Abstract

GaN/InGaN multi-quantum-wells (MQWs) micron light emitting diodes (µLEDs) with the size ranging from 10 to 300 µm are fabricated. Effects of strain relaxation on the performance of µLEDs have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and micro-photoluminescence (µPL) are used to characterize the strained area on micron pillars. Strain relaxation and reducing polarization field in MQWs almost affects the whole mesa for 10 µm LEDs and about 4% area around the lateral for 300 µm LEDs. It makes a great contribution to high performance for smaller size µLEDs. Moreover, an indirect nanoscale strain measurement for µLEDs are provided.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

S. C. Huang, H. Li, Z. H. Zhang, H. Chen, S. C. Wang, and T. C. Lu, “Superior characteristics of microscale light emitting diodes through tightly lateral oxide-confined scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021108 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. G. Li, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier,” Phys. E 77, 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emittting at 500nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, T. Wei, F. Yang, H. Lu, X. Wei, P. Ma, X. Yi, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, and J. Li, “Efficiency improvement by polarization-reversed electron blocking structure in GaN-based Light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22(9Suppl 3), A1001–A1008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, Z. Q. Li, and Y. Sheng, “Effect of multiquantum barriers in performance enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 141101 (2013).

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

B. Sun, L. Zhao, T. Wei, X. Yi, Z. Liu, G. Wang, J. Li, and F. Yi, “Light extraction enhancement of bulk GaN light-emitting diode with hemisphere-cones-hybrid surface,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18537–18544 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Melitz, J. Shen, A. C. Kummel, and S. Lee, “Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 66(1), 1–27 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

E. Koren, N. Berkovitch, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Measurement of active dopant distribution and diffusion in individual silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1163–1167 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Son and J. L. Lee, “Numerical analysis of efficiency droop induced by piezoelectric polarization inInGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 032109 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, and J. S. Speck, “Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4644–4646 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Modeling and optimization of vertical-cavity semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4283, 129–138 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

U. Karrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Influence of crystal polarity on the properties of Pt/GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2012–2014 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

U. Karrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Influence of crystal polarity on the properties of Pt/GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2012–2014 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atamuratoy, A.

J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

Berkovitch, N.

E. Koren, N. Berkovitch, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Measurement of active dopant distribution and diffusion in individual silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1163–1167 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernardini, F.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bettiol, A. A.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bjorlin, E. S.

J. Piprek, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Modeling and optimization of vertical-cavity semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4283, 129–138 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boag, A.

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosoman, M.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

J. Piprek, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Modeling and optimization of vertical-cavity semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4283, 129–138 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. F.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emittting at 500nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

S. C. Huang, H. Li, Z. H. Zhang, H. Chen, S. C. Wang, and T. C. Lu, “Superior characteristics of microscale light emitting diodes through tightly lateral oxide-confined scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Y. J.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Z.

Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

C. G. Li, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier,” Phys. E 77, 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
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E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diao, J. S.

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eastman, L. F.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
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Edwards, P. R.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
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H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
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Eickhoff, M.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
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N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elias, G.

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
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Erdan, G.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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Feng, Y. L.

Ferreira, X. G. R.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
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O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
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Fundling, S.

J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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Gong, Z.

Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grahame, F.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, E. D.

Guilhabert, B.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hemesath, E. R.

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, M.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. L.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emittting at 500nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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Hoppe, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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Huang, S. C.

S. C. Huang, H. Li, Z. H. Zhang, H. Chen, S. C. Wang, and T. C. Lu, “Superior characteristics of microscale light emitting diodes through tightly lateral oxide-confined scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hyunchae, C.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ian, H.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ji, X.

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

Jiao, Q. Q.

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
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U. Karrer, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Influence of crystal polarity on the properties of Pt/GaN Schottky diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 2012–2014 (2000).
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V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelly, E. A.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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Kikuchi, A.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
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Kishino, K.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
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Kneissl, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koren, E.

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
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E. Koren, N. Berkovitch, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Measurement of active dopant distribution and diffusion in individual silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1163–1167 (2010).
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Kueller, K. V.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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Kummel, A. C.

W. Melitz, J. Shen, A. C. Kummel, and S. Lee, “Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 66(1), 1–27 (2011).
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Lapeyrade, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lauhon, L. J.

E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
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J. H. Son and J. L. Lee, “Numerical analysis of efficiency droop induced by piezoelectric polarization inInGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 032109 (2010).
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Lee, S.

W. Melitz, J. Shen, A. C. Kummel, and S. Lee, “Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 66(1), 1–27 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, C. G.

C. G. Li, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier,” Phys. E 77, 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, D. W.

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

S. C. Huang, H. Li, Z. H. Zhang, H. Chen, S. C. Wang, and T. C. Lu, “Superior characteristics of microscale light emitting diodes through tightly lateral oxide-confined scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, J. Z.

Li, K.

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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Li, S. F.

J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
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Li, S. T.

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z. M. S.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, Z. Q. Li, and Y. Sheng, “Effect of multiquantum barriers in performance enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 141101 (2013).

Li, Z. Q.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, Z. Q. Li, and Y. Sheng, “Effect of multiquantum barriers in performance enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 141101 (2013).

Liao, C. L.

C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emittting at 500nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Link, A.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. F.

C. G. Li, H. F. Liu, and S. J. Chua, “Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier,” Phys. E 77, 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, N. Y.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Lobo Ploch, N.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

Lu, T. C.

S. C. Huang, H. Li, Z. H. Zhang, H. Chen, S. C. Wang, and T. C. Lu, “Superior characteristics of microscale light emitting diodes through tightly lateral oxide-confined scheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(2), 021108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Ma, P.

