Abstract

We present a reconstruction algorithm for isolated attosecond pulses, which exploits the phase dependent energy modulation of a photoelectron ionized in the presence of a strong laser field. The energy modulation due to a circularly polarized laser field is manifest strongly in the angle-resolved photoelectron momentum distribution, allowing for complete reconstruction of the temporal and spectral profile of an attosecond burst. We show that this type of reconstruction algorithm is robust against counting noise and suitable for single-shot experiments. This algorithm holds potential for a variety of applications for attosecond pulse sources.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  2. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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  13. M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  15. H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B. 74, 17–21 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A. 71(1) 011401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B. 103(2), 303–309 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29502–29513 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(5), 053412 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, and W. Helml, “Angle-Resolved Streaking for Complete Attosecond FEL pulse characterization,” Nat. Photonics (accepted for publication).
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    [Crossref]
  27. A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. TJB. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9) 3477–3488 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1) 013407 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B. 37(12) L243 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Fechner, F. Dimler, T. Brixner, G. Gerber, and D. J. Tannor, “The von Neumann picture: a new representation for ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15(23) 15387–15401 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. M. Fisher-Levine and A. Nomerotski, “TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping,” J. Instrum. 11(03) c03016 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. MacArthur, J. Duris, Z Huang, and A. Marinelli, “High Power Sub-Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Study for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference(IPAC’17), pp.2848–2850.
  37. S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
    [Crossref]
  38. Matlab code for the reconstruction algorithm: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/65828-characterizing-isolated-attosecond-pulses-with-angular-streaking .

2017 (3)

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1) 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(1), 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Fisher-Levine and A. Nomerotski, “TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping,” J. Instrum. 11(03) c03016 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29502–29513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B. 103(2), 303–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Fechner, F. Dimler, T. Brixner, G. Gerber, and D. J. Tannor, “The von Neumann picture: a new representation for ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 15(23) 15387–15401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A. 71(1) 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B. 37(12) L243 (2004)
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B. 74, 17–21 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. TJB. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9) 3477–3488 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Argenti, L.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barreau, L.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barth, J. V.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, S.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biggs, J. D.

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
[Crossref]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boge, R.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
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Bostedt, C.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
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M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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Chang, Z.

Chini, M.

Cirelli, C.

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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Cubaynes, D.

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Dahlström, J. M.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
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J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
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DiMauro, L. F.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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Dimler, F.

Dörner, R.

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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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Doumy, G.

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Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Düsterer, S.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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Eckle, P.

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Fechner, S.

Feulner, P.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
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Fieß, M.

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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
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Gerber, G.

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Gisselbrecht, M.

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Grguraš, I.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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Harth, A.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
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Hartmann, G.

N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, and W. Helml, “Angle-Resolved Streaking for Complete Attosecond FEL pulse characterization,” Nat. Photonics (accepted for publication).

Hartmann, N.

N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, and W. Helml, “Angle-Resolved Streaking for Complete Attosecond FEL pulse characterization,” Nat. Photonics (accepted for publication).

Healion, D.

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helml, W.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, and W. Helml, “Angle-Resolved Streaking for Complete Attosecond FEL pulse characterization,” Nat. Photonics (accepted for publication).

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hergott, J. F.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heuser, S.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z

J. MacArthur, J. Duris, Z Huang, and A. Marinelli, “High Power Sub-Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Study for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference(IPAC’17), pp.2848–2850.

Isinger, M.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B. 37(12) L243 (2004)
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez-Galan, Á.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kabachnik, N. M.

A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1) 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(1), 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, A. K.

A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1) 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(1), 013407 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keathley, P. D.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, M. H. Brügmann, A. Ludwig, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, and T. Feurer, “Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29502–29513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khan, S. D.

Kienberger, R.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klünder, K.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kroon, D.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

Latka, T.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laurent, G.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lepetit, F.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. D.

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lindroth, E.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucchini, M.

Ludwig, A.

MacArthur, J.

