Abstract

To improve the device performances of top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs), we developed a new inverted TEOLEDs structure with silver (Ag) metal as a semi-transparent top electrode. Especially, we found that the use of relatively thick Ag electrode without using any carrier injection layer is beneficial to realize highly efficient device performances. Also, we could insert very thick overlying hole transport layer (HTL) on the emitting layer (EML) which could be very helpful to suppress the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling if it is applied to the common bottom-emission OLEDs (BEOLEDs). As a result, we could realize noteworthy high current efficiency of approximately ~188.1 cd/A in our new inverted TEOLEDs with 25 nm thick Ag electrode.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. J. Cha, Y. R. Cho, and M. C. Suh, “Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with simple structure to realize an extremely low operating voltage,” Synth. Met. 200, 143–147 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Watanabe, N. Ide, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with chemically doped layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(3A), 1186–1188 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. W. Lim, H. S. Jeon, and M. C. Suh, “Top-emission organic light emitting diodes with lower viewing angle dependence,” Synth. Met. 189, 57–62 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Alleviate microcavity effects in top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes for achieving broadband and high color rendition emission spectra,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2065–2070 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Y. Jung, N. Y. Kim, C. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, and C. Seoul, “Control of resonant wavelength from organic light-emitting materials by use of a Fabry-Perot microcavity structure,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3312–3318 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Springer, B. Y. Kang, R. Lampande, D. H. Ahn, S. Lenk, S. Reineke, and J. H. Kwon, “Cool white light-emitting three stack OLED structures for AMOLED display applications,” Opt. Express 24(24), 28131–28142 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. Chwang, B. J. Smith, and C. R. Crowell, “Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method for resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 17, 1217–1227 (1972).
  23. J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. H. Cho, S. W. Pyo, and M. C. Suh, “Low voltage top-emitting organic light emitting devices by using 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 402–405 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Springer, B. Y. Kang, R. Lampande, D. H. Ahn, S. Lenk, S. Reineke, and J. H. Kwon, “Cool white light-emitting three stack OLED structures for AMOLED display applications,” Opt. Express 24(24), 28131–28142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Cha, Y. R. Cho, and M. C. Suh, “Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with simple structure to realize an extremely low operating voltage,” Synth. Met. 200, 143–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

B. W. Lim, H. S. Jeon, and M. C. Suh, “Top-emission organic light emitting diodes with lower viewing angle dependence,” Synth. Met. 189, 57–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Cho, S. W. Pyo, and M. C. Suh, “Low voltage top-emitting organic light emitting devices by using 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 402–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Alleviate microcavity effects in top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes for achieving broadband and high color rendition emission spectra,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2065–2070 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Ide, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with chemically doped layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(3A), 1186–1188 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1989 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. Chwang, B. J. Smith, and C. R. Crowell, “Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method for resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 17, 1217–1227 (1972).

Adachi, C.

T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D. H.

Cha, S. J.

S. J. Cha, Y. R. Cho, and M. C. Suh, “Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with simple structure to realize an extremely low operating voltage,” Synth. Met. 200, 143–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Alleviate microcavity effects in top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes for achieving broadband and high color rendition emission spectra,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2065–2070 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, D.-H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, S. W. Pyo, and M. C. Suh, “Low voltage top-emitting organic light emitting devices by using 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 402–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. R.

S. J. Cha, Y. R. Cho, and M. C. Suh, “Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with simple structure to realize an extremely low operating voltage,” Synth. Met. 200, 143–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-C.

Choi, K. C.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. H.

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chwang, R.

R. Chwang, B. J. Smith, and C. R. Crowell, “Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method for resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 17, 1217–1227 (1972).

Crowell, C. R.

R. Chwang, B. J. Smith, and C. R. Crowell, “Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method for resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 17, 1217–1227 (1972).

Deng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Q.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furno, M.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, T.

T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. C.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haske, W.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Ide, N.

