Abstract

The interplay between interference and absorption leads to interesting phenomena like coherent perfect absorption and coherent perfect transparency (CPA and CPT), which can be exploited for fully optical modulation. While it is known that it is possible to harness CPA and CPT for switching a strong signal beam with a weak control beam, it is not immediate that this process suffers from a fundamental compromise between the device efficiency (quantified by device loss and modulation depth) and the asymmetry between signal and control intensity desired for operation. This article quantifies this compromise and outlines a possible way to overcome it by means of a combination of optical gain and loss in the same photonic component. A general formulation and a specific device realization are both discussed.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Yoon, K. H. Seol, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Critical coupling in dissipative surface-plasmon resonators with multiple ports,” Opt. Express 18, 25702 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT-Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Ge and L. Feng, “Optical-reciprocity-induced symmetry in photonic heterostructures and its manifestation in scattering PT-symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043836 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Ge and L. Feng, “Contrasting eigenvalue and singular-value spectra for lasing and antilasing in a PT-symmetric periodic structure,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013813 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).
  12. V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031801 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Broadband near-unidirectional absorption enabled by phonon-polariton resonances in SiC micropyramid arrays,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034001 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Huang and G. S. Agarwal, “Coherent perfect absorption of path entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 22, 20936 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. L. Baldacci, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, “Interferometric control of absorption in thin plasmonic metamaterials: general two port theory and broadband operation,” Opt. Express 23, 9202 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Contrasting eigenvalue and singular-value spectra for lasing and antilasing in a PT-symmetric periodic structure,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013813 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Broadband near-unidirectional absorption enabled by phonon-polariton resonances in SiC micropyramid arrays,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Optical-reciprocity-induced symmetry in photonic heterostructures and its manifestation in scattering PT-symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043836 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Baldacci, S. Zanotto, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, and A. Tredicucci, “Interferometric control of absorption in thin plasmonic metamaterials: general two port theory and broadband operation,” Opt. Express 23, 9202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang and G. S. Agarwal, “Coherent perfect absorption of path entangled single photons,” Opt. Express 22, 20936 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

2012 (2)

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. H. Seol, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Critical coupling in dissipative surface-plasmon resonators with multiple ports,” Opt. Express 18, 25702 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT-Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Achilleos, V.

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

Almeida, V. R.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ambichl, P.

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Artoni, M.

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldacci, L.

Baranov, D. G.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. M.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT-Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bersch, C.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biasiol, G.

Boettcher, S.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT-Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bolduc, E.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brody, D. C.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-L.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-F.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, Y.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, Y. D.

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couteau, C.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devarapu, G. C. R.

G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Broadband near-unidirectional absorption enabled by phonon-polariton resonances in SiC micropyramid arrays,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V. P.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichelkraut, T.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faccio, D.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fegadolli, W.

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fegadolli, W. S.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Contrasting eigenvalue and singular-value spectra for lasing and antilasing in a PT-symmetric periodic structure,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013813 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Optical-reciprocity-induced symmetry in photonic heterostructures and its manifestation in scattering PT-symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043836 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Broadband near-unidirectional absorption enabled by phonon-polariton resonances in SiC micropyramid arrays,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gatti, A.

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ge, L.

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Contrasting eigenvalue and singular-value spectra for lasing and antilasing in a PT-symmetric periodic structure,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013813 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Optical-reciprocity-induced symmetry in photonic heterostructures and its manifestation in scattering PT-symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043836 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.-P.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamm, J. M.

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heitz, J. J. F.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, O.

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

Jeffers, J.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jones, H. F.

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kottos, T.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krasnok, A.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, M.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Longhi, S.

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Loudon, R.

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

Makris, K. G.

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Miri, M.-A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, H.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, K.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oliveira, J. E. B.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onishchukov, G.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagneux, V.

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pusch, A.

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramezani, H.

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regensburger, A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richoux, O.

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rocca, G. C. La

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roger, T.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Scherer, A.

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seol, K. H.

Shalaev, V. M.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shegai, T.

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soci, C.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S. H.

Sorba, L.

Stone, A.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theocharis, G.

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valente, J.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vezzoli, S.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, W.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.-Q.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wong, Z. J.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.-H.

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuestner, S.

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.-L.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, R.-D.

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

Yu, J.

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zanotto, S.

Zhang, S.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488, 167 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature 466, 735 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Communications (1)

T. Roger, S. Vezzoli, E. Bolduc, J. Valente, J. J. F. Heitz, J. Jeffers, C. Soci, J. Leach, C. Couteau, N. I. Zheludev, and D. Faccio, “Coherent perfect absorption in deeply subwavelength films in the single-photon regime,” Nature Communications 6, 7031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Materials (1)

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nature Materials 12, 108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nature Photonics 10, 796 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nature Reviews Materials (1)

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nature Reviews Materials 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2134 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Ge, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and L. Feng, “Scattering in PT- and RT-symmetric multimode waveguides: Generalized conservation laws and spontaneous symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 062135 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Optical-reciprocity-induced symmetry in photonic heterostructures and its manifestation in scattering PT-symmetry breaking,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 043836 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Ge and L. Feng, “Contrasting eigenvalue and singular-value spectra for lasing and antilasing in a PT-symmetric periodic structure,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 013813 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Applied (1)

