Abstract

A central challenge in quantum technologies based on atom-like defects is the efficient collection of the emitter’s fluorescence. Optical antennas are appealing as they offer directional emission together with spontaneous emission rate enhancement across a broad emitter spectrum. In this work, we introduce and optimize metal-dielectric nanoantenna designs recessed into a diamond substrate and aligned with quantum emitters. We analyze tradeoffs between external quantum efficiency, collection efficiency, radiative Purcell factor, and overall collected photon rate. This analysis shows that an optimized metal-dielectric hybrid structure can increase the collected photon rate from a nitrogen vacancy center by over two orders of magnitude compared to a bare emitter.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  6. W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  20. M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19, 5268 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  25. H. Choi, M. Heuck, and D. Englund, “Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 1–6 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  26. V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” Quantum Electron. IEEE J. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, M. Heuck, and D. Englund, “Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 1–39 (2016).

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Wolf, I. Rosenberg, R. Rapaport, and N. Bar-Gill, “Purcell-enhanced optical spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum Plasmonic Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19, 5268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Waks and D. Sridharan, “Cavity QED treatment of interactions between a metal nanoparticle and a dipole emitter,” Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 82, 1–14 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” Quantum Electron. IEEE J. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Agio, M.

M. Agio and A. Alù, Optical Antennas, Optical Antennas (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Alù, A.

M. Agio and A. Alù, Optical Antennas, Optical Antennas (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Arias-Gonzalez, J. R.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
[Crossref]

Atatüre, M.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babinec, T.

Babinec, T. M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bar-Gill, N.

S. A. Wolf, I. Rosenberg, R. Rapaport, and N. Bar-Gill, “Purcell-enhanced optical spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bayn, I.

Becher, C.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. K.

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernien, H.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaskar, M. K.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Binder, J. M.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blok, M. S.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borzdov, Y. M.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19, 5268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cappellaro, P.

C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 1–39 (2016).

Carminati, R.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, E. H.

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, M. Heuck, and D. Englund, “Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choy, J. T.

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19, 5268 (2011).
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L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
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B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
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N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum Plasmonic Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
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M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
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M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
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P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
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P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
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T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
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J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
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W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
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J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
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Hausmann, B. J. M.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
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L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
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Hemmer, P. R.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
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L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hepp, C.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heuck, M.

H. Choi, M. Heuck, and D. Englund, “Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 1–6 (2017).
[Crossref]

High, A. A.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
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J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hobbs, R. G.

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollenberg, L. C.

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holzgrafe, J.

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, I. C.

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ijaz, A.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Isoya, J.

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
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L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
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Janitz, E.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jelezko, F.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
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L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
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F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
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I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
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L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Bulu, and M. Khan, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond - silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kolkowitz, S.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupriyanov, I. N.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, F. L.

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. B.

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
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P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
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Loncar, M.

I. C. Huang, J. Holzgrafe, R. A. Jensen, J. T. Choy, M. G. Bawendi, and M. Lončar, “10 Nm Gap Bowtie Plasmonic Apertures Fabricated By Modified Lift-Off Process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Bulu, T. Babinec, B. Hausmann, J. T. Choy, and M. Loncar, “Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources,” Opt. Express 19, 5268 (2011).
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J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” Quantum Electron. IEEE J. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
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Lukin, M. D.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum Plasmonic Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfrinato, V. R.

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manson, N. B.

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manucharyan, V. E.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markham, M.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markham, M. L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marseglia, L.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maurer, P.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maze, J. R.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messer, K.

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metsch, M. H.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mouradian, S. L.

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Müller, T.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neu, E.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, C. T.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Palyanov, Y. N.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum Plasmonic Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

Patterson, D.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patton, B. R.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, W.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pingault, B.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rabl, P.

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rapaport, R.

S. A. Wolf, I. Rosenberg, R. Rapaport, and N. Bar-Gill, “Purcell-enhanced optical spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
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Reinhard, F.

C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 1–39 (2016).

Rogers, L. J.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rosenberg, I.

S. A. Wolf, I. Rosenberg, R. Rapaport, and N. Bar-Gill, “Purcell-enhanced optical spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Safira, A.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” Quantum Electron. IEEE J. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schouten, R. N.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreck, M.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schröder, T.

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

Shields, B. J.

B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sipahigil, A.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Siyushev, P.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sridharan, D.

E. Waks and D. Sridharan, “Cavity QED treatment of interactions between a metal nanoparticle and a dipole emitter,” Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 82, 1–14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stach, E. A.

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley-Clarke, A. C.

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steinmüller-Nethl, D.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sternschulte, H.

T. Müller, C. Hepp, B. Pingault, E. Neu, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, H. Sternschulte, D. Steinmüller-Nethl, C. Becher, and M. Atatüre, “ Optical signatures of silicon-vacancy spins in diamond,” Nat. communications 5, 3328 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, D.

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukachev, D. D.

P. Siyushev, M. H. Metsch, A. Ijaz, J. M. Binder, M. K. Bhaskar, D. D. Sukachev, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, C. T. Nguyen, M. D. Lukin, P. R. Hemmer, Y. N. Palyanov, I. N. Kupriyanov, Y. M. Borzdov, L. J. Rogers, and F. Jelezko, “Optical and microwave control of germanium-vacancy center spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 96, 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sumiya, H.

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taminiau, T. H.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, J. M.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teraji, T.

