Abstract

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with thin avalanche regions have shown low excess noise characteristics and high gain-bandwidth products, so they are suited for long-haul optical communications. In this work, we investigated how carrier injection profile affects the avalanche gain and excess noise factors of Al0.85Ga0.15As0.56Sb0.44 (lattice-matched to InP substrates) p-i-n and n-i-p diodes with total depletion widths of 145-240 nm. Different carrier injection profiles were achieved by using light with wavelengths of 420, 543 and 633nm. For p-i-n diodes, shorter wavelength light produces higher avalanche gains for a given reverse bias and lower excess noise factors at a given gain, compared to longer wavelength light. Thus, using 420 nm light on the p-i-n diodes, corresponding to pure electron injection conditions, gave the highest gain and lowest excess noise. In n-i-p diodes, pure hole injection yields significantly lower gain and higher excess noise, compared to mixed carrier injection. These show that the electron ionization coefficient, α, is higher than the hole ionization coefficient, β. Using pure electron injection, excess noise factor characteristics with effective ionization ratios, keff, of 0.08-0.1 were obtained. This is significantly lower than those of InP and In0.52Al0.48As, the commonly used avalanche materials combined with In0.53Ga0.47As absorber. The data reported in this paper is available from the ORDA digital repository (DOI: 10.15131/shef.data.5787318).

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References

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  1. L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).
  5. M. Ren, S. J. Maddox, M. E. Woodson, Y. Chen, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Characteristics of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y (x:0.3-0.7) Avalanche Photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(12), 2380–2384 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

2017 (2)

M. Ren, S. J. Maddox, M. E. Woodson, Y. Chen, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Characteristics of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y (x:0.3-0.7) Avalanche Photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(12), 2380–2384 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2012 (1)

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. J. Rees and J. P. R. David, “Nonlocal impact ionization and avalanche multiplication,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(24), 243001 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

M. H. Woods, W. C. Johnson, and M. A. Lambert, “Use of a Schottky barrier to measure impact ionization coefficients in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 16(3), 381–394 (1973).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-1(1), 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

Abdullah, S.

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anselm, K. A.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bank, S. R.

Button, C. C.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

M. Ren, S. J. Maddox, M. E. Woodson, Y. Chen, S. R. Bank, and J. C. Campbell, “Characteristics of AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y (x:0.3-0.7) Avalanche Photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(12), 2380–2384 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Clark, J. C.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cook, P.

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

David, J. P. R.

G. J. Rees and J. P. R. David, “Nonlocal impact ionization and avalanche multiplication,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(24), 243001 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dimler, S. J.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

Goh, Y. L.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grey, R.

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hansing, C. C.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Herbert, D. C.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. L.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hopkinson, M.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, W. C.

M. H. Woods, W. C. Johnson, and M. A. Lambert, “Use of a Schottky barrier to measure impact ionization coefficients in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 16(3), 381–394 (1973).
[Crossref]

Jones, S. K.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lambert, M. A.

M. H. Woods, W. C. Johnson, and M. A. Lambert, “Use of a Schottky barrier to measure impact ionization coefficients in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 16(3), 381–394 (1973).
[Crossref]

Lenox, C. V.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Leong, W. Y.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, K. F.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Maddox, S. J.

Marshall, A. R. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinez, E.

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

Massey, D. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-1(1), 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

Moreno, M.

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newey, J.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ng, J. S.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nie, H.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ong, D. S.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pinches, S. M.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pinel, L. L. G.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

Plimmer, S. A.

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Rees, G. J.

G. J. Rees and J. P. R. David, “Nonlocal impact ionization and avalanche multiplication,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(24), 243001 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ren, M.

Robbins, D. J.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Robson, P. N.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schuermeyer, F. L.

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

Streetman, B. G.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. H.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tan, L. J. J.

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tantillo, J.

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Tozer, R. C.

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Woods, M. H.

