Abstract

We demonstrate a silicon-based, single-layer anti-reflection coating that suppresses the reflectivity of metals at near-infrared frequencies, enabling optical probing of nano-scale structures embedded in highly reflective surroundings. Our design does not affect the interaction of terahertz radiation with metallic structures that can be used to achieve terahertz near-field enhancement. We have verified the functionality of the design by calculating and measuring the reflectivity of both infrared and terahertz radiation from a silicon/gold double layer as a function of the silicon thickness. We have also fabricated the unit cell of a terahertz meta-material, a dipole antenna comprising two 20-nm thick extended gold plates separated by a 2 μm gap, where the terahertz field is locally enhanced. We used the time-domain finite element method to demonstrate that such near-field enhancement is preserved in the presence of the anti-reflection coating. Finally, we performed magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements on a single 3-nm thick, 1-μm wide magnetic wire placed in the gap of such a dipole antenna. The wire only occupies 2% of the area probed by the laser beam, but its magneto-optical response can be clearly detected. Our design paves the way for ultrafast time-resolved studies, using table-top femtosecond near-infrared lasers, of dynamics in nano-structures driven by strong terahertz radiation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

M. Kozina, M. Pancaldi, C. Bernhard, T. van Driel, J.M. Glownia, P. Marsik, M. Radovic, C. A. F. Vaz, D. Zhu, S. Bonetti, U. Staub, and M.C. Hoffmann, “Local Terahertz Field Enhancement for Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(8), 081106 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. Savoini, S. Grübel, S. Bagiante, H. Sigg, T. Feurer, P. Beaud, and S. L. Johnson, “THz near-field enhancement by means of isolated dipolar antennas: the effect of finite sample size,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4552–4562 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bonetti, M. C. Hoffmann, M.-J. Sher, Z. Chen, S.-H. Yang, M. G. Samant, S. S. P. Parkin, and H. A. Dürr, “THz-Driven Ultrafast Spin-Lattice Scattering in Amorphous Metallic Ferromagnets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(8), 087205 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Henighan, M. Trigo, M. Chollet, J. N. Clark, S. Fahy, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Jiang, M. Kozina, H. Liu, S. Song, D. Zhu, and D. A. Reis, “Control of two-phonon correlations and the mechanism of high-wavevector phonon generation by ultrafast light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 94(2), 020302 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M.-J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 94(18), 180104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, D. G. Hawthorn, N. Garner, D. Bonn, W. Hardy, R. Liang, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. J. Turner, “Enhanced coherent oscillations in the superconducting state of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x induced via ultrafast terahertz excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 91(22), 220506 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, X. Zhao, K. Fan, X. Wang, G.-F. Zhang, K. Geng, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz radiation-induced sub-cycle field electron emission across a split-gap dipole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

R. Mankowsky, A. Subedi, M. Först, S. O. Mariager, M. Chollet, H. T. Lemke, J. S. Robinson, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Minitti, A. Frano, M. Fechner, N. A. Spaldin, T. Loew, B. Keimer, A. Georges, and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5,” Nature 516(7529), 71–73 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Staub, R. A. de Souza, P. Beaud, E. Möhr-Vorobeva, G. Ingold, A. Caviezel, V. Scagnoli, B. Delley, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, O. Krupin, W.-S. Lee, Y.-D. Chuang, L. Patthey, R. G. Moore, D. Lu, M. Yi, P. S. Kirchmann, M. Trigo, P. Denes, D. Doering, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, D. Prabhakaran, A. T. Boothroyd, and S. L. Johnson, “Persistence of magnetic order in a highly excited Cu2+ state in CuO,” Phys. Rev. B 89(22), 220401 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Beaud, A. Caviezel, S. O. Mariager, L. Rettig, G. Ingold, C. Dornes, S.-W. Huang, J. A. Johnson, M. Radovic, T. Huber, T. Kubacka, A. Ferrer, H. T. Lemke, M. Chollet, D. Zhu, J. M. Glownia, M. Sikorski, A. Robert, H. Wadati, M. Nakamura, M. Kawasaki, Y. Tokura, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “A time-dependent order parameter for ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions,“ Nat. Mater. 13(10), 923–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y.-D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-Amplitude Spin Dynamics Driven by a THz Pulse in Resonance with an Electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Daranciang, M. J. Highland, H. Wen, S. M. Young, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, M. Vattilana, M. Nicoul, F. Quirin, J. Goodfellow, T. Qi, I. Grinberg, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, Y. Li, J. Larsson, D. A. Reis, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(8), 087601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Werley, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, S. M. Teo, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved imaging of near-fields in THz antennas and direct quantitative measurement of field enhancements,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8551–8567 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2008 (2)

