Abstract

In this work, we propose an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system using an arrayed transmitter/receiver and optical superimposition-based pulse amplitude modulation with 4 levels (PAM-4). At the transmitter side, we design a spatial summing scheme using a light emitting diode (LED) array, which is divided into two groups in a uniformly interleaved manner. With on-off keying (OOK) modulation for each group, optical superimposition-based PAM-4 can be realized. It has enhanced tolerance to the modulation nonlinearities of LEDs. We numerically investigate the feasibility of the proposed spatial summing scheme in various underwater channels via Monte Carlo simulation. With the increase of divergence angle of LEDs and link distance, the optical power distribution tends to be more uniform at the reception plane. It can significantly relax the requirement on the link alignment. Furthermore, we conduct a proof-of-concept experiment employing two blue LEDs. A multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), containing an array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), is used as the detector. It has a much higher sensitivity and can further relax the requirement for pointing. Over a 2-m tap water channel, data rates of 6.144 Mb/s, 8.192 Mb/s, and 12.288 Mb/s were achieved by using the PAM-4 signal generated by optical superimposition, within a 2.5-MHz system bandwidth. With 0.570-mg/L Mg(OH)2, the measured optical power is just 12.890 µW after a 2-m underwater channel. The corresponding bit error rate (BER) of the 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal is 2.9 × 10−3, which is still below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10−3. It implies that the UWOC system based on the high-sensitivity MPPC with array structure has superior power efficiency and robustness.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate

Chao Shen, Yujian Guo, Hassan M. Oubei, Tien Khee Ng, Guangyu Liu, Ki-Hong Park, Kang-Ting Ho, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Boon S. Ooi
Opt. Express 24(22) 25502-25509 (2016)

16 Gb/s PAM4 UWOC system based on 488-nm LD with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques

Chung-Yi Li, Hai-Han Lu, Wen-Shing Tsai, Ming-Te Cheng, Chun-Ming Ho, Yun-Chieh Wang, Zih-Yi Yang, and De-Yu Chen
Opt. Express 25(10) 11598-11605 (2017)

10-m 9.51-Gb/s RGB laser diodes-based WDM underwater wireless optical communication

Meiwei Kong, Weichao Lv, Tariq Ali, Rohail Sarwar, Chuying Yu, Yang Qiu, Fengzhong Qu, Zhiwei Xu, Jun Han, and Jing Xu
Opt. Express 25(17) 20829-20834 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Al-Halafi, H. M. Oubei, B. S. Ooi, and B. Shihada, “Real-time video transmission over different underwater wireless optical channels using a directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 826–832 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  3. X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z. J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Brundage, “Designing a wireless underwater optical communication system,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2010).
  5. J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Xie, “Transmission of 128-Gb/s PDM-4PAM Generated with Electroabsoption Modulators over 960-km Standard Single-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4F.5.
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Chi, M. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhao, “3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21663–21673 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. M. J. Koonen, B. Inan, I. Neokosmidis, J. W. Walewski, S. C. J. Lee, and S. Randel, “Impact of led nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(5), 439–451 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Complete modeling of nonlinear distortion in OFDM-based optical wireless communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3064–3076 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).
  17. Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, and G. T. Zhou, “Distributions of upper PAPR and lower PAPR of OFDM signals in visible light communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2014), pp. 355–359.
    [Crossref]
  18. C. H. Yeh, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Chow, and Y. L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Li, N. Bamiedakis, J. Wei, J. Mckendry, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. Dawson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “6.25 Gb/s POF link using GaN μLED arrays and optically generated pulse amplitude modulation,” in CLEO:2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu4F.7.
  23. T. Fath, C. Heller, and H. Haas, “Optical wireless transmitter employing discrete power level stepping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(11), 1734–1743 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Yew, S. D. Dissanayake, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of an experimental optical DAC used in a visible light communication system,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (2014), pp. 1110–1115.
  25. C. Xi, A. Mirvakili, and V. J. Koomson, “A visible light communication system demonstration based on 16-level pulse amplitude modulation of an LED array,” in IEEE Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–4.
  26. M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Zhang and Y. Dong, “Impulse response modeling for general underwater wireless optical MIMO links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 56–61 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. W. Kong, Y. F. Chen, R. Sarwar, B. Sun, B. Cong, and J. Xu, “Optical superimposition-based PAM-4 signal generation for visible light communication,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN 2017), pp. 1–3.
    [Crossref]
  31. B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

2017 (6)

A. Al-Halafi, H. M. Oubei, B. S. Ooi, and B. Shihada, “Real-time video transmission over different underwater wireless optical channels using a directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(10), 826–832 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z. J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

H. Zhang and Y. Dong, “Impulse response modeling for general underwater wireless optical MIMO links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 56–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chi, M. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhao, “3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21663–21673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yeh, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Chow, and Y. L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agrell, E.

