Abstract

We report the latest progress in fabrication and laser performance of the fully crystalline double-clad ‘Yb:YAG-core/undoped-YAG-clad’ fibers grown by the hybrid crystal growth method. The single-crystalline ytterbium (Yb) doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fiber cores were grown by the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method, and the single-crystalline undoped YAG claddings were grown by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique, in which the single-crystalline Yb:YAG cores were used as the growth seeds. The key parameters of the hybrid-grown ‘crystalline core/crystalline clad’ (C4) fibers, including material composition, crystal structure, and fiber propagation loss, were characterized. The results confirmed that the grown C4 fibers, indeed, have both the single-crystalline fiber core and single-crystalline fiber clad. By utilizing a double-clad low-loss C4 fiber as a diode-cladding-pumped laser gain medium, we realized a fiber laser with the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 68.7% versus the incident pump power.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (4)

2016 (4)

Y. Li, K. Miller, E. G. Johnson, C. D. Nie, S. Bera, J. A. Harrington, and R. Shori, “Lasing characteristics of Ho:YAG single crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9751–9756 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Parthasarathy, R. Hay, G. Fair, and F. Hopkins, “Predicted performance limits of yttrium aluminum garnet fiber lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 094302 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2001 (1)

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Askins, C.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Barty, C.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P.

Bayya, S.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Beach, R.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beach, R. J.

Beier, F.

Bera, S.

Y. Li, K. Miller, E. G. Johnson, C. D. Nie, S. Bera, J. A. Harrington, and R. Shori, “Lasing characteristics of Ho:YAG single crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9751–9756 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Bowman, S.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

Bullington, A.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarty, A.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Champman, J.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Chen, P. Y.

Chen, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chick, T.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Dawson, J.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dawson, J. W.

Dubinskii, M.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eberhardt, R.

Fair, G.

T. Parthasarathy, R. Hay, G. Fair, and F. Hopkins, “Predicted performance limits of yttrium aluminum garnet fiber lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 094302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, Q.

Gao, W.

Gebremichael, E.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Haarlammert, N.

Harrington, J.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Harrington, J. A.

Hay, R.

T. Parthasarathy, R. Hay, G. Fair, and F. Hopkins, “Predicted performance limits of yttrium aluminum garnet fiber lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 094302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J. E.

Hein, S.

Hopkins, F.

T. Parthasarathy, R. Hay, G. Fair, and F. Hopkins, “Predicted performance limits of yttrium aluminum garnet fiber lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 094302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hou, C.

Hsu, K. Y.

Huang, K. Y.

Huang, S. L.

Hupel, C.

Jauregui, C.

Jetschke, S.

Jheng, D. Y.

Johnson, E. G.

Ju, P.

Kim, W.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Kirchhof, J.

Kuhn, S.

Leich, M.

Li, G.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Magana, R.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Malinowski, M.

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Maxwell, G.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Messerly, M.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Messerly, M. J.

Meyers, J.

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Miller, K.

Myers, J.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

Nie, C.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Nie, C. D.

Nold, J.

Parthasarathy, T.

T. Parthasarathy, R. Hay, G. Fair, and F. Hopkins, “Predicted performance limits of yttrium aluminum garnet fiber lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(9), 094302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pax, P.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pax, P. H.

Peele, J.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Piramidowicz, R.

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Ponting, B.

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proske, F.

Qadri, S. N.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

Rand, S.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Reichert, S.

S. Bera, C. Nie, J. Harrington, T. Chick, A. Chakrabarty, S. Reichert, J. Champman, and S. Rand, “Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth,” Proc. SPIE 9726, 97260C (2016).

Rhonehouse, D.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J.

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Sarnecki, J.

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Sattler, B.

Schreiber, T.

Shaw, B.

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

She, S.

Shori, R.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siders, C. W.

Sridharan, A.

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Szczepanski, P.

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Thapa, R.

W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, J. Myers, S. N. Qadri, R. Thapa, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, S. Bowman, and D. Gibson, “Joseph Kolis, Brad Stadleman, and J. Sanghera, “Crystal fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10382, 103820Q (2017).

W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, J. Meyers, R. Thapa, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Cladded single crystal fibers for high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580O (2016).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Unger, S.

Wolinski, W.

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Wu, P.

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[Crossref]

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J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, Y. Chen, B. Ponting, E. Gebremichael, R. Magana, G. Maxwell, and M. Dubinskii, “Highly efficient waveguided laser performance of diode pumped unclad Yb:YAG crystalline fibre,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 075101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

M. Malinowski, J. Sarnecki, R. Piramidowicz, P. Szczepanski, and W. Wolinski, “Epitaxial RE3+:YAG planar waveguide lasers,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 9(1), 67–74 (2001).

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. Dawson, M. Messerly, J. Heebner, P. Pax, A. Sridharan, A. Bullington, R. Beach, C. Siders, C. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” Proc. SPIE 7686, 768611 (2010).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, V. Fromzel, Y. Chen, S. Yin, and C. Luo, “Fiber lasers with ‘crystalline-core/crystalline-clad’ (C4) architecture fibers for highly power scalable, high efficiency, diode-cladding-pumped operation,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers Conference, 2017 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2017), AW3A.2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A simplified schematic of an LHPG system used to grow the single-crystalline core of a fully-crystalline C4 fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A simplified sketch of an LPE growth system for growing crystalline claddings around the crystalline core.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A cross-section SEM image of an Yb:YAG /YAG C4 fiber and (b) the corresponding cross-section optical transmission image.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An optical reflection image of an Yb:YAG/YAG C4 fiber that has a thicker, 120 μ m , cladding.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A cross-section SEM image of a grown fiber with the marked core and cladding regions probed by EDS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The XRD pattern of the LPE-grown cladding.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 End view of the ‘Yb:YAG-core/undoped-YAG-clad’ C4 fiber mounted in a 2x2 mm copper U-channel for laser experiments
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical layout of the co-pumped fiber laser based on the ~70 mm long, 100/120 µm ‘Yb:YAG-core/u-YAG-clad’ C4 fiber. Laser cavity is formed by the dichroic pump mirror and the Fresnel reflection of the output C4 fiber end.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The Yb:YAG/u-YAG C4 fiber Q-CW output power at 1030 nm versus the Q-CW incident laser diode pump power at 969 nm. Black line – experimental result; red line – simulation result.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The material compositions of core and cladding regions measured by the EDS

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Table 2 Measured attenuation coefficient

Equations (2)

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α = 1 L ln P o u t P i n ,
α d B = 1 L 10 log P o u t P i n

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