M. H. Woods, W. C. Johnson, and M. A. Lambert, “Use of a Schottky barrier to measure impact ionization coefficients in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 16(3), 381–394 (1973).
[Crossref]

Woodson, M. E.

Xie, J.

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xie, X. Zhou, S. Zhang, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, G. T. Reed, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “InGaAs/AlGaAsSb Avalanche Photodiode with High Gain-Bandwidth Product,” Opt. Express 24(21), 24242–24247 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. L. Schuermeyer, P. Cook, E. Martinez, and J. Tantillo, “Band‐edge Alignment in Heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(18), 1877–1878 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche Noise Measurement in Thin Si p+-i-n+ Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(26), 3926–3928 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact Ionization Characteristics of III-V Semiconductors for a Wide Range of Multiplication Region Thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 198–204 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, and J. P. R. David, “Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(4), 378–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(6), 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Zhou, L. L. G. Pinel, S. J. Dimler, S. Zhang, J. S. Ng, and C. H. Tan, “Thin Al1-xGaxAs0.56Sb0.44 Diodes With Low Excess Noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 3800105 (2018).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (4)

J. Xie, S. Xie, R. C. Tozer, and C. H. Tan, “Excess Noise Characteristics of Thin AlAsSb APDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59(5), 1475–1479 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, and R. Grey, “Low Multiplication Noise Thin Al0.6Ga0.4As Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48(7), 1310–1317 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p+-i-n+ diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 45(10), 2102–2107 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication Noise in Uniform Avalanche Diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-1(1), 164–168 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

G. J. Rees and J. P. R. David, “Nonlocal impact ionization and avalanche multiplication,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(24), 243001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

R. Soc. Open Sci. (1)

X. Zhou, C. H. Tan, S. Zhang, M. Moreno, S. Xie, S. Abdullah, and J. S. Ng, “Thin Al1-x Ga x As0.56Sb0.44 Diodes with Extremely Weak Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Breakdown,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 4(5), 170071 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. H. Woods, W. C. Johnson, and M. A. Lambert, “Use of a Schottky barrier to measure impact ionization coefficients in semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 16(3), 381–394 (1973).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Centronic, High Speed Detectors (BPX65). [Online].

Thorlabs, Fiber-Coupled LED, M420F2. (2017) [Online].

K. F. Li, “Avalanche Noise in Submicron GaAs and InP Structures,” PhD Thesis, University of Sheffield (1999) (Chap.4, p.78).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional schematic diagram (a) and top-view photograph (b) of devices fabricated from the n-i-p wafers. (c) Example data of dark current, photocurrent, and deduced gain, obtained from a PIN 1 diode with a radius of 110 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Capacitance-voltage data of 110 μm radii diodes of the AlGaAsSb wafers, (b) noise signal versus photocurrent of a Si photodiode measured using different light sources, and (c) dark current versus reverse bias of 110 μm radii diodes for all 4 wafers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Avalanche gain versus reverse bias characteristics of the four wafers, obtained using wavelengths of 633 (●), 543 (▽), and 420 nm (■). 1/M curves are extrapolated to zero to extract Vb.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Excess noise factor versus avalanche gain characteristics of the four wafers, obtained using wavelengths of 633 nm (●), 543 nm (▽), and 420 nm (■).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated characteristics of Fe(Me) (black symbols) and Fh(Mh) (red symbols) β/α = 0.5. Ratios of deadspace to avalanche width used are 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of excess noise factors at avalanche gain ~10 of avalanche diodes made with AlGaAsSb (this work), AlAsSb [3], Al0.3In0.7As0.3Sb0.7 [5], InAlAs [2], InP [17], and Si [18].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Breakdown voltages, nominal w, and modelled w, capacitance at 0.95Vb (for 110 μm radii diodes), and depletion width at 0.95Vb of the four AlGaAsSb wafers.

Equations (1)

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F(M)= k eff M+( 2 1 M )( 1 k eff ),

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