G. C. R. Devarapu and S. Foteinopoulou, “Broadband near-unidirectional absorption enabled by phonon-polariton resonances in SiC micropyramid arrays,” Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Achilleos, G. Theocharis, O. Richoux, and V. Pagneux, “Non-hermitian acoustic metamaterials: Role of exceptional points in sound absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 95, 144303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

W. Wang, L.-Q. Wang, R.-D. Xue, H.-L. Chen, R.-P. Guo, Y. Liu, and J. Chen, “Unidirectional excitation of radiative-loss-free surface plasmon polaritons in PT-symmetric systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 077401 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, W. Fegadolli, J. Yu, Z. Zhang, L. Ge, A. Scherer, and L. Feng, “Metawaveguide for asymmetric interferometric light-light switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 193901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wuestner, A. Pusch, K. L. Tsakmakidis, J. M. Hamm, and O. Hess, “Overcoming losses with gain in a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127401 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, and A. D. Stone, “PT-symmetry breaking and laser-absorber modes in optical scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: Time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, H. Ramezani, T. Eichelkraut, T. Kottos, H. Cao, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Unidirectional invisibility induced by PT-symmetric periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Non-hermitian degeneracies and unidirectional reflectionless atomic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 123004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Manifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real Spectra in Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians Having PT-Symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. Jones, “Complex extension of quantum mechanics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 270401 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

P. Ambichl, K. G. Makris, L. Ge, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, and S. Rotter, “Breaking of PT symmetry in bounded and unbounded scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041030 (2013).

Science (1)

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (1)

J.-H. Wu, M. Artoni, and G. C. La Rocca, “Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media,” Scientific Reports 6, 35356 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Panels (a)–(f), fundamental limitations of asymmetrical light-light switching devices based on engineered losses. In a system implementing CT and CPA (coherent transparency and coherent perfect absorption), panel (a), a strong signal can be completely stopped by a weak control. Acting on the phase of the control beam, the signal can be allowed to partially pass through the device, without however reaching full transparency. The limitation is dictated by the constraints on the absorption modulation ellipse, represented in panel (c) for the CT-CPA case. The intensity asymmetry between signal and control at the operating point is x ¯ = I in sig I in contr, assuming I in sig + I in contr = 1. Panel (e) reports the insertion loss - i.e., the penalty on the output intensity at CT - that a CPA-CT device must undergo. Panels (b, d, f), analogous constraints for a CPT-CA (coherent perfect transparency/coherent absorption) light-light switch. In this configuration there is no insertion loss (i.e., the signal does not get absorbed in CPT), but there is a finite extinction ratio (i.e., the signal does not reach zero at CA).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Concept of perfect asymmetric light-light switch in a CPA-CPT (coherent perfect absorption/transparency) device. By acting on the phase of a weak control beam it is possible to completely turn on and off an arbitrarily intense beam. The system must include a gain element: to have CPA and CPT at an operating intensity difference x ¯ = I in sig I in contr 0 the coherent modulation ellipse must allow for output intensities exceeding unity (when input intensity is normalized to one, I in sig + I in contr = 1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A minimal implementation of a CPA-CPT device, consisting of a gain/loss bilayer slab (a). To fulfil the CPA-CPT conditions, appropriate conditions on the refractive indices n1 + ik1, n2ik2 and on the thicknesses L1,2 are required. Panel (b) reports the L1, L2 pairs that satisfy the CPA-CPT condition, assuming n1 = n2 = 1.5 and signal/control intensity ratio equal to 60. The grid lines represent the Fabry-Pérot conditions for the two slabs. Panels (c–d), projection of the solution set on the k1L1 and k2L2 planes. Some points are colored to help the matching with the representation on the L1L2 plane. The solid lines are power-laws towards which solutions accumulate. Panels in (e), fields in the structure corresponding to point 1. Input phases fulfilling CPT and CPA are imposed; intensity ratio is 60:1. Units are chosen such that the Poynting vector has the same magnitude as the squared electric field. Panels in (f), comparison of CPT fields for different structures. The number of field minima in the gain/loss layers correspond to the Fabry-Pérot order observed in (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Solution clusters corresponding to different signal/control ratios, represented on the (k1L1, k2L2) plane. Each “fiber” of the cluster corresponds to a Fabry-Pérot family, i.e., to groups such as the colored sets in Fig. 3(b). The cluster cutoffs at large k1L1 are due to the finite extension of the numerical space search.

Equations (4)

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I out = 1 1 + x 2 A 1 1 x 2 A 2 + 1 x 2 A mod sin ( γ + δ )
U = e i ϕ / 2 ( e i ϕ 1 cos θ e i ϕ 2 sin θ e i ϕ 2 sin θ e i ϕ 1 cos θ ) .
S = e i ϕ ( e 2 i ϕ 1 cos 2 θ e i ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) cos θ sin θ e i ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) cos θ sin θ e 2 i ϕ 2 sin 2 θ ) .
S = e i ϕ 2 = ( I in contr I in sig e i ζ 1 1 I in sig I in contr e i ζ )

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