Abstract

In this study, we propose a compact, lightweight scanning fiber microdisplay towards virtual and augmented reality applications. Our design that is tailored as a head-worn-display simply consists of a four-quadrant piezoelectric tube actuator through which a fiber optics cable is extended and actuated, and a reflective (or semi-reflective) ellipsoidal surface that relays the moving tip of the fiber onto the viewer’s retina. The proposed display, offers significant advantages in terms of architectural simplicity, form-factor, fabrication complexity and cost over other fiber scanner and MEMS mirror counterparts towards practical realization. We demonstrate the display of various patterns with ∼VGA resolution and further provide analytical formulas for mechanical and optical constraints to compare the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay with that of MEMS mirror-based microdisplays. Also we discuss the road steps towards improving the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay to high-definition video formats (such as HD1440), which is beyond what has been achieved by MEMS mirror based laser scanning displays.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  26. C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. C. Young and R. G. Budynas, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, 2002)
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    [Crossref]
  29. R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. T. J. Antosiewicz and T. Szoplik, “Corrugated metal-coated tapered tip for scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10920 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).
  35. L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

R. Khayatzadeh, O. Ferhanoglu, and F. Civitci, “Unwarped Lissajous Scanning with Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1623–1626 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55 μm.,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1299–1301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. T. Schowengerdt, M. Murari, and E. J. Seibel, “Volumetric Display using Scanned Fiber Array,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 653–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moon, S.-W. Lee, M. Rubinstein, B. J. F. Wong, and Z. Chen, “Semi-resonant operation of a fiber-cantilever piezotube scanner for stable optical coherence tomography endoscope imaging,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21183–21197 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

T. J. Antosiewicz and T. Szoplik, “Corrugated metal-coated tapered tip for scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10920 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Display Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, and T. D. Osborn, “Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 4178, 176–185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, “Acid stripping of fused silica optical fibers without strength degradation,”J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 490–497 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

Baran, U.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: A review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ben-Yakar, A.

Berg, M. C.

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bouwmans, G.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

Budynas, R. G.

W. C. Young and R. G. Budynas, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, 2002)

Cakmakci, O.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, “Head-worn displays: A review,” J. Display Technol. 2(3), 199–216 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, “Examples of HWD Architectures: Low-, Mid- and Wide-Field of View Designs,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2195–2211.
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chizeck, H. J.

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Civitci, F.

R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Khayatzadeh, O. Ferhanoglu, and F. Civitci, “Unwarped Lissajous Scanning with Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1623–1626 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).

Cole, J. H.

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coppens, A.

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999).

Ding, Z.

Durr, N. J.

Engelbrecht, C. J.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Er, H.

H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).

Ferhanoglu, O.

R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Khayatzadeh, O. Ferhanoglu, and F. Civitci, “Unwarped Lissajous Scanning with Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1623–1626 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Ferhanoglu, M. Yildirim, K. Subramanian, and A. Ben-Yakar, “A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2023–2026 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

Frey, A.

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999).

Hamblin, J. R.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, “Acid stripping of fused silica optical fibers without strength degradation,”J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 490–497 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hedley, T. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, H. G.

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holmstrom, S. T. S.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: A review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoy, C. L.

Hwang, K.

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Park, Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, J.-K. Lim, S. Z. Yoon, and K.-H. Jeong, “Micromachined tethered silicon oscillator for an endomicroscopic Lissajous fiber scanner,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6675–6678 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K. H.

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.-H.

Johnston, R. S.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

Karasawa, S.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Khayatzadeh, R.

R. Khayatzadeh, O. Ferhanoglu, and F. Civitci, “Unwarped Lissajous Scanning with Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1623–1626 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, P.

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinsler, L.

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999).

Knight, J. C.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kundrat, M. J.

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurkjian, C. R.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, “Acid stripping of fused silica optical fibers without strength degradation,”J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 490–497 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. M.

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

Li, M.-J.

Li, S.

Li, X.

Liang, W.

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.-K.

Matthewson, M. J.

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, “Acid stripping of fused silica optical fibers without strength degradation,”J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 490–497 (1997).
[Crossref]

Melville, C. D.