J. MacArthur, J. Duris, Z Huang, and A. Marinelli, “High Power Sub-Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Study for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference(IPAC’17), pp.2848–2850.

Maier, A. R.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A. 71(1) 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maquet, A.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marinelli, A.

J. MacArthur, J. Duris, Z Huang, and A. Marinelli, “High Power Sub-Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Study for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference(IPAC’17), pp.2848–2850.

Mauritsson, J.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mauro, L. F. Di

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzel, D.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercouris, T.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

Messerschmidt, M.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miranda, M.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morishita, T.

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moses, J.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
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Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
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Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
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H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B. 74, 17–21 (2002).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765 (2015).
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M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
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Neppl, S.

S. Neppl, R. Ernstorfer, E. M. Bothschafter, A. L. Cavalieri, D. Menzel, J. V. Barth, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, and P. Feulner, “Attosecond time-resolved photoemission from core and valence states of magnesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 087401 (2012).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
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M. Fisher-Levine and A. Nomerotski, “TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping,” J. Instrum. 11(03) c03016 (2016).
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A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
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Ossiander, M.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
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A. TJB. Eppink and D. H. Parker, “Velocity map imaging of ions and electrons using electrostatic lenses: Application in photoelectron and photofragment ion imaging of molecular oxygen,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9) 3477–3488 (1997).
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Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Pazourek, R.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
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R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765 (2015).
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Pfeiffer, A. N.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
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Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A. 71(1) 011401 (2005).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
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Roedig, C.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
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M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J. F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, and L. Argenti, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Sci. 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
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Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
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R. Boge, S. Heuser, M. Sabbar, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Revealing the time-dependent polarization of ultrashort pulses with sub-cycle resolution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 26967–26975, 2014.
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Sazhina, I. P.

A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
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A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1) 013407 (2016).
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A. K. Kazansky, A. V. Bozhevolnov, I. P. Sazhina, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Interference effects in angular streaking with a rotating terahertz field,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(1), 013407 (2016).
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Schlup, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schöffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schorb, S.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fieß, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, and C. A. Nicolaides, “Delay in photoemission,” Sci. 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schweinberger, W.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
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M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
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Shirvanyan, V.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Siegrist, F.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
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Smirnova, O.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B. 37(12) L243 (2004)
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Smolarski, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sommer, A.

M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, and R. Kienberger, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nat. Phys. 13(3), 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spanner, M.

M. Spanner, O. Smirnova, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Reading diffraction images in strong field ionization of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B. 37(12) L243 (2004)
[Crossref]

Squibb, R. J.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Sci. 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taïeb, R.

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tannor, D. J.

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Sci. 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tschentscher, T.

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tschentscher, Th.

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grüner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, Th. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photon. 8(12), 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, S.

M. Meyer, P. Radcliffe, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, A. L. Cavalieri, I. Grguras, A. R. Maier, R. Kienberger, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, S. Schorb, R. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, L. F. Di Mauro, G. Doumy, K. Ueda, S. Wada, S. Düsterer, A. K. Kazansky, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angle-resolved electron spectroscopy of laser-assisted Auger decay induced by a few-femtosecond X-ray pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6) 063007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A. 93(5), 053412 (2016).
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Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and M. Drescher, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature. 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B. 103(2), 303–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, and M. Drescher, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature. 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
[Crossref]

Zhong, S.

M. Isinger, R. J. Squibb, D. Busto, S. Zhong, A. Harth, D. Kroon, S. Nandi, C. L. Arnold, M. Miranda, J. M. Dahlström, and E. Lindroth, “Photoionization in the time and frequency domain,” Sci. 358(6365), 893–896 (2017).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Mukamel, D. Healion, Y. Zhang, and J. D. Biggs, “Multidimensional attosecond resonant X-ray spectroscopy of molecules: Lessons from the optical regime,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 64101–127, 2013.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (3)

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The direct evaluation of attosecond chirp from a streaking measurement,” Appl. Phys. B. 103(2), 303–309 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B. 74, 17–21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dahlström, D. Guénot, K. Klünder, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Mauritsson, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Theory of attosecond delays in laser-assisted photoionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 53–64 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Instrum. (1)

