Abstract

Taking advantage of technology of spatio-temporal reconstruction and dispersive Fourier transform (DFT), we experimentally observed the buildup dynamics of dissipative soliton in an ultrafast fiber laser in the net-normal dispersion regime. The soliton buildup dynamics were analyzed in both the spectral and temporal domains. We firstly revealed that the appearing of the spectral sharp peaks with oscillation structures during the mode-locking transition is caused by the formation of structural dissipative soliton. The experimental results were explained by the numerical simulations. These findings would give some new insights into the dissipative soliton buildup dynamics in ultrafast fiber lasers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

M. Popov and O. Gat, “Pulse growth dynamics in laser mode locking,” Phys. Rev. A 97(1), 011801 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201107 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Dynamic trapping of a polarization rotation vector soliton in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 330–333 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, and P. Grelu, “Vector dynamics of incoherent dissipative optical solitons,” Optica 4(10), 1239–1243 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wei, B. Li, Y. Yu, C. Zhang, K. K. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Unveiling multi-scale laser dynamics through time-stretch and time-lens spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 25(30), 29098–29120 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Li, S.-W. Huang, Y. Li, C. W. Wong, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Panoramic-reconstruction temporal imaging for seamless measurements of slowly-evolved femtosecond pulse dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 61 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Dissipative rogue waves induced by soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 3912–3915 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Dark solitons in laser radiation build-up dynamics,” Phys Rev E 93(3), 032221 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

C. Bao and C. Yang, “Harmonic mode-locking in a Tm-doped fiber laser: Characterization of its timing jitter and ultralong starting dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 356, 463–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. F. J. Runge, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Observation of soliton explosions in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Optica 2(1), 36 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. F. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 319–322 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively modelocked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. A. Yarutkina, O. V. Shtyrina, M. P. Fedoruk, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Numerical modeling of fiber lasers with long and ultra-long ring cavity,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12942–12950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. G. Ouzounov, and F. W. Wise, “Starting dynamics of dissipative-soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2403–2405 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, “Pulse evolution without wave breaking in a strongly dissipative-dispersive laser system,” Phys. Rev. A 81(5), 053819 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (7)

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1–2), 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, “Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19322–19329 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komarov and F. Sanchez, “Structural dissipative solitons in passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(6), 066201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, “Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19322–19329 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chang, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, “Soliton fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(6), 417–419 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively modelocked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andral, U.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ankiewicz, A.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

C. Bao and C. Yang, “Harmonic mode-locking in a Tm-doped fiber laser: Characterization of its timing jitter and ultralong starting dynamics,” Opt. Commun. 356, 463–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belhache, F.

Bielawski, S.

P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billet, C.

M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Cabasse, A.

Cai, Z. R.

Cao, W. J.

Cerullo, G.

Chang, L. Y.

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chang, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023830 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. J.

Chiu, T. H.

Chong, A.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1–2), 58–73 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063829 (2010).
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S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
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Gutty, F.

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L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, “Dissipative soliton molecules with independently evolving or flipping phases in mode- locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043829 (2009).
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L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
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L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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Kurtz, F.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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A. Zavyalov, R. Iliew, O. Egorov, and F. Lederer, “Dissipative soliton molecules with independently evolving or flipping phases in mode- locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043829 (2009).
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Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201107 (2017).
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X. Wei, B. Li, Y. Yu, C. Zhang, K. K. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Unveiling multi-scale laser dynamics through time-stretch and time-lens spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 25(30), 29098–29120 (2017).
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B. Li, S.-W. Huang, Y. Li, C. W. Wong, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Panoramic-reconstruction temporal imaging for seamless measurements of slowly-evolved femtosecond pulse dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 61 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Li, Y.

B. Li, S.-W. Huang, Y. Li, C. W. Wong, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Panoramic-reconstruction temporal imaging for seamless measurements of slowly-evolved femtosecond pulse dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 61 (2017).
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Menyuk, C. R.

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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively modelocked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
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K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, and P. Grelu, “Vector dynamics of incoherent dissipative optical solitons,” Optica 4(10), 1239–1243 (2017).
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K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).
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M. Popov and O. Gat, “Pulse growth dynamics in laser mode locking,” Phys. Rev. A 97(1), 011801 (2018).
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P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
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F. W. Wise, A. Chong, and W. Renninger, “High-energy femtosecond fiber lasers based on pulse propagation at normal dispersion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1–2), 58–73 (2008).
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W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
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W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007).
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G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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Runge, A. F. J.

Salhi, M.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively modelocked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
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A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Rains of solitons in a figure-of-eight passively modelocked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116(3), 771–775 (2014).
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A. Komarov and F. Sanchez, “Structural dissipative solitons in passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 77(6), 066201 (2008).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).
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Solli, D.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
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Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
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Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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Tchofo-Dinda, P.

K. Krupa, K. Nithyanandan, U. Andral, P. Tchofo-Dinda, and P. Grelu, “Real-time observation of internal motion within ultrafast dissipative optical soliton molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(24), 243901 (2017).
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P. Suret, R. E. Koussaifi, A. Tikan, C. Evain, S. Randoux, C. Szwaj, and S. Bielawski, “Single-shot observation of optical rogue waves in integrable turbulence using time microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13136 (2016).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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Tsia, K. K. M.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201107 (2017).
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Wai, P. K. A.

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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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Wei, X.

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201107 (2017).
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X. Wei, B. Li, Y. Yu, C. Zhang, K. K. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Unveiling multi-scale laser dynamics through time-stretch and time-lens spectroscopies,” Opt. Express 25(30), 29098–29120 (2017).
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M. Närhi, B. Wetzel, C. Billet, S. Toenger, T. Sylvestre, J.-M. Merolla, R. Morandotti, F. Dias, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of spontaneous breathers and rogue wave events in optical fibre modulation instability,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13675 (2016).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).
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W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Experimentally measured spatio-spectral dynamics of soliton buildup
» Visualization 2       Simulated spatio-spectral dynamics of soliton buildup
» Visualization 3       Simulated spatio-temporal dynamics of soliton buildup

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ultrafast fiber laser used for investigating the dissipative soliton buildup dynamics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical performance of dissipative soliton. (a) Spectrum. (b) Pulse-train. Inset: pulse-train with larger range. (c) Autocorrelation trace. (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dissipative soliton buildup dynamics in spectral and time domains for 2700 consecutive roundtrips. (a) Spatio-spectral dynamics (see Visualization 1). (b) Spatio-temporal dynamics. (c) Pulse energy evolution.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Four transient spectral profiles of the buildup dissipative soliton. (a) 535th roundtrip. (b) 602th roundtrip. (c) 736th roundtrip. (d) 965th roundtrip.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the fiber laser cavity for the simulations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Numerical simulations of dissipative soliton buildup dynamics in spectral and time domains for 2700 consecutive roundtrips. (a) Spatio-spectral dynamics (see Visualization 2). (b) Spatio-temporal dynamics (see Visualization 3). (c) Pulse energy evolution.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Numerical simulations of four transient spectral and pulse profiles during the dissipative soliton buildup. (a) and (e) 104th roundtrip. (b) and (f) 163th roundtrip. (c) and (g) 222th roundtrip. (d) and (h) 1700th roundtrip.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Simulation parameters of the fiber ring laser in the normal dispersion regime

Equations (3)

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A z + β 2 2 2 A t 2 = g 2 A + i γ | A | 2 A + g 2 Ω g 2 2 A t 2
g = g 0 * exp ( E P / E s a t )
T ( t ) = 1 q 0 1 + | A ( t ) | 2 / P s a t

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