S. Watanabe, N. Ide, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with chemically doped layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(3A), 1186–1188 (2007).
[Crossref]

Inoue, M.

T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jabbour, G. E.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H. S.

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. W. Lim, H. S. Jeon, and M. C. Suh, “Top-emission organic light emitting diodes with lower viewing angle dependence,” Synth. Met. 189, 57–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeon, W. S.

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Joo, C. W.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jou, J.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, B. Y.

Kang, B. Y.

Kang, J.-H.

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Watanabe, N. Ide, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with chemically doped layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(3A), 1186–1188 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, I. H.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-B.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, N. Y.

Kim, S. K.

M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. M.

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-Y.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kippelen, B.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, K. A.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.-S.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Alleviate microcavity effects in top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes for achieving broadband and high color rendition emission spectra,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2065–2070 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwon, B. H.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwon, J. H.

M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Springer, B. Y. Kang, R. Lampande, D. H. Ahn, S. Lenk, S. Reineke, and J. H. Kwon, “Cool white light-emitting three stack OLED structures for AMOLED display applications,” Opt. Express 24(24), 28131–28142 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-K.

Lampande, R.

Lee, C.

Lee, E.-H.

Lee, J.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. I.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-S.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lenk, S.

Leo, K.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, T.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, B. W.

B. W. Lim, H. S. Jeon, and M. C. Suh, “Top-emission organic light emitting diodes with lower viewing angle dependence,” Synth. Met. 189, 57–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, D. C.

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lim, M. S.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moon, C.-K.

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, K.-H. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes with image blurring and good color stability,” Org. Electron. 17, 115–120 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, G. J.

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moon, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Najafabadi, E.

E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, “High-performance inverted top-emitting green electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting didoes with a modified top Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 14(5), 1271–1275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakanotani, H.

T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8429 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. S.

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Y. C. Han, M. S. Lim, J. H. Park, and K. C. Choi, “ITO-free flexible organic light-emitting diode using ZnS/Ag/MoO3 anode incorporating a quasi-perfect Ag thin film,” Org. Electron. 14(12), 3437–3443 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, K. C.

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, M. J.

M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-M.

S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-R.

S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pode, R.

M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Low absorption semi-transparent cathode for micro-cavity top-emitting organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 52, 153–158 (2018).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kwon, E.-H. Lee, K.-S. Kim, H.-C. Choi, M. J. Park, S. K. Kim, R. Pode, and J. H. Kwon, “Efficient micro-cavity top emission OLED with optimized Mg:Ag ratio cathode,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29906–29915 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyo, B.

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pyo, S. W.

S. H. Cho, S. W. Pyo, and M. C. Suh, “Low voltage top-emitting organic light emitting devices by using 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 402–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

Sahoo, S.

J.-H. Jou, S. Kumar, A. Agrawal, T.-H. Li, and S. Sahoo, “Approaches for fabricating high efficiency organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(13), 2974–3002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

H. Sasabe and J. Kido, “Development of high performance OLEDs for general lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(9), 1699–1707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seoul, C.

Shin, D. H.

S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, J. Lee, and H. Y. Chu, “The Optical Effects of Capping Layers on the Performance of Transparent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 39–47 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. J.

R. Chwang, B. J. Smith, and C. R. Crowell, “Contact size effects on the van der Pauw method for resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 17, 1217–1227 (1972).

Sohn, Y. H.

Y. H. Sohn, G. J. Moon, K. H. Choi, Y. S. Kim, and K. C. Park, “Effect of TFT mobility variation in the threshold voltage compensation circuit of the OLED display,” J. Inform. Displ. 18(1), 25–30 (2017).
[Crossref]

Son, Y. H.

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

Springer, R.

Suh, M. C.

