Abstract

We report a 1.65 mm diameter forward-viewing confocal endomicroscopic catheter using a flip-chip bonded electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner. Lissajous scanning was implemented by the electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner. The Lissajous scanned MEMS fiber scanner was precisely fabricated to facilitate flip-chip connection, and bonded with a printed circuit board. The scanner was successfully combined with a fiber-based confocal imaging system. A two-dimensional reflectance image of the metal pattern ‘OPTICS’ was successfully obtained with the scanner. The flip-chip bonded scanner minimizes electrical packaging dimensions. The inner diameter of the flip-chip bonded MEMS fiber scanner is 1.3 mm. The flip-chip bonded MEMS fiber scanner is fully packaged with a 1.65 mm diameter housing tube, 1 mm diameter GRIN lens, and a single mode optical fiber. The packaged confocal endomicroscopic catheter can provide a new breakthrough for diverse in-vivo endomicroscopic applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (4)

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Microscanners for optical endomicroscopic applications,” Micro. Nano Systems Lett. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2405–2444 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Cho, A. Han, S. Ju, H. Jeong, J.-H. Park, I. Kim, J.-U. Bu, and C.-H. Ji, “Electromagnetic biaxial microscanner with mechanical amplification at resonance,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16792–16802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahn, J.

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

Ahsen, O. O.

Bancu, M. G.

Bernstein, J. J.

Blount, P. L.

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Brown, C. M.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, J.-U.

Carruth, R. W.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. W. S.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Cho, A. R.

Choe, S. W.

Cobb, M. J.

Contag, C. H.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Du, C. B.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, C.

C. Duan, Q. Tanguy, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “Optical coherence tomography endoscopic probe based on a tilted MEMS mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3345–3354 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelbrecht, C. J.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, L.

Feng, H. H.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedland, S.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, C. Y.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, K. A.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gora, M. J.

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2405–2444 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Hall, G.

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

Han, A.

Hardy, J.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertz, P. R.

Hsiung, P.-L.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, K.

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Microscanners for optical endomicroscopic applications,” Micro. Nano Systems Lett. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, H.-C. Park, and K.-H. Jeong, “Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3903–3909 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Park, Y. H. Seo, K. Hwang, J. K. Lim, S. Z. Yoon, and K. H. Jeong, “Micromachined tethered silicon oscillator for an endomicroscopic Lissajous fiber scanner,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6675–6678 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, H.

Jeong, K. H.

Jeong, K.-H.

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Microscanners for optical endomicroscopic applications,” Micro. Nano Systems Lett. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, H.-C. Park, and K.-H. Jeong, “Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3903–3909 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, C.-H.

Ju, S.

Jung, W.

Kava, L. E.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, I.

Kim, K. H.

Kim, P.

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimmey, M. B.

Kobat, D.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. M.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

Lee, T. W.

Levine, D. S.

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.-J.

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liang, K.

Liang, P.

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. K.

Liu, L.

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Lowe, A. W.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDonald, D. J.

Maguluri, G. N.

McCormick, D. T.

Meinert, T.

Messerschmidt, B.

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mu, X. J.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Myaing, M. T.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldham, K. R.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivo, M.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, H. C.

Park, H.-C.

Park, J.-H.

Pavlova, I.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Pozzi, A.

C. Duan, Q. Tanguy, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “Optical coherence tomography endoscopic probe based on a tilted MEMS mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3345–3354 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Reid, B. J.

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivera, D. R.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogomentich, F. J.

Rosenberg, M.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahbaie, P.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauk, J. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, A.

Seo, Y. H.

Seo, Y.-H.

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Microscanners for optical endomicroscopic applications,” Micro. Nano Systems Lett. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, H.-C. Park, and K.-H. Jeong, “Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3903–3909 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sepehr, A.

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soetikno, R.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soper, T. D.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorg, B. S.

Sun, J.

Sun, W.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2405–2444 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanguy, Q.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Gora, M. J. Suter, G. J. Tearney, and X. Li, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2405–2444 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, N. C.

Tsai, T. H.

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Wang, T. D.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, N.

Wong, B.

Wu, A. P.

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

Wu, M. C.

Xie, H.

C. Duan, Q. Tanguy, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “Optical coherence tomography endoscopic probe based on a tilted MEMS mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(9), 3345–3354 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, P.

Yoon, S. Z.

Yu, A. B.

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zappe, H.

Zhang, N.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

B. J. Reid, P. L. Blount, Z. Feng, and D. S. Levine, “Optimizing endoscopic biopsy detection of early cancers in Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95(11), 3089–3096 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biophotonics (1)

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, “Unique features of optical scanning, single fiber endoscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 177–183 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M.-J. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(11), e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

Micro. Nano Systems Lett. (1)

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, and K.-H. Jeong, “Microscanners for optical endomicroscopic applications,” Micro. Nano Systems Lett. 5(1), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Med. (2)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, C. B. Du, A. P. Wu, P. Sahbaie, J. M. Crawford, A. W. Lowe, C. H. Contag, and T. D. Wang, “Detection of colonic dysplasia in vivo using a targeted heptapeptide and confocal microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 14(4), 454–458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

B. J. Vakoc, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Cancer imaging by optical coherence tomography: preclinical progress and clinical potential,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12(5), 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