Akhoundi, F.

M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Al-Halafi, A.

Alouini, M. S.

Andrekson, P.

Asyngier, T.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Baghdady, J.

Baxley, R. J.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, and G. T. Zhou, “Distributions of upper PAPR and lower PAPR of OFDM signals in visible light communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2014), pp. 355–359.
[Crossref]

Byrd, M.

Chang, G.-K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chellis, J.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

Chi, N.

Chi, Y. C.

Chitre, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

Chowdhury, A.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B. M.

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cong, C.

Deng, N.

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Detweiler, C.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

H. Zhang and Y. Dong, “Impulse response modeling for general underwater wireless optical MIMO links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 56–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doniec, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Duran, J. R.

Engenhardt, K. M.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Fahs, B.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Fath, T.

Fletcher, A. S.

A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaiarin, S.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Ghasemi, J.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, J.

Haas, H.

Haglund, Å.

Hamilton, S. A.

A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J. H.

Hella, M. M.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heller, C.

Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, Y.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Inan, B.

Jacobs, G.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Jamali, M. V.

M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Johnson, E. G.

Kakkar, A.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Karlsson, M.

Karout, J.

Kavehrad, M.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kong, M.

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koomson, V. J.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kuo, H. C.

Larsson, A.

Laux, A. E.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. C. J.

Li, J.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Li, W.

Lin, A.

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G. R.

Liu, R.

Liu, T.

T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, W.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maksymiuk, L.

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazzara, B.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miao, Y.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miller, K.

Mirvakili, A.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moores, J. D.

A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morgan, K.

Mullen, L. J.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Navarro, J. R.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Neokosmidis, I.

Ng, T. K.

Ni, G.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nordwall, F.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Olmedo, M. I.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Ooi, B. S.

Osler, S.

Oubei, H. M.

Ozolins, O.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Pang, X.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Popov, S.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Qian, H.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Z. J.

Qu, F.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ragusa, R.

Randel, S.

Ray, S.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rus, D.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salehi, J. A.

M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schatz, R.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Senneca, M. J.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shihada, B.

Shim, H. K.

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinanovic, S.

Siuzdak, J.

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepniak, G.

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, B.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Szczerba, K.

Tian, P.

Tsai, C. T.

Tsonev, D.

Udalcovs, A.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Vasilescu, I.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walewski, J. W.

Wang, H. Y.

Westbergh, P.

Westergren, U.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

Wu, Y.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Yi, S.

Ying, K.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, and G. T. Zhou, “Distributions of upper PAPR and lower PAPR of OFDM signals in visible light communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2014), pp. 355–359.
[Crossref]

Yun, C. C.

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zarkesh-Ha, P.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang and Y. Dong, “Impulse response modeling for general underwater wireless optical MIMO links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 56–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, W.

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zheng, L.

Zhou, G. T.

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, and G. T. Zhou, “Distributions of upper PAPR and lower PAPR of OFDM signals in visible light communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2014), pp. 355–359.
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Zhou, Y.

Zibar, D.

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

H. Zhang and Y. Dong, “Impulse response modeling for general underwater wireless optical MIMO links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 56–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, and J. D. Moores, “Undersea laser communication with narrow beams,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(11), 49–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H. K. Shim, H. Kim, and C. C. Yun, “20-Gb/s polar RZ 4-PAM transmission over 20-km SSMF using RSOA and direct detection,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1116–1119 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Fahs, J. Chellis, M. J. Senneca, A. Chowdhury, S. Ray, A. Mirvakili, B. Mazzara, Y. Zhang, J. Ghasemi, Y. Miao, P. Zarkesh-Ha, V. J. Koomson, and M. M. Hella, “A 6-m OOK VLC link using CMOS-compatible p-n photodiode and red LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(24), 2846–2849 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. V. Jamali, J. A. Salehi, and F. Akhoundi, “Performance studies of underwater wireless optical communication systems with spatial diversity: MIMO scheme,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 65(3), 1176–1192 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Wirel. Commun. (2)

A. Yang, Y. Wu, M. Kavehrad, and G. Ni, “Grouped modulation scheme for led array module in a visible light communication system,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 24–28 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Ying, Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, H. Qian, G.-K. Chang, and G. T. Zhou, “Nonlinear distortion mitigation in visible light communications,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(2), 36–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

O. Ozolins, X. Pang, M. I. Olmedo, A. Kakkar, A. Udalcovs, S. Gaiarin, J. R. Navarro, K. M. Engenhardt, T. Asyngier, R. Schatz, J. Li, F. Nordwall, U. Westergren, D. Zibar, S. Popov, and G. Jacobs, “100 GHz Externally modulated laser for optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2017).