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

Montague, T.

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moon, S.

Murari, K.

Murari, M.

B. T. Schowengerdt, M. Murari, and E. J. Seibel, “Volumetric Display using Scanned Fiber Array,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 653–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Osborn, T. D.

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, and T. D. Osborn, “Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 4178, 176–185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-C.

Percival, R. M.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Powell, K. D.

Reinhall, P. G.

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rolland, J.

Rolland, J. P.

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, “Examples of HWD Architectures: Low-, Mid- and Wide-Field of View Designs,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2195–2211.
[Crossref]

J. P. Rolland, K. P. Thompson, H. Urey, and M. Thomas, “See-Through Head Worn Display (HWD) Architectures,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2145–2170.
[Crossref]

Rubinstein, M.

Russell, P. S.-J.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

Sanders, J.

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999).

Schermer, R. T.

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schowengerdt, B. T.

B. T. Schowengerdt, M. Murari, and E. J. Seibel, “Volumetric Display using Scanned Fiber Array,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 653–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seibel, E. J.

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Schowengerdt, M. Murari, and E. J. Seibel, “Volumetric Display using Scanned Fiber Array,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 653–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senturia, S. D.

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Springer, 2002).

Seo, Y. H.

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, Y.-H.

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soper, T. D.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprague, R.

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, K.

Szoplik, T.

Thomas, M.

J. P. Rolland, K. P. Thompson, H. Urey, and M. Thomas, “See-Through Head Worn Display (HWD) Architectures,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2145–2170.
[Crossref]

Thompson, K. P.

J. P. Rolland, K. P. Thompson, H. Urey, and M. Thomas, “See-Through Head Worn Display (HWD) Architectures,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2145–2170.
[Crossref]

Urey, H.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: A review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Urey and K. D. Powell, “Microlens-array-based exit-pupil expander for full-color displays.,” Appl. Opt. 44(23), 4930–4936 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Urey, “Diffractive exit-pupil expander for display applications,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5840–5851 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, and T. D. Osborn, “Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 4178, 176–185 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. P. Rolland, K. P. Thompson, H. Urey, and M. Thomas, “See-Through Head Worn Display (HWD) Architectures,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2145–2170.
[Crossref]

Urey, H. H.

H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, K.

Wine, D. W.

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, and T. D. Osborn, “Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 4178, 176–185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wong, B. J. F.

Wu, T.

Xi, J.

Xie, X. S.

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

Yalcinkaya, A. D.

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yaras, Y. S.

H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).

Yeoh, L. I.

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yildirim, M.

Yoon, S. Z.

Young, W. C.

W. C. Young and R. G. Budynas, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, 2002)

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. T. Schermer and J. H. Cole, “Improved bend loss formula verified for optical fiber by simulation and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(10), 899–909 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S.-J. Russell, “Very high numerical aperture fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 843–845 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021108 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control (1)

L. I. Yeoh, P. G. Reinhall, M. C. Berg, H. J. Chizeck, and E. J. Seibel, “Electro-mechanical Modeling and Adaptive Feedforward Control of a Self-Sensing Scanning Fiber Endoscope,” J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 138(10), 101006 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, and J. R. Hamblin, “Acid stripping of fused silica optical fibers without strength degradation,”J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 490–497 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Microelectromech. Syst (1)

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: A review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

A. D. Yalcinkaya, H. Urey, D. Brown, T. Montague, and R. Sprague, “Two-Axis Electromagnetic Microscanner for High Resolution Displays,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15(4), 786–794 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sound Vib. (1)

M. J. Kundrat, P. G. Reinhall, C. M. Lee, and E. J. Seibel, “High performance open loop control of scanning with a small cylindrical cantilever beam,” J. Sound Vib. 330(8), 1762–1771 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, R. S. Johnston, C. W. Freudiger, X. S. Xie, and E. J. Seibel, “Coherent Raman scanning fiber endoscopy.,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(13), 2396–2398 (2011).