M. Trigo, Y. M. Sheu, D. A. Arms, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, R. S. Goldman, E. Landahl, R. Merlin, E. Peterson, M. Reason, and D. A. Reis, “Probing Unfolded Acoustic Phonons with X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. D. J. Brunner, O-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinšek, A. Schneider, and P. Günter, “A hydrogen-bonded organic nonlinear optical crystal for high-efficiency terahertz generation and detection,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16496–16508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Wang, A. Barman, H. Schmidt, J. D. Maas, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, B. Harteneck, S. Cabrini, and J. Bokor, “Optimization of nano-magneto-optic sensitivity using dual dielectric layer enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Barman, S. Wang, J. D. Maas, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Magneto-Optical Observation of Picosecond Dynamics of Single Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2939–2944 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. Qureshi, S. Wang, M. A. Lowther, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Cavity-Enhanced Magnetooptical Observation of Magnetization Reversal in Individual Single-Domain Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1413–1417 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. Qureshi, H. Schmidt, and A. R. Hawkins, “Cavity enhancement of the magneto-optic Kerr effect for optical studies of magnetic nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 431 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

Z. Q. Qiu and S. D. Bader, “Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.  71(3), 1243 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Vavassori, “Polarization modulation technique for magneto-optical quantitative vector magnetometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1605 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Adachi and H. Mori, “Optical properties of fully amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10158 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Atkinson, I. W. Salter, and J. Xu, “Quadrilayer magneto-optic enhancement with zero Kerr ellipticity,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 102(3), 357–364 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Balasubramanian, A. S. Marathay, and H. A. Macleod, “Modeling magneto-optical thin film media for optical data storage,” Thin Solid Films 164, 391–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

S. Yoshida, “Antireflection coatings on metals for selective solar absorbers,” Thin Solid Films 56(3), 321–329 (1979).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1956 (1)

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi and H. Mori, “Optical properties of fully amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10158 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Alonso-Mori, R.

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M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
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Keimer, B.

R. Mankowsky, A. Subedi, M. Först, S. O. Mariager, M. Chollet, H. T. Lemke, J. S. Robinson, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Minitti, A. Frano, M. Fechner, N. A. Spaldin, T. Loew, B. Keimer, A. Georges, and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5,” Nature 516(7529), 71–73 (2014).
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Keiser, G. R.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Kim, B. J.

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
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Kim, J.

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
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Kirchmann, P. S.

U. Staub, R. A. de Souza, P. Beaud, E. Möhr-Vorobeva, G. Ingold, A. Caviezel, V. Scagnoli, B. Delley, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, O. Krupin, W.-S. Lee, Y.-D. Chuang, L. Patthey, R. G. Moore, D. Lu, M. Yi, P. S. Kirchmann, M. Trigo, P. Denes, D. Doering, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, D. Prabhakaran, A. T. Boothroyd, and S. L. Johnson, “Persistence of magnetic order in a highly excited Cu2+ state in CuO,” Phys. Rev. B 89(22), 220401 (2014).
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Kittiwatanakul, S.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Kohutych, A.

S. Grübel, J. A. Johnson, P. Beaud, C. Dornes, A. Ferrer, V. Haborets, L. Huber, T. Huber, A. Kohutych, T. Kubacka, M. Kubli, S. O. Mariager, J. Rittmann, J. I. Saari, Y. Vysochanskii, G. Ingold, and S. L. Johnson, “Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of a ferroelectric soft mode driven by broadband terahertz pulses,” arXiv:1602.05435v1 (2016).