T. Fath, C. Heller, and H. Haas, “Optical wireless transmitter employing discrete power level stepping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(11), 1734–1743 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, S. Sinanovic, and H. Haas, “Complete modeling of nonlinear distortion in OFDM-based optical wireless communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 3064–3076 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: A lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 44(4), 55–65 (2010).
[Crossref]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Stepniak, L. Maksymiuk, and J. Siuzdak, “1.1 Gbit/s white lighting LED-based visible light link with pulse amplitude modulation and Volterra DFE equalization,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 57(7), 1620–1622 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Xu, M. Kong, A. Lin, Y. Song, X. Yu, F. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, W. Lu, B. Sun, Y. Hong, F. Qu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO-OFDM underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Commun. 403, 205–210 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Liu, H. Zhang, and J. Song, “Monte-Carlo simulation-based characteristics of underwater scattering channel,” Opt. Eng. 56(7), 070501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, J. Karout, J. Gustavsson, Å. Haglund, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, E. Agrell, and A. Larsson, “30 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of MMF using an 850 nm VCSEL,” Opt. Express 19(26), B203–B208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, S. Yi, X. Zhou, Z. Fang, Z. J. Qiu, L. Hu, C. Cong, L. Zheng, R. Liu, and P. Tian, “34.5 m underwater optical wireless communication with 2.70 Gbps data rate based on a green laser diode with NRZ-OOK modulation,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27937–27947 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, H. Y. Chen, C. W. Chow, and Y. L. Liu, “Utilization of multi-band OFDM modulation to increase traffic rate of phosphor-LED wireless VLC,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1133–1138 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chi, M. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and J. Zhao, “3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21663–21673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

Z. Yu, R. J. Baxley, and G. T. Zhou, “Distributions of upper PAPR and lower PAPR of OFDM signals in visible light communications,” in IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (2014), pp. 355–359.
[Crossref]

D. C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

M. W. Kong, Y. F. Chen, R. Sarwar, B. Sun, B. Cong, and J. Xu, “Optical superimposition-based PAM-4 signal generation for visible light communication,” in 16th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN 2017), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

X. Li, N. Bamiedakis, J. Wei, J. Mckendry, E. Xie, R. Ferreira, E. Gu, M. Dawson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “6.25 Gb/s POF link using GaN μLED arrays and optically generated pulse amplitude modulation,” in CLEO:2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper STu4F.7.

J. Yew, S. D. Dissanayake, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of an experimental optical DAC used in a visible light communication system,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops (2014), pp. 1110–1115.

C. Xi, A. Mirvakili, and V. J. Koomson, “A visible light communication system demonstration based on 16-level pulse amplitude modulation of an LED array,” in IEEE Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012), pp. 1–4.

H. Brundage, “Designing a wireless underwater optical communication system,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2010).

C. Xie, “Transmission of 128-Gb/s PDM-4PAM Generated with Electroabsoption Modulators over 960-km Standard Single-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th4F.5.
[Crossref]

J. Du, W. Xu, H. Zhang, and C. Zhao, “Visible light communications using spatial summing PAM with LED array,” in Wireless Communications and NETWORKING Conference (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagrammatic sketch of a spatial summing scheme based on an LED array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) An LED array containing two uniformly interleaved LED groups A and B, (b) superimposed optical power distribution at the reception plane after 2-m clear ocean water, and (c) ratio of the optical power emitted from LED group A over that from LED group B after 2-m clear ocean water.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical power distribution at the reception plane after 2-m clear ocean water versus different divergence angles of LEDs, (a) 40 degrees, (b) 80 degrees, and (c) 120 degrees.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical power distribution at the reception plane over (a) 4-m, (b) 6-m, and (c) 8-m clear ocean water.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical power distribution at the reception plane after 5-m (a) clear ocean water, (b) coastal ocean water, and (c) turbid harbor water.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup of the UWOC system based on PAM-4 generated by optical superimposition.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical spectra of the two LEDs, (b) back-to-back frequency response of the system employing a single LED as the transmitter and the PIN as the detector.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Eye diagrams of the (a) 6.144-Mbps, (b) 8.192-Mbps, and (c) 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal generated by optical superimposition after propagating through a 2-m tap water channel using the MPPC as the detector.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Diagram of two light spots and (b) BERs of the 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal over a 2-m tap water channel, when the MPPC is located at different distances from the center of the overlap region of the two light spots.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Eye diagrams of the 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal over a 2-m tap water channel, when the MPPC is put at (a) 0 cm, (b) 0.5 cm, (c) 1.5 cm and (d) 3.5 cm away from the center of the overlap region of the two light spots.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 BERs of the 12.288-Mbs PAM-4 signal over a 2-m underwater channel with different Mg(OH)2 concentration.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ( θ 0 )= 1+n 2π cos n ( θ 0 )

Metrics