Abstract

Heat generation is a key obstacle to scaling high energy solid-state lasers to the multi-kilowatt average powers required for several key applications. We demonstrate an accurate, in situ, noninvasive optical technique to that makes three-dimensional (3-D) temperature maps within cryogenic amplifiers operating at high average power. The temperature is determined by analyzing the fluorescence spectra with a neural network function. The accuracy of the technique relies on a calibration that does not depend on simulations. Results are presented for a cryogenic Yb:YAG active mirror laser amplifier operating at different pump conditions. The technique is applicable to other solid-state lasers materials.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2016 (5)

S. Banerjee, P. D. Mason, K. Ertel, P. Jonathan Phillips, M. De Vido, O. Chekhlov, M. Divoky, J. Pilar, J. Smith, T. Butcher, A. Lintern, S. Tomlinson, W. Shaikh, C. Hooker, A. Lucianetti, C. Hernandez-Gomez, T. Mocek, C. Edwards, and J. L. Collier, “100 J-level nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 2089–2092 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Baumgarten, M. Pedicone, H. Bravo, H. Wang, L. Yin, C. S. Menoni, J. J. Rocca, and B. A. Reagan, “1 J, 0.5 kHz repetition rate picosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3339–3342 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Azhari, S. Sulaiman, and A. K. P. Rao, “A review on the application of peening processes for surface treatment,” IOP Conf. Series Mater. Sci. Eng. 114(1), 012002 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, H. Wang, B. A. Reagan, C. Baumgarten, E. Gullikson, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “6.7-nm Emission from Gd and Tb Plasmas over a Broad Range of Irradiation Parameters Using a Single Laser,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6(3), 034009 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Dramićanin, “Sensing temperature via downshifting emissions of lanthanide-doped metal oxides and salts. A review,” Methods Appl. Fluoresc. 4(4), 042001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

O. Novák, T. Miura, M. Smrž, M. Chyla, S. S. Nagisetty, J. Mužík, J. Linnemann, H. Turčičová, V. Jambunathan, O. Slezák, M. Sawicka-Chyla, J. Pilař, S. Bonora, M. Divoký, J. Měsíček, A. Pranovich, P. Sikocinski, J. Huynh, P. Severová, P. Navrátil, D. Vojna, L. Horáčková, K. Mann, A. Lucianetti, A. Endo, D. Rostohar, and T. Mocek, “Status of the High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser Development at HiLASE,” Appl. Sci. 5(4), 637–665 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. E. Zapata, H. Lin, A.-L. Calendron, H. Cankaya, M. Hemmer, F. Reichert, W. R. Huang, E. Granados, K.-H. Hong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cryogenic Yb:YAG composite-thin-disk for high energy and average power amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2610–2613 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Banerjee, K. Ertel, P. D. Mason, P. J. Phillips, M. De Vido, J. M. Smith, T. J. Butcher, C. Hernandez-Gomez, R. J. S. Greenhalgh, and J. L. Collier, “DiPOLE: a 10 J, 10 Hz cryogenic gas cooled multi-slab nanosecond Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19542–19551 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

W. R. Meier, A. M. Dunne, K. J. Kramer, S. Reyes, T. M. Anklam, and L. Team, “Fusion technology aspects of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE),” Fusion Eng. Des. 89(8–9), 2489–2492 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. P. Leemans, A. J. Gonsalves, H. S. Mao, K. Nakamura, C. Benedetti, C. B. Schroeder, C. Tóth, J. Daniels, D. E. Mittelberger, S. S. Bulanov, J. L. Vay, C. G. R. Geddes, and E. Esarey, “Multi-GeV Electron Beams from Capillary-Discharge-Guided Subpetawatt Laser Pulses in the Self-Trapping Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 245002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Reagan, M. Berrill, K. A. Wernsing, C. Baumgarten, M. Woolston, and J. J. Rocca, “High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. A 89(5), 053820 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, Th. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Brübach, C. Pflitsch, A. Dreizler, and B. Atakan, “On surface temperature measurements with thermographic phosphors: A review,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(1), 37–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. D. Wang, O. S. Wolfbeis, and R. J. Meier, “Luminescent probes and sensors for temperature,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(19), 7834–7869 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, C. Lim, G. H. Kim, and U. Kang, “Study of operation dynamics for crystal temperature measurement in a diode end-pumped monolithic Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31506–31520 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, Coherent, Ultrafast Soft X-ray Harmonics Spanning the Water Window from a Tabletop Light Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80-300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. C. Brown, R. L. Cone, Y. Sun, and R. W. Equal, “Yb:YAG Absorption at ambient and cryogenic temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 604–612 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Chenais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb: YAG,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 221–224 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, G. Lucas-Leclin, Y. Fichot, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Thermal lensing measurements in diode-pumped Yb-doped GdCOB, YCOB, YSO, YAG and KGW,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 129–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Dong, M. Bass, Y. Mao, P. Deng, and F. Gan, “Dependence of the Yb3+ emission cross section and lifetime on temperature and concentration in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1975–1979 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. van Pieterson, M. Heeroma, E. de Heer, and A. Meijerink, “Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 91(3), 177–193 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. A. Cirovic, “Feed-forward artificial neural networks: applications to spectroscopy,” Trends Analyt. Chem. 16(3), 148–155 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Svozila, V. Kvasnickab, and J. Pospichalb, “Introduction to multi-layer feed-forward neural networks,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 39(1), 43–62 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Slama, C. Zaborosch, D. Wienke, and F. Spener, “Simultaneous mixture analysis using a dynamic microbial sensor combined with chemometrics,” Anal. Chem. 68(21), 3845–3850 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, and H. White, “Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators,” Neural Netw. 2(5), 359–366 (1989).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, “Thermal Conductivity of Garnets and Phonon Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. B 4(2), 592–609 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