Koohpayeh, S. M.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y.-D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-Amplitude Spin Dynamics Driven by a THz Pulse in Resonance with an Electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
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Kozina, M.

M. Kozina, M. Pancaldi, C. Bernhard, T. van Driel, J.M. Glownia, P. Marsik, M. Radovic, C. A. F. Vaz, D. Zhu, S. Bonetti, U. Staub, and M.C. Hoffmann, “Local Terahertz Field Enhancement for Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(8), 081106 (2017).
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M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
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T. Henighan, M. Trigo, M. Chollet, J. N. Clark, S. Fahy, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Jiang, M. Kozina, H. Liu, S. Song, D. Zhu, and D. A. Reis, “Control of two-phonon correlations and the mechanism of high-wavevector phonon generation by ultrafast light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 94(2), 020302 (2016).
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Krupin, O.

U. Staub, R. A. de Souza, P. Beaud, E. Möhr-Vorobeva, G. Ingold, A. Caviezel, V. Scagnoli, B. Delley, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, O. Krupin, W.-S. Lee, Y.-D. Chuang, L. Patthey, R. G. Moore, D. Lu, M. Yi, P. S. Kirchmann, M. Trigo, P. Denes, D. Doering, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, D. Prabhakaran, A. T. Boothroyd, and S. L. Johnson, “Persistence of magnetic order in a highly excited Cu2+ state in CuO,” Phys. Rev. B 89(22), 220401 (2014).
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Kubacka, T.

P. Beaud, A. Caviezel, S. O. Mariager, L. Rettig, G. Ingold, C. Dornes, S.-W. Huang, J. A. Johnson, M. Radovic, T. Huber, T. Kubacka, A. Ferrer, H. T. Lemke, M. Chollet, D. Zhu, J. M. Glownia, M. Sikorski, A. Robert, H. Wadati, M. Nakamura, M. Kawasaki, Y. Tokura, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “A time-dependent order parameter for ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions,“ Nat. Mater. 13(10), 923–927 (2014).
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T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y.-D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-Amplitude Spin Dynamics Driven by a THz Pulse in Resonance with an Electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
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S. Grübel, J. A. Johnson, P. Beaud, C. Dornes, A. Ferrer, V. Haborets, L. Huber, T. Huber, A. Kohutych, T. Kubacka, M. Kubli, S. O. Mariager, J. Rittmann, J. I. Saari, Y. Vysochanskii, G. Ingold, and S. L. Johnson, “Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of a ferroelectric soft mode driven by broadband terahertz pulses,” arXiv:1602.05435v1 (2016).

Kubli, M.

S. Grübel, J. A. Johnson, P. Beaud, C. Dornes, A. Ferrer, V. Haborets, L. Huber, T. Huber, A. Kohutych, T. Kubacka, M. Kubli, S. O. Mariager, J. Rittmann, J. I. Saari, Y. Vysochanskii, G. Ingold, and S. L. Johnson, “Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of a ferroelectric soft mode driven by broadband terahertz pulses,” arXiv:1602.05435v1 (2016).

Kwon, O-P.

Kwon, S.

S. Wang, A. Barman, H. Schmidt, J. D. Maas, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, B. Harteneck, S. Cabrini, and J. Bokor, “Optimization of nano-magneto-optic sensitivity using dual dielectric layer enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252504 (2007).
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A. Barman, S. Wang, J. D. Maas, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Magneto-Optical Observation of Picosecond Dynamics of Single Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2939–2944 (2006).
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N. Qureshi, S. Wang, M. A. Lowther, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Cavity-Enhanced Magnetooptical Observation of Magnetization Reversal in Individual Single-Domain Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1413–1417 (2005).
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Kwon, S.-J.

Landahl, E.

M. Trigo, Y. M. Sheu, D. A. Arms, J. Chen, S. Ghimire, R. S. Goldman, E. Landahl, R. Merlin, E. Peterson, M. Reason, and D. A. Reis, “Probing Unfolded Acoustic Phonons with X Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(2), 025505 (2008).
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Larsson, J.