S.-R. Park, D. H. Shin, S.-M. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Benzoquinoline-based fluoranthene derivatives as electron transport materials for solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 7(45), 28520–28526 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Pyo, C. W. Joo, H. S. Kim, B. H. Kwon, J. I. Lee, J. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “A nanoporous polymer film as a diffuser as well as a light extraction component for top emitting organic light emitting diodes with a strong microcavity structure,” Nanoscale 8(16), 8575–8582 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Cha, Y. R. Cho, and M. C. Suh, “Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with simple structure to realize an extremely low operating voltage,” Synth. Met. 200, 143–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jeon, B. Pyo, H. S. Park, S.-R. Park, and M. C. Suh, “Improved out-coupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes by manipulation of optical cavity length,” Org. Electron. 20, 49–54 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. W. Lim, H. S. Jeon, and M. C. Suh, “Top-emission organic light emitting diodes with lower viewing angle dependence,” Synth. Met. 189, 57–62 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. S. Jeon, J. S. Park, L. Li, D. C. Lim, Y. H. Son, M. C. Suh, and J. H. Kwon, “High current conduction with high mobility by non-radiative charge recombination interfaces in organic semiconductor devices,” Org. Electron. 13(6), 939–944 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Cho, S. W. Pyo, and M. C. Suh, “Low voltage top-emitting organic light emitting devices by using 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 402–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

J. H. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Systematic investigation of transparent organic light-emitting diodes depending on top metal electrode thickness,” Org. Electron. 12(8), 1383–1388 (2011).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Ide, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with chemically doped layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(3A), 1186–1188 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

C. Wu, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Yang, “Advanced Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Enhancing Display Performances,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yeon, C. B.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

Yun, C.

Yun, S. J.

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Chen, L. Deng, J. Xie, L. Peng, L. Xie, Q. Fan, and W. Huang, “Recent developments in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5227–5239 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Lee, C.-K. Moon, S.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Highly enhanced light extraction from surface plasmonic loss minimized organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(26), 3571–3577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Dyes Pigmemts (1)

S.-R. Park, S. M. Kim, J.-H. Kang, J.-H. Lee, and M. C. Suh, “Bipolar host materials with carbazole and dipyridylamine groups showing high triplet for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Dyes Pigmemts 141, 217–224 (2017).
[Crossref]

ETRI J. (1)

K.-S. Lee, I. H. Kim, C. B. Yeon, J. W. Kim, S. J. Yun, and G. E. Jabbour, “Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaic,” ETRI J. 35(4), 587–593 (2013).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated radiance for Ag samples with different thickness.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The transmittance for Ag samples with different thickness (a) without CL (b) with CL.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The reflectance for Ag samples with different thickness (a) without CL (b) with CL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The absorbance for Ag samples with different thickness (a) without CL (b) with CL.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The conductivity and a sheet resistance of different thickness for Ag without CL.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated radiance contour plots of the microcavity OLED with green emitter as functions of the HTL versus ETL thickness. The solid red box designates the optimal thickness range of HTL/ETL to satisfy the 2nd microcavity condition; (b) optical simulation result according to the thickness of HTL for inverted TEOLEDs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Energy band diagram of the inverted TEOLEDs in this study.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) J-V-L, (b) L-efficiency characteristics of Devices A-C.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 SEM images of Ag films with (a) 15 nm and (b) 25 nm thick condition (Scale bar: 0.5 μm). The yellow circles in (a) indicate the defect site such as crack, voids, etc.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 AFM images for each Ag sample.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 EL spectra fabricated inverted TEOLEDs.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Electrode characteristics of the different Ag thickness

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Table 2 Device characteristics of the inverted TEOLEDs

Equations (3)

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I e x t ( θ , λ , Z 0 ) = T t 1 + R t R b 2 R t R b cos ( Δ ϕ F P ) × ( 1 + R b + 2 R b cos ( Δ ϕ T I ) ) × I int ( θ , λ )
Δ ϕ F P = φ t φ b + i 4 π n i d i cos θ o r g , i λ
Δ ϕ T I = φ b + 4 π n o r g , E M L Z 0 cos θ o r g , E M L λ

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