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, “Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope,” Opt. Eng. 45(4), 43001–43010 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Khayatzadeh, O. Ferhanoglu, and F. Civitci, “Unwarped Lissajous Scanning with Polarization Maintaining Fibers,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1623–1626 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Urey, D. W. Wine, and T. D. Osborn, “Optical performance requirements for MEMS-scanner-based microdisplays,” Proc. SPIE 4178, 176–185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Hwang, Y. H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K. H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuat. A Phys. (1)

R. Khayatzadeh, F. Civitci, and O. Ferhanoglu, “Optimization of piezo-fiber scanning architecture for low voltage/high displacement operation,” Sens. Actuat. A Phys. 255(1), 21–27 (2017).
[Crossref]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. (2)

B. T. Schowengerdt, H. G. Hoffman, C. M. Lee, C. D. Melville, and E. J. Seibel, “Near-to-Eye Display using Scanning Fiber Display Engine,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 848–851 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. T. Schowengerdt, M. Murari, and E. J. Seibel, “Volumetric Display using Scanned Fiber Array,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), pp. 653–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Springer, 2002).

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, “Examples of HWD Architectures: Low-, Mid- and Wide-Field of View Designs,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2195–2211.
[Crossref]

J. P. Rolland, K. P. Thompson, H. Urey, and M. Thomas, “See-Through Head Worn Display (HWD) Architectures,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology, J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 2145–2170.
[Crossref]

H. H. Urey, F. Civitci, Y. S. Yaras, and H. Er, “Apparatus for Generating a Coherent Beam Illumination,” US20170299870 (2017).

W. C. Young and R. G. Budynas, Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, 2002)

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, and J. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scanning fiber microdisplay: a) general view b) detailed schematic of the design. c) Alternative implementation using a spherical surface and a beam splitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical simulations: ray tracing of the full system. spot size is found to be ∼8 μm for all scan angles. Note that the scan angle displayed in this figure is exaggerated for visual purposes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical architecture of a bi-axial MEMS mirror-based display unit. This figure is dedicated for comparison with Fig. 1b.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical architecture of a bi-axial MEMS mirror-based display unit. This figure is dedicated for comparison with Fig. 1b.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Resolution vs. FPS tradeoffs for 2R=125 μm, L = 1–10 mm, NA = 0.1 – 0.6 fibers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Analytical vs. finite-element analysis of fiber scan angles at ultimate tensile strength.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optimal fiber scanner (NA = 0.6, L=1.1 – 1.8 mm) performance at 60 fps, as a function of stress safety factor.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental setup showcasing (1) laser diode source, (2) objective lens for coupling, (3) single-mode fiber, (4) piezo-tube actuator, (5) elliptic reflector, (6) lens, and (7) CMOS camera
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Displayed patterns: a) checkerboard, b) radial pattern.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of MEMS mirror vs. Piezo Scanning Display (including both experimental conditions and optimal predicted)

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N MEMS = θ MEMS . D MEMS a . λ
θ fiber = 2 . tan 1 ( d 2 2 3 L ) 3 d 2 L
D fiber = 4 L 3 . tan ( sin 1 ( NA fiber ) ) 4 L 3 . NA fiber
N fiber = θ fiber . D fiber a . λ = 8 L 3 a λ . tan 1 ( 3 d 4 L ) . tan ( sin 1 ( NA fiber ) ) 2 d NA fiber a λ
N fiber = d a λ 2 NA fiber = 2 d NA fiber a λ
{ V + X = A ( t ) sin ( 2 π f t ) V + Y = A ( t ) cos ( 2 π f t ) V X = A ( t ) sin ( 2 π f t ) V Y = A ( t ) cos ( 2 π f t ) .
FPS spiral 2 f N fiber
FPS Lissajous = f x n x = f y n y
f fiber = β R 4 π L 2 E ρ
σ max = RFL I
I fiber = 1 4 π R 2
σ max = 4 LF π R 3
k fiber = 3 E π R 4 8 L 3
σ max = 3 E R d 4 L 2
d = 4 L 2 σ max 3 ER
θ fiber = 2 . tan 1 ( L σ max ER )
N fiber 2 . FPS fiber = 4 f fiber d a λ NA fiber ( pixels sec )

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