Majewski, J.

O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, D. D.

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. W.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Martinand, R. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martin, S. Tripathy, P. R. Edwards, R. W. Martinand, and S. Tripathy, “Mechanism of enhanced light output efficiency in InGaN-based microlight emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 5978–5982 (2003).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mayer, M.

McKendry, J.

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
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N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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W. Melitz, J. Shen, A. C. Kummel, and S. Lee, “Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 66(1), 1–27 (2011).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, and J. S. Speck, “Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4644–4646 (2004).
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O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
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H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, and J. S. Speck, “Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4644–4646 (2004).
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E. Koren, G. Elias, A. Boag, E. R. Hemesath, L. J. Lauhon, and Y. Rosenwaks, “Direct measurement of individual deep traps in single silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2499–2502 (2011).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
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W. Melitz, J. Shen, A. C. Kummel, and S. Lee, “Kelvin probe force microscopy and its application,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 66(1), 1–27 (2011).
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Sheng, Y.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, Z. Q. Li, and Y. Sheng, “Effect of multiquantum barriers in performance enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 141101 (2013).

Shi, Y.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
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G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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Stanley, R.

Stellmach, J.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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Tan, H. R.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
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C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
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C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
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Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
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P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
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O. Ambacher, J. Majewski, C. Miskys, A. Link, M. Hermann, M. Eickhoff, M. Stutzmann, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, V. Tilak, B. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Pyroelectric properties of Al(In)GaN/GaN hetero- and quantum well structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(13), 3399–3434 (2002).
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N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
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Wang, G.

Wang, J.

Wang, S. C.

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X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
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J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
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X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
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E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. F. Tian, J. J. D. Mckendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, and D. D. Martin, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emittingdiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, J. Shirong, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, G. Erdan, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light emitting Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wehmann, H. H.

J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, J.

J. Wei, R. Neumann, X. Wang, S. Li, S. Fundling, S. Merzsch, M. A. M. A. Suleiman, U. Sokmen, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Polarity analysis of GaN nanorods by photo-assisted Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 8(7–8), 2157–2159 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, J. D.

J. D. Wei, S. F. Li, A. Atamuratoy, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy at GaN surface: The role of polarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 172111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, P. G.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Wei, X.

Weyers, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, A. Tim Wernicke, K. V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).
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C. L. Liao, C. L. Ho, Y. F. Chang, C. H. Wu, and M. C. Wu, “High-speed light-emitting diodes emittting at 500nm with 463-MHz modulation bandwidth,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35(5), 563–565 (2014).
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Xia, C. S.

C. S. Xia, Z. M. S. Li, Z. Q. Li, and Y. Sheng, “Effect of multiquantum barriers in performance enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 141101 (2013).

Xie, E. Y.

X. G. R. Ferreira, E. Y. Xie, J. D. J. McKendry, R. Sujan, C. Hyunchae, F. Grahame, E. A. Kelly, G. Erdan, V. R. Penty, and H. Ian, “High Bandwidth GaN-Based Micro-LEDs for Multi-Gb/s Visible Light Communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(19), 2023–2026 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. Y.

C. Y. Yang, A. A. Bettiol, Y. Shi, M. Bosoman, H. R. Tan, P. G. Wei, J. H. Teng, and E. J. Teo, “Fast electrical modulation in a plasmonic-enhanced, V-pit-textured, light-emitting diode,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(12), 1703–1709 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

Yi, F.

Yi, X.

Yu, E. T.

H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, and J. S. Speck, “Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4644–4646 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

X. J. Zhuo, J. Zhang, D. W. Li, X. F. Wang, W. L. Wang, J. S. Diao, K. Li, L. Yu, Y. W. Zhang, and S. T. Li, “Enhanced performances of InGaN/GaN-based blue LED with an ultra-thin inserting layer between GaN barriers and InGaN wells,” Opt. Commun. 325(6), 129–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, T. J.

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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Zeng, Y.

Zhang, B.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951–4954 (2001).
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Zhang, G. Y.

Q. Q. Jiao, Z. Z. Chen, J. Ma, S. Y. Wang, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Y. L. Feng, J. Z. Li, Y. F. Chen, T. J. Yu, S. F. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, P. F. Tian, E. Y. Xie, Z. Gong, E. D. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Capability of GaN based micro-light emitting diodes operated at an injection level of kA/cm2,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16565–16574 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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APSYS, (2017 version) by Crosslight Software, Inc., Burnaby, Canada, http://www.crosslight.com

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The topographic image and CPD distribution measured by KPFM on the µLEDs with the diameter of (a) 10 μm and (b) 40 μm. The bottom curves are the height and CPD, respectively along the diameter of µLED.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The principle of band bending when the metallic tip contacts to n-GaN (left) and p-GaN (right) in KPFM measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The polarization effect in MQWs on the band structure simulated by APSYS package. The device is in thermodynamic equilibrium state.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CPD distribution along the diameter on the mesa of μLEDs with the diameters from 10 to 300 μm. The relative positions 0 and 1 represent center and edge of the mesa.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The 40 μm LED photograph in PL map scanning. (b) the mapping of normalized PL integral intensity and peak wavelength around the edge (c) typical spectra recorded from edge and center areas on the mesa of 40 μm LED.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The APSYS simulated PL spectra for two different areas on the mesa of 40 μm LED. (b) The simulated diagram of energy band and wave function in quantum well.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The dependencies of (a) PL integral intensity and (b) peak wavelength on relative position of the mesa of μLEDs with different diameter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 the ratio of strain relaxation and etching damage affected area for μLEDs with different diameter

Equations (2)

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e V CPD = ϕ tip ϕ sample
ϕ sample =χ+( E C - E F )+ ϕ 0

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