0.1. (c) Transmittance spectra with different n2 from 1.5 to 1. (d) Transmittance spectra with different LC thickness t. (e) The electric field distributions (in x-z plane) at the dip of Fano resonant with n2 = 1.2, 1.1, 1, respectively, the unit of color scale is V/m.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transmittance spectra showing the active modulation of the PIT window with voltage “off” (dark line) and “on” (red line), respectively. (b) Electric field distributions (in x-z plane) of “off” and “on” states at 1.75THz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic of oblique incidence THz wave with angle θ. (b) Transmission spectra showing a new peak appear when θ = 5°, we call the new peak as M peak and the previous peak as E peak. (c) The color represents electric field intensity distribution in x-y plane and the arrows represent surface current density in a single unit cell at 1.73THz, and (d) is the spatial distribution of magnetic field intensity and direction in x-z plane. (e) Angle dependence of transparency peak center frequency and corresponding modulation depth, the black and red lines represent center frequency and modulation depth, the triangle and square represent the M peak and E peak, respectively.

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