Abstract

Gray scale perception of transparent OLED displays was explored. The difference in luminance between transparent and non-transparent stimuli in the overall gray range was compared. The transparent effect appeared in gray scale perception. The range of the transparent effect was determined experimentally. To explore the practical application of this effect, we proposed a new tone-curve based on the transparent effect. In the preference experiment, participants indicated a higher preference score for the new tone-curve. This implied that the transparent effect is valid and applicable to real situations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, (2016). “Modeling of Luminance Transition Curve of Transparent Plastics on Transparent OLED Displays,” in Electronic Imaging (EI, 2016), pp. 1–4.
  2. Z. Qin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Pixel Structure Evaluation Regarding See‐through Image Quality for Transparent Displays: A Study Based on Diffraction Calculation and Full‐Reference Image Quality Assessment,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017), pp. 615–618.
    [Crossref]
  3. C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
    [Crossref]
  4. C. M. Yang, D. H. Lee, K. S. Park, Y. T. Kim, and C. W. Kim, “Comparison of Measures of Blurriness in Transparent Displays,” in Electronic Imaging (EI, 2017), pp. 76–79.
  5. B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. C. Li, H. Y. Tseng, H. C. Liao, H. M. Chen, T. Hsieh, S. A. Lin, H. C. Jau, Y. C. Wu, Y. L. Hsu, W. H. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Enhanced image quality of OLED transparent display by cholesteric liquid crystal back-panel,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29199–29206 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.
  8. Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2014), pp. 1123–1126.
  9. Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.
  10. H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, B. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, “Black perception in a transparent OLED display,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3954–3965 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yamada, “Space brightness affected by a scenic view through a window,” in Proceedings of Association Internationale de la Couleur Midterm Meeting (AIC, 2015), pp. 1211–1216.
  12. F. A. Kingdom, “Lightness, brightness and transparency: A quarter century of new ideas, captivating demonstrations and unrelenting controversy,” Vision Res. 51(7), 652–673 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. L. Anderson and J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vision 8(7), 1–22 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Singh, “Lightness constancy through transparency: internal consistency in layered surface representations,” Vision Res. 44(15), 1827–1842 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, “Toward a perceptual theory of transparency,” Psychol. Rev. 109(3), 492–519 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).
  17. Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) ICT Standardization Committee, “Viewing safety guideline for wearable content,” Standard No. TTAK.KO-10.0860/R1 (2016).

2017 (2)

2015 (1)

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. A. Kingdom, “Lightness, brightness and transparency: A quarter century of new ideas, captivating demonstrations and unrelenting controversy,” Vision Res. 51(7), 652–673 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

2008 (1)

B. L. Anderson and J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vision 8(7), 1–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Singh, “Lightness constancy through transparency: internal consistency in layered surface representations,” Vision Res. 44(15), 1827–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, “Toward a perceptual theory of transparency,” Psychol. Rev. 109(3), 492–519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. Y.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Anderson, B. L.

B. L. Anderson and J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vision 8(7), 1–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, “Toward a perceptual theory of transparency,” Psychol. Rev. 109(3), 492–519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, Y. S.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Chen, H. M.

Cho, K. I.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Chu, H. Y.

Ha, H.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Han, T.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Heo, J.

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, T.

Hsu, W. H.

Hsu, Y. L.

Huang, Y. P.

Z. Qin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Pixel Structure Evaluation Regarding See‐through Image Quality for Transparent Displays: A Study Based on Diffraction Calculation and Full‐Reference Image Quality Assessment,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017), pp. 615–618.
[Crossref]

Huh, J. W.

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C. S.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Jau, H. C.

Kang, D.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Kim, C. W.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, B. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, “Black perception in a transparent OLED display,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3954–3965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Kim, J. C.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Kim, M. C.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Kim, P. R.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Kingdom, F. A.

F. A. Kingdom, “Lightness, brightness and transparency: A quarter century of new ideas, captivating demonstrations and unrelenting controversy,” Vision Res. 51(7), 652–673 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, Y.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Kwon, H. J.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Li, C. C.

Liao, H. C.

Lim, M.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Lin, S. A.

Lin, T. H.

Park, S. H.

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

Park, Y.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Pixel Structure Evaluation Regarding See‐through Image Quality for Transparent Displays: A Study Based on Diffraction Calculation and Full‐Reference Image Quality Assessment,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017), pp. 615–618.
[Crossref]

Seo, Y. J.

H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, B. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, “Black perception in a transparent OLED display,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3954–3965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Shieh, H. P. D.