L. J. Rogers, K. D. Jahnke, M. H. Metsch, A. Sipahigil, J. M. Binder, T. Teraji, H. Sumiya, J. Isoya, M. D. Lukin, P. Hemmer, and F. Jelezko, “All-Optical Initialization, Readout, and Coherent Preparation of Single Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, M.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tiggelman, M. J.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trusheim, M. E.

Twitchen, D. J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterreithmeier, Q. P.

B. J. Shields, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, N. P. De Leon, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient Readout of a Single Spin State in Diamond via Spin-to-Charge Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dam, S. B.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science. 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” Quantum Electron. IEEE J. 36, 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Waks, E.

E. Waks and D. Sridharan, “Cavity QED treatment of interactions between a metal nanoparticle and a dipole emitter,” Phys. Rev. A - At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 82, 1–14 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walsh, M.

Walsworth, R. L.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wolf, S. A.

S. A. Wolf, I. Rosenberg, R. Rapaport, and N. Bar-Gill, “Purcell-enhanced optical spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B - Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wrachtrup, J.

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Reports 528, 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Jelezko and J. Wrachtrup, “Single defect centres in diamond: A review,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 203, 3207–3225 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, Z. L.

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y. F.

P. B. Li, Y. C. Liu, S. Y. Gao, Z. L. Xiang, P. Rabl, Y. F. Xiao, and F. L. Li, “Hybrid quantum device based on NV centers in diamond nanomechanical resonators plus superconducting waveguide cavities,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yacoby, A.

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

M. S. Eggleston, K. Messer, L. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 1704–1709 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Manfrinato, L. Zhang, D. Su, H. Duan, R. G. Hobbs, E. A. Stach, and K. K. Berggren, “Resolution limits of electron-beam lithography toward the atomic scale,” Nano Lett. 13, 1555–1558 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

T. Schröder, S. L. Mouradian, J. Zheng, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, E. H. Chen, L. Li, I. Bayn, and D. Englund, “Quantum nanophotonics in diamond [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, B65 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15, 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

S. Kolkowitz, A. Safira, A. A. High, R. C. Devlin, S. Choi, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, D. Patterson, A. S. Zibrov, V. E. Manucharyan, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit,” Science. 347, 1129–1132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Jiang, J. S. Hodges, J. R. Maze, P. Maurer, J. M. Taylor, D. G. Cory, P. R. Hemmer, R. L. Walsworth, A. Yacoby, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Repetitive Readout of a Single Electronic Spin via Quantum Logic with Nuclear Spin Ancillae,” Science. 326, 267–272 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. P. Hadden, J. P. Harrison, A. C. Stanley-Clarke, L. Marseglia, Y. L. D. Ho, B. R. Patton, J. L. O’Brien, and J. G. Rarity, “Strongly enhanced photon collection from diamond defect centers under microfabricated integrated solid immersion lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 402–406 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3863–3865 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161101 (2013).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A quantum emitter coupled to a metallic nano-antenna. Left: the energy levels of the NV center and its broad emission spectrum. Right: the energy levels of the SiV defect and its narrow emission spectrum.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diamond-embedded metal antennas. (a) M1: a silver bowtie antenna embedded in a diamond medium with length L, thickness d and angle α (b) M2: an hourglass nanoantenna consisting of a silver bowtie antenna surrounded by an similar metallic conducting plane with a resulting diamond aperture size D. c) M3: a capped hourglass antenna consisting of the hourglass with an additional conformal silver capping layer (d) G-series variants: concentric gratings surrounding the antenna structures are added to increase CE. The labeled parameters were allowed to vary during the optimization.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dielectric antenna designs. (a) D1: a pair of air-filled bowtie tips etched into the diamond with length L, thickness d and angle α. D1G adds an additional concentric grating similar to Fig. 2(d). (b) D2: raised diamond bowtie with length L, angle α and thickness d. The labeled parameters were allowed to vary during the optimization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Metal-dielectric antenna designs. (a) MD1: a hybrid bowtie structure with tip angle α, dielectric length Ld, metal length Lm and thickness d. D1G adds an additional concentric grating similar to Fig. 2(d). (b) MD2: a hybrid hourglass structure similar to the metallic hourglass with the same optimization variables.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The emission pattern for each of the metallic structures. All structures demonstrate a directional emission pattern. (b) The mode profile of the electric field confined by the metallic nano-antennas. The structures demonstrate a small mode volume. (c) The figures of merit of each metallic designs over the NV spectrum.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The emission pattern for each of the optimized dielectric structures. (b) The mode profile of the electric field confined by the dielectric nanoantennas. The air tips confine the electric field into a small mode volume. (c) The figures of merit of each optimized dielectric designs through the NV spectrum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The emission pattern for each of the optimized hybrid structures. (b) The mode profile of the electric field confined by the hybrid nano-antennas. The air-tips and metal trapezoids confine the electric field into a small mode volume. (c) The figures of merit of th each hybrid designs through the NV spectrum.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Figures of Merit of Optimized Structures

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Table 2 Grating effect on CPR

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Table 3 Metallic optimized parameter values

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Table 4 Dielectric optimized parameter values

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Table 5 Hybrid optimized parameter values

Equations (2)

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F p = Γ Γ free = 3 λ 3 Q 4 π 2 V eff
CE = 1 2 Z 0 | E ( θ , ϕ ) | 2 sin ( θ ) d ϕ d θ P out ,

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