A. D. Aguirre, P. R. Hertz, Y. Chen, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Piyawattanametha, L. Fan, and M. C. Wu, “Two-axis MEMS Scanning Catheter for Ultrahigh Resolution Three-dimensional and En Face Imaging,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2445–2453 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Meinert, N. Weber, H. Zappe, and A. Seifert, “Varifocal MOEMS fiber scanner for confocal endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31529–31544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Cho, A. Han, S. Ju, H. Jeong, J.-H. Park, I. Kim, J.-U. Bu, and C.-H. Ji, “Electromagnetic biaxial microscanner with mechanical amplification at resonance,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16792–16802 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Seo, K. Hwang, H.-C. Park, and K.-H. Jeong, “Electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner for optical endomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 24(4), 3903–3909 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, G. N. Maguluri, T. W. Lee, F. J. Rogomentich, M. G. Bancu, B. E. Bouma, J. F. de Boer, and J. J. Bernstein, “Two-axis magnetically-driven MEMS scanning catheter for endoscopic high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18130–18140 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S. W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Park, Y. H. Seo, and K. H. Jeong, “Lissajous fiber scanning for forward viewing optical endomicroscopy using asymmetric stiffness modulation,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5818–5825 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(43), 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

X. Duan, H. Li, J. Zhou, Q. Zhou, K. R. Oldham, and T. D. Wang, “Visualizing epithelial expression of EGFR in vivo with distal scanning side-viewing confocal endomicroscope,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hwang, Y.-H. Seo, J. Ahn, P. Kim, and K.-H. Jeong, “Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14075 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (2)

X. Zhang, C. Duan, L. Liu, X. Li, and H. Xie, “A non-resonant fiber scanner based on an electrothermally-actuated MEMS stage,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 233, 239–245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. J. Mu, W. Sun, H. H. Feng, A. B. Yu, K. W. S. Chen, C. Y. Fu, and M. Olivo, “MEMS micromirror integrated endoscopic probe for optical coherence tomography bioimaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 168(1), 202–212 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. Duan, X. Zhang, D. Wang, Z. Zhou, P. Liang, A. Pozzi, and H. Xie, “An endoscopic forward-viewing OCT imaging probe based on a two-axis scanning mems mirror,” in 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) (2014), pp. 1397–1400.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of a compact endomicroscopic catheter with a Lissajous scanned electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner. The MEMS fiber scanner is fabricated for flip-chip bonding, which minimized electrical packaging dimensions. Resulting in the scanner packaged with 1.65 mm diameter. (b) Working principle of the Lissajous scanned electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner. Thermal expansion of hot arm structures induced by Joule heating enables lateral scanning, and the bimorph structure between the silicon cantilever of the scanner and the mounted optical fiber induces vertical scanning. The asymmetric structure of the microactuator differentiates the effective stiffness in both directions, which enables Lissajous scanning.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Microfabrication procedures of a flip-chip bonded MEMS fiber scanner. The microactuator is fabricated by using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) on a heavily boron doped 6 inch SOI wafer (Top: 30 μm, Buried oxide (BOX): 2 μm, Bottom: 400 μm). After microactuator fabrication, the microactuator is released and flip-chip bonded with solder balls and a 0.2 mm thick printed circuit board (PCB). The flip-chip bonded scanner is assembled with optical fiber. (b) Top-view SEM image of the fabricated microactuator. The footprint dimension indicates 1 x 5 x 0.43 m m 3 . (c) Bottom-view SEM image of the microactuator. The optical fiber is on the fiber groove of the microactuator. (d) An optical image of the fabricated 6 in. SOI wafer. (e) Side SEM image of the flip-chip bonded scanner. A 0.2 mm PCB is directly attached to the microactuator with solder balls. (f) Side-view SEM image of the underfilled scanner.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Lissajous patterns of the electrothermal MEMS fiber scanner. 378 ���� x 439 ���� field-of-view (F.O.V) Lissajous patterns were obtained within 16 V p p operation voltage (scanning time: 1/125, 1/40, 1/20, 1/4 sec). (e) Calculated result of fill factor of Lissajous scanning pattern at 239 Hz, 207 Hz depending on scanning time (f) Schematic of the confocal endomicroscopic system. MEMS fiber scanner is combined with the fiber-based confocal system. (g) Optical image of reference metal target ‘T’ (line width is 80 μ m ). (h) Two-dimensional reflectance images of the metal pattern ‘T’ by using the confocal reflectance imaging system and the flip-chip bonded MEMS fiber scanner. (i) Optical image of reference metal pattern ‘OPTICS’. (j) Stitched confocal reflectance image of the metal pattern ‘OPTICS’.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical image of a compact packaged endomicroscopic catheter. The inner diameter of the flip-chip bonded MEMS fiber scanner is only 1.3 mm and the endomicroscopic catheter was precisely assembled with a 1.65 mm diameter stainless tube and 1 mm diameter GRIN lens. Length of packaged catheter is 28 mm. (b) Ray tracing analysis with 1mm diameter GRIN lens (Edmund #64524, NA = 0.55). ± 200 μm scanning amplitude is used for ray tracing analysis. (Blue ray: center, green ray: ± 140 μm scanning amplitude, red ray: ± 200 μm scanning amplitude). RMS beam diameter is 0.27 μm at center, and 2.38 μm at 200 μm scanning amplitude. Working Distance at image side is 1 mm, and magnification is 1.1. (c) Optical image of the packaged endomicroscopic catheter. (d) Optical image of the packaged catheter assembled to laparoscopic functional channel.

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