Z. Qin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Pixel Structure Evaluation Regarding See‐through Image Quality for Transparent Displays: A Study Based on Diffraction Calculation and Full‐Reference Image Quality Assessment,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017), pp. 615–618.
[Crossref]

Singh, M.

M. Singh, “Lightness constancy through transparency: internal consistency in layered surface representations,” Vision Res. 44(15), 1827–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, “Toward a perceptual theory of transparency,” Psychol. Rev. 109(3), 492–519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, H. Y.

Winawer, J.

B. L. Anderson and J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vision 8(7), 1–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. C.

Yang, B.

H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, B. Yang, and H. Y. Chu, “Black perception in a transparent OLED display,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3954–3965 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

Yang, C. M.

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

Yoo, J.

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Yoon, T.-H.

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, B. H.

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electronics and telecommunications trends (1)

C. S. Hwang, S. H. Park, and K. I. Cho, “Technical trends and prospects in transparent display,” Electronics and telecommunications trends 25(5), 20–32 (2010).

J. Vision (1)

B. L. Anderson and J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vision 8(7), 1–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B. H. Yu, J. W. Huh, J. Heo, and T.-H. Yoon, “Simultaneous control of haze and transmittance using a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell,” Liq. Cryst. 42(10), 1460–1464 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Psychol. Rev. (1)

M. Singh and B. L. Anderson, “Toward a perceptual theory of transparency,” Psychol. Rev. 109(3), 492–519 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

F. A. Kingdom, “Lightness, brightness and transparency: A quarter century of new ideas, captivating demonstrations and unrelenting controversy,” Vision Res. 51(7), 652–673 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Singh, “Lightness constancy through transparency: internal consistency in layered surface representations,” Vision Res. 44(15), 1827–1842 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

S. Yamada, “Space brightness affected by a scenic view through a window,” in Proceedings of Association Internationale de la Couleur Midterm Meeting (AIC, 2015), pp. 1211–1216.

Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) ICT Standardization Committee, “Viewing safety guideline for wearable content,” Standard No. TTAK.KO-10.0860/R1 (2016).

Y. Park, D. Kang, S. Kim, T. Han, J. Yoo, and M. Lim, “Simulation of Visual Quality for Transparent OLED Display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2013), pp. 156–159.

Y. Kwak, Y. S. Baek, and J. C. Kim, “Optimal tone curve characteristics of transparent display for preferred image reproduction,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2014), pp. 1123–1126.

Y. Kwak, H. Ha, S. Lee, H. Kim, Y. J. Seo, and B. Yang, “Optimal monitor gamma of transparent display,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical papers (SID, 2015), pp. 196–199.

H. J. Kwon, C. M. Yang, M. C. Kim, C. W. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, (2016). “Modeling of Luminance Transition Curve of Transparent Plastics on Transparent OLED Displays,” in Electronic Imaging (EI, 2016), pp. 1–4.

Z. Qin, Y. P. Huang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Pixel Structure Evaluation Regarding See‐through Image Quality for Transparent Displays: A Study Based on Diffraction Calculation and Full‐Reference Image Quality Assessment,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017), pp. 615–618.
[Crossref]

C. M. Yang, C. W. Kim, H. J. Kwon, M. C. Kim, J. Y. Ahn, and P. R. Kim, “Evaluation of Perceived See‐through Level for Transparent OLED Displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (SID, 2017) pp. 1363–1366.
[Crossref]

C. M. Yang, D. H. Lee, K. S. Park, Y. T. Kim, and C. W. Kim, “Comparison of Measures of Blurriness in Transparent Displays,” in Electronic Imaging (EI, 2017), pp. 76–79.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Non-transparent and transparent reference stimuli, shown by the left and right rectangles, respectively, in the transparent display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Luminance of the transparent test stimuli that the participant matched with the brightness of the non-transparent reference stimuli.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lightness curves of various display gamma in the transparent display.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Preference scores of reference and 2-gamma correction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Preference scores of the PID and natural images.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Surround Luminance and Transmitted Lightings through the Transparent Display

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Table 2 Measured Luminance of the Reference Stimulus for All Surround Conditions

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Table 3 Average Luminance of Test Stimulus in All Surrounding Conditions

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Y e y e = Y d i s p l a y + T Y l i g h t i n g s
Y t r a n s p a r e n t = 0.690 + 0.844 × Y n o n t r a n s p a r e n t + 0.544 × T Y l i g h t i n g s

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