M. Fisher-Levine and A. Nomerotski, “TimepixCam: a fast optical imager with time-stamping,” J. Instrum. 11(03) c03016 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B. (2)

A. K. Kazansky, I. P. Sazhina, V. L. Nosik, and N. M. Kabachnik, “Angular streaking and sideband formation in rotating terahertz and far-infrared fields,” J. Phys. B. 50(10) 105601 (2017).
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N. Hartmann, G. Hartmann, and W. Helml, “Angle-Resolved Streaking for Complete Attosecond FEL pulse characterization,” Nat. Photonics (accepted for publication).

J. MacArthur, J. Duris, Z Huang, and A. Marinelli, “High Power Sub-Femtosecond X-Ray Pulse Study for the LCLS,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference(IPAC’17), pp.2848–2850.

Matlab code for the reconstruction algorithm: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/65828-characterizing-isolated-attosecond-pulses-with-angular-streaking .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rows (a) and (b) show simulated photoelectron momentum distributions for various IAPs projected along the laser propagation direction as described by Eq. (4). Panel (a.1) shows the projected electron momentum distribution for a Gaussian IAP with a FHWM duration of 300 as in the absence of the streaking field. Panels (a.2-4) demonstrate the effect of the streaking laser field on the projected photoelectron momentum distribution from (a.1) for different values of ϕ (from Eq. (2)). The red arrow indicates the direction of the instantaneous vector potential at the peak of IAP. Row (b) demonstrates the effect of the IAP duration on the projected momentum distribution when the streaking laser field is directed along the Py axis (ϕ = π/2): (b.1) 600 as, (b.2) 1.2 fs, (b.3) 2.4 fs, (b.4) 4.8 fs. Row (c) shows simulated slices of the photoelectron momentum distribution according to Eq. (5), as a function of IAP duration. Panel (c.1) shows the pz = 0 slice of the photoelectron momentum distribution for a Gaussian IAP with a 300 as FWHM duration, in the absence of the streaking laser field. Panels (c.2–4) show the sliced momentum distribution for Gaussian IAPs with FWHM duration of 300 as, 600 as, and 1.2 fs, when the streaking laser field is directed along the py direction, i.e. ϕ = π/2. The simulation considers 25 eV photoelectrons interacting with a 1.3 µm laser field with Up = 4 eV (where Up = |A0|2/4 is the ponderomotive potential of the streaking laser field). The photoelectron momentum distribution intensity is normalized to 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoelectron momentum distributions for more complicated IAP structures. Panels (a) and (b) simulate the interaction of a chirped IAP (300 as FWHM) of 1.2 fs FWHM duration with the same streaking laser field as Fig. 1. Panels (c) and (d) simulate the streaked photoelectron momentum distribution from two 600 as FWHM IAPs separated by a quarter of the streaking laser period. Panels (a) and (c) show the projected momentum distribution (Eq. (4)). Panels (b) and (d) show sliced momentum distributions (Eq. (5)).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The von Neumann representation (|Qij|) of a characteristic IAP (top row) using N = 6 × 6 (left), N = 8 × 8 (middle), and N =10 × 10 (right) lattice points. The vertical axis Δω denotes the frequency difference from the central frequency. The bottom row shows the electric field envelope amplitude and phase as a function of time, using Eq. (13).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of a characteristic IAP. From left to right: input 2-D projected photoelectron momentum distribution (top) from Eq. (4) and a 2-D slice of 3-D momentum distribution (bottom) from Eq. (5); reconstructed von Neumann representation of the IAP; time domain reconstruction of the IAP intensity profile; frequency domain reconstruction of the IAP intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstruction results from 100 iterations of the minimization algorithm. The input field intensity (red dashed) and phase (green dashed) are shown along with the reconstructed field intensities (blue shaded) and phase (orange shaded), in the temporal (left) and spectral (right) domains. Each iteration begins with a different random initial guess. We fix the reconstructed phase at one data point to account for constant phase difference. The inset shows a histogram of σt,ω calculated according to Eq. (14). The vertical red dashed line indicates the input σt,ω.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time domain reconstruction RMSE for different combinations of α2 and α3 (see text). The red arrows identify four specific (α2, α3) for comparison in the insets. In the insets, the blue line is the input field intensity, and the red starred dash line is the reconstructed field intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Convergences of the reconstruction algorithm for total electron numbers (from left to right) 20K, 10K, and 5K, are illustrated in the time (top) and spectral (bottom) domains. The red and green dash lines represent the input field intensity and phase respectively, and the shaded blue and orange lines represent the 100 reconstructed field intensity and phase curves respectively. Each iteration starts with a different Poisson sampled momentum distribution with a fixed total number of electrons, and with a different initial guess. We fix the reconstructed phase at one data point to account for constant phase difference. The smaller figures are histograms of σt,ω calculated according to Eq. (14). The vertical red dashed line indicates the input σt,ω.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Figure of merit, χ2, as a function of possible vector potential amplitudes A 0   . We simulate the momentum distribution with A 0 = 2.4 eV, i.e. Up = 1.44 eV. We are able to find the correct vector potential amplitude as the A 0   corresponding to the lowest cost χ2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase-averaged projected momentum distribution (see text) generated for the same IAP as in Fig. 4 and 5. From left to right: R A = A 0 y A 0 x = 1, Δϕ = 0 (circular polarization); RA = 1.5, Δϕ = 0 (amplitude error only); RA = 1, Δϕ = 0.3 rad (phase error only); and RA = 1.5, Δϕ = 0.3 rad (combined amplitude and phase error). The dashed white circle is a perfect circle to guide the eye.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time domain reconstruciton RMSE for different combinations of polarization errors. The red arrows identify the corner cases of the scan for comparison in the insets. In the insets, the blue line is the input field intensity, and the red starred dash line is the reconstructed field intensity.

