Abstract

We propose and demonstrate the elimination of substrate influence on plasmon resonance by using selective and isotropic etching of substrates. Preventing the red shift of the resonance due to substrates and improving refractive index sensitivity were experimentally demonstrated by using plasmonic nanostructures fabricated on silicon substrates. Applying substrate etching decreases the effective refractive index around the metal nanostructures, resulting in elimination of the red shift. Improvement of sensitivity to the refractive index environment was demonstrated by using plasmonic metamaterials with Fano resonance based on far field interference. Change in quality factors (Q-factors) of the Fano resonance by substrate etching was also investigated in detail. The presence of a closely positioned substrate distorts the electric field distribution and degrades the Q-factors. Substrate etching dramatically increased the refractive index sensitivity reaching to 1532 nm/RIU since the electric fields under the nanostructures became accessible through substrate etching. The FOM was improved compared to the case without the substrate etching. The method presented in this paper is applicable to a variety of plasmonic structures to eliminate the influence of substrates for realizing high performance plasmonic devices.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Moritake, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Experimental demonstration of sharp Fano resonance in optical metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 4057–4060 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
    [PubMed]

2017 (3)

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Moritake and T. Tanaka, “Controlling bi-anisotropy in infrared metamaterials using three-dimensional split-ring-resonators for purely magnetic resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (1)

Y. Moritake, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, “Emission wavelength tuning of fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33208 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14327 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, “Optical Sensing Using Dark Mode Excitation in an Asymmetric Dimer Metamaterial,” Sensors (Basel) 14(1), 272–282 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lahiri, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, S. G. McMeekin, and N. P. Johnson, “Asymmetric split ring resonators for optical sensing of organic materials,” Opt. Express 17(2), 1107–1115 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial induced transparency: Sharp Fano resonances and slow light,” Opt. Photonics News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. Novotny, “Effective Wavelength Scaling for Optical Antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Curry, G. Nusz, A. Chilkoti, and A. Wax, “Substrate effect on refractive index dependence of plasmon resonance for individual silver nanoparticles observed using darkfield microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2668–2677 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Nobel Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abbate, G.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, “Optical Sensing Using Dark Mode Excitation in an Asymmetric Dimer Metamaterial,” Sensors (Basel) 14(1), 272–282 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acimovic, S. S.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreone, A.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, “Optical Sensing Using Dark Mode Excitation in an Asymmetric Dimer Metamaterial,” Sensors (Basel) 14(1), 272–282 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antosiewicz, T. J.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedu, F.

A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, S. H.

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrascosa, L. G.

M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14327 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
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A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
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K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
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M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
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J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
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K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14327 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
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K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
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P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
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M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
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A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
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K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
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A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
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J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Hao, F.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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Huang, C.

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E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
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Johnson, R. B.

R. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Nobel Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
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S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
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A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
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Kästel, J.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
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C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
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A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
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C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
[Crossref]

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J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
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E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

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A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
[Crossref]

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K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
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McMahon, J. M.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
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Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
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Y. Moritake and T. Tanaka, “Controlling bi-anisotropy in infrared metamaterials using three-dimensional split-ring-resonators for purely magnetic resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6726 (2017).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
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M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
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A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

Pakizeh, T.

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ringe, E.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, S. R.

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, M.

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaafsma, M. C.

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sepúlveda, B.

M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiao, M.-H.

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Šípová, H.

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sohn, K.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solak, H. H.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond Light Transmission and Subradiant Damping in Plasmonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutherland, D. S.

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

Y. Moritake and T. Tanaka, “Controlling bi-anisotropy in infrared metamaterials using three-dimensional split-ring-resonators for purely magnetic resonance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.-H.

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tkachenko, V.

N. E. J. Omaghali, V. Tkachenko, A. Andreone, and G. Abbate, “Optical Sensing Using Dark Mode Excitation in an Asymmetric Dimer Metamaterial,” Sensors (Basel) 14(1), 272–282 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tselikov, G.

A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vernon, K. C.

K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, L. M.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, F.

A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

Xia, Y.