P. Davidovits and M. D. Egger, “Scanning Laser Microscope,” Nature 223(5208), 831 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1943 (1)

W. S. McCulloch and W. Pitts, “A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity,” Bull. Math. Biophys. 5(4), 115 (1943).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 448–459 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80-300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aka, G. P.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, G. Lucas-Leclin, Y. Fichot, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Thermal lensing measurements in diode-pumped Yb-doped GdCOB, YCOB, YSO, YAG and KGW,” Opt. Mater. 22(2), 129–137 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alessi, D.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. M. Luther, L. Yin, D. H. Martz, M. R. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021023 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anklam, T. M.

W. R. Meier, A. M. Dunne, K. J. Kramer, S. Reyes, T. M. Anklam, and L. Team, “Fusion technology aspects of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE),” Fusion Eng. Des. 89(8–9), 2489–2492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

I. Pupeza, S. Holzberger, T. Eidam, H. Carstens, D. Esser, J. Weitenberg, P. Rußbüldt, J. Rauschenberger, J. Limpert, Th. Udem, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and E. Fill, “Compact high-repetition-rate source of coherent 100 eV radiation,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 608–612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, Coherent, Ultrafast Soft X-ray Harmonics Spanning the Water Window from a Tabletop Light Source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atakan, B.

J. Brübach, C. Pflitsch, A. Dreizler, and B. Atakan, “On surface temperature measurements with thermographic phosphors: A review,” Pror. Energy Combust. Sci. 39(1), 37–60 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azhari, A.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Measured Yb:YAG fluorescence spectra from 1015 nm to 1029 nm at different temperatures. (b) Fluorescence spectra at 60 K excited with different pump energies (single shot), normalized at 1022 nm. (c) The enlarged fluorescence spectra near 1027.0 nm. (d) The fitted temperature results only using 1022 nm/ 1027 nm intensity ratio from 60 K to 140 K at different pump energies.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Conceptual diagram of the experimental setup for 2-D temperature mapping in solid-state laser amplifiers operating at cryogenic temperatures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Conceptual diagram of the experimental setup for 3-D temperature mapping in solid-state laser amplifiers operating at cryogenic temperatures. L1 is an f = 25 mm achromatic lens, L2 is an f = 30 mm achromatic lens. DM is dichroic mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Results of the calibration of the fitting function with different pump energies from 50 K to 140 K. The horizontal axis is the temperature measured by the semiconductor sensor in the heat sink and the vertical axis shows the temperature deduced by fitting the measured spectra.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 2-D Temperature maps measured for different average pump powers. (a) Temperature maps for 113 W and 141 W average pump powers plotted using the same temperature scale; (b) 2-D temperature map for the 113 W pump power case. The temperature color scale ranges from 95 K to 113 K; (c) 2-D temperature map for the 141 W pump power case. The temperature color scale ranges from 116 K to 138 K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 One-dimensional cuts of the 2-D temperature maps obtained for average pump powers ranging from 56 W to 141 W.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 2-D temperature mapping comparison of the different heat transfer conditions at same pump condition. (b) Poor heat transfer interface. (c) Good heat transfer interface. Different temperature scales are used for (b) and (c).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 3-D Temperature mapping comparison of the different pump powers. Z = 2.0 mm corresponds to the front surface of the crystal. (a) 3-D temperature profile of 56 W average pump power. (b) 3-D temperature profile obtained with 113 W average pump power. (c) and (d) Plots of the temperature distributions at the center of pump spots for these two average pump powers. The red dashed lines represent the temperature values from 2-D temperature mapping system, and the blue dashed lines represent the average temperature along Z from the 3-D scan.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Simulated 3-D temperature map and, (b) comparison of the simulated temperature distribution (yellow line) along the axis of the pumped volume with the experimentally measured values (blue circles). The average pump power is 113 W. The pixel size is chosen to be similar to the experiment.

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