Equations (17)

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b ( p ) = i + d t [ E ( t ) d ( p + A ( t ) ) ] exp [ i t + d t { ( p + A ( t ) ) 2 / 2 + I p } ]
A ( t ) = A 0 x ( t t d ) cos [ ω L ( t t d ) + ϕ x ] x ^ + A 0 y ( t t d ) sin [ ω L ( t t d ) + ϕ y ] y ^ ,
B 3 D ( p x , p y , p z ) = | b ( p x , p y , p z ) | 2 .
B p ( P x , P y ) = d p z | b ( p x , p y , p z ) | 2 ,
B s ( p x , p y ) = | b ( p x , p y , p z = 0 ) | 2 .
E ( t ) d EWP ( t ) = n c n α n ( t ) ,
b ( p ) = n c n f n ( p ) ,
B ( p ) = n m c n * c m F n m ( p ) ,
χ 2 = p x , p y | M ( p x , p y ) B ( p x , p y ) | 2 ,
α i j ( t ) = ( 1 2 α π ) 1 4 exp [ 1 4 α ( t t j ) 2 i t ω i ] ,
α i j ( ω ) = ( 2 α π ) 1 4 exp [ α ( ω + ω i ) 2 i t j ( ω + ω i ) ] .
Q ij = k,l ( S ij,kl ) 1 dt α kl * ( t )ψ( t ), S ij,kl = dt α ij * ( t ) α kl ( t ).
ψ ( t ) = i j Q i j α i j ( t )
σ x = j N ( x j i N I ( x i ) x i i N I ( x i ) ) 2 I ( x j ) j N I ( x j ) ,
E ( ω ) = E 0 ( ω ) exp { i α 2 ( ω ω 0 ) 2 + i α 3 ( ω ω 0 ) 3 } .
RMSE = [ 1 N k k ( | E ( t k ) | | i , j Q i j α ω i t j ( t k ) | ) 2 ] 1 2 ,
Y p ( k ) = μ p k e μ p k ! ,