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Q.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of molecules with infrared plasmonic metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14327 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial induced transparency: Sharp Fano resonances and slow light,” Opt. Photonics News 20(10), 22–27 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp Trapped-Mode Resonances in Planar Metamaterials with a Broken Structural Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 147401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of Subradiant Dipolar and Fano-Type Plasmon Resonances in Metallic Ring/Disk Cavities: Implications for Nanoscale Optical Sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Offermans, M. C. Schaafsma, S. R. Rodriguez, Y. Zhang, M. Crego-Calama, S. H. Brongersma, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Universal Scaling of the Figure of Merit of Plasmonic Sensors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5151–5157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

C.-C. Chen, A. Ishikawa, Y.-H. Tang, M.-H. Shiao, D. P. Tsai, and T. Tanaka, “Uniaxial-isotropic Metamaterials by Three-Dimensional Split-Ring Resonators,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 44–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

A. Danilov, G. Tselikov, F. Wu, V. G. Kravets, I. Ozerov, F. Bedu, A. N. Grigorenko, and A. V. Kabashin, “Ultra-narrow surface lattice resonances in plasmonic metamaterial arrays for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 104, 102–112 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale Optical Biosensor: Sensitivity and Selectivity of an Approach Based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Triangular Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. D. Mailnsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Effect of Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrum of Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2343–2350 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

E. Ringe, J. M. McMahon, K. Sohn, C. Cobley, Y. Xia, J. Huang, G. C. Schatz, L. D. Marks, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Unraveling the Effects of Size, Composition, and Substrate on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Frequencies of Gold and Silver Nanocubes: A Systematic Single-Particle Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(29), 12511–12516 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Otte, M.-C. Estévez, L. G. Carrascosa, A. B. González-Guerrero, L. M. Lechuga, and B. Sepúlveda, “Improved Biosensing Capability with Novel Suspended Nanodisks,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(13), 5344–5351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. S. Aćimović, H. Šípová, G. Emilsson, A. B. Dahlin, T. J. Antosiewicz, and M. Käll, “Superior LSPR substrates based on electromagnetic decoupling for on-a-chip high-throughput label-free biosensing,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(8), e17042 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (7)

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Enhanced Nanoplasmonic Optical Sensors with Reduced Substrate Effect,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3893–3898 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Quadrumer Clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar Metamaterial Analogue of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for Plasmonic Sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon Line Shaping Using Nanocrosses for High Sensitivity Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-Substrate Interaction on Localized Plasmon Resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, B. Peng, D. Li, J. Zhang, L. M. Wong, Q. Zhang, S. Wang, and Q. Xiong, “Flexible Visible-Infrared Metamaterials and Their Applications in Highly Sensitive Chemical and Biological Sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3232–3238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy of Single Silver Triangular Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of substrate etching for plasmonic elements formed on a substrate. By selective and isotropic etching, the substrate underneath the metal nanostructure is removed and influence of the substrate on the plasmonic modes is eliminated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the gold bar (Unit: nm) and (b) the SEM image of the fabricated gold bars on the silicon substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(e) The SEM images of the gold bars at the respective etching time. (f) Relationship between etching time and etched thickness Tetch.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The transmission spectra for the gold bars while varying the etching time. (b) The plasmon resonant wavelengths as a function of the etched thickness Tetch. The black hollow circles and blue hollow squares correspond to experiments and simulations, respectively. The red line indicates the resonant wavelength of gold bars floating in air. (c) The model used in simulations. (d) The normalized electric field distributions at the plasmon resonance in the case of Tetch = 0 and 95 nm. The cross section is indicated in (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic of the ADB structure (Unit: nm) and (b) the SEM image of the fabricated ADB metamaterial on the silicon substrate.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The transmission spectra for the ADB metamaterial while varying the etching time. (b) The Fano resonant wavelengths (blue hollow circles, left axis) and the Q-factors (red crosses, right axis) as a function of etched thickness Tetch.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The simulated model for investigating substrate influence on Q-factors. (b) The simulated transmission spectra changing the distance between the ADB structures and the substrate D. The normalized electric field distributions at the Fano resonance in the case of D = (c)-(e) 0, (f)-(h) 100, (i)-(k) 200 nm. (c), (f), (i) are the absolute value of electric fields. (d), (g), (j) are the x-component of the electric fields. (e), (h), (k) are the z-component of electric fields. The cross-sectional plane is indicated in (a).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The transmission spectra before and after PMMA coating for (a) ADB-etch and (b) ADB-non. Inset of (b) is the SEM image of ADB-non. The structural size of ADB-non is smaller than that of ADB-etch by 0.425 times. (c) The wavelength shift as a function of refractive index of the coating layer for ADB-etch (red) and ADB-non (blue). Experiments and simulations are indicated by the circles and squares, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive index sensing performance of the Fano resonance for ADB-etch and ADB-non.

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