F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M.-J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 94(18), 180104 (2016).
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D. Daranciang, M. J. Highland, H. Wen, S. M. Young, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, M. Vattilana, M. Nicoul, F. Quirin, J. Goodfellow, T. Qi, I. Grinberg, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, Y. Li, J. Larsson, D. A. Reis, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(8), 087601 (2012).
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Lee, W.-S.

G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, D. G. Hawthorn, N. Garner, D. Bonn, W. Hardy, R. Liang, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. J. Turner, “Enhanced coherent oscillations in the superconducting state of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x induced via ultrafast terahertz excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 91(22), 220506 (2015).
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T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S.-W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y.-D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-Amplitude Spin Dynamics Driven by a THz Pulse in Resonance with an Electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Staub, R. A. de Souza, P. Beaud, E. Möhr-Vorobeva, G. Ingold, A. Caviezel, V. Scagnoli, B. Delley, W. F. Schlotter, J. J. Turner, O. Krupin, W.-S. Lee, Y.-D. Chuang, L. Patthey, R. G. Moore, D. Lu, M. Yi, P. S. Kirchmann, M. Trigo, P. Denes, D. Doering, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, D. Prabhakaran, A. T. Boothroyd, and S. L. Johnson, “Persistence of magnetic order in a highly excited Cu2+ state in CuO,” Phys. Rev. B 89(22), 220401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lemke, H.

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M.-J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 94(18), 180104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lemke, H. T.

P. Beaud, A. Caviezel, S. O. Mariager, L. Rettig, G. Ingold, C. Dornes, S.-W. Huang, J. A. Johnson, M. Radovic, T. Huber, T. Kubacka, A. Ferrer, H. T. Lemke, M. Chollet, D. Zhu, J. M. Glownia, M. Sikorski, A. Robert, H. Wadati, M. Nakamura, M. Kawasaki, Y. Tokura, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “A time-dependent order parameter for ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions,“ Nat. Mater. 13(10), 923–927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mankowsky, A. Subedi, M. Först, S. O. Mariager, M. Chollet, H. T. Lemke, J. S. Robinson, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Minitti, A. Frano, M. Fechner, N. A. Spaldin, T. Loew, B. Keimer, A. Georges, and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5,” Nature 516(7529), 71–73 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Daranciang, M. J. Highland, H. Wen, S. M. Young, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, M. Vattilana, M. Nicoul, F. Quirin, J. Goodfellow, T. Qi, I. Grinberg, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, Y. Li, J. Larsson, D. A. Reis, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(8), 087601 (2012).
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Li, Y.

D. Daranciang, M. J. Highland, H. Wen, S. M. Young, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, M. Vattilana, M. Nicoul, F. Quirin, J. Goodfellow, T. Qi, I. Grinberg, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, Y. Li, J. Larsson, D. A. Reis, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(8), 087601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, R.

G. L. Dakovski, W.-S. Lee, D. G. Hawthorn, N. Garner, D. Bonn, W. Hardy, R. Liang, M. C. Hoffmann, and J. J. Turner, “Enhanced coherent oscillations in the superconducting state of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x induced via ultrafast terahertz excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 91(22), 220506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liberale, C.

Liddle, A.

A. Barman, S. Wang, J. D. Maas, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Magneto-Optical Observation of Picosecond Dynamics of Single Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2939–2944 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Qureshi, S. Wang, M. A. Lowther, A. R. Hawkins, S. Kwon, A. Liddle, J. Bokor, and H. Schmidt, “Cavity-Enhanced Magnetooptical Observation of Magnetization Reversal in Individual Single-Domain Nanomagnets,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1413–1417 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindenberg, A. M.

F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M.-J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 94(18), 180104 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Daranciang, M. J. Highland, H. Wen, S. M. Young, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, M. Vattilana, M. Nicoul, F. Quirin, J. Goodfellow, T. Qi, I. Grinberg, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, D. Zhu, H. T. Lemke, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, Y. Li, J. Larsson, D. A. Reis, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, P. H. Fuoss, G. B. Stephenson, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(8), 087601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

T. Henighan, M. Trigo, M. Chollet, J. N. Clark, S. Fahy, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Jiang, M. Kozina, H. Liu, S. Song, D. Zhu, and D. A. Reis, “Control of two-phonon correlations and the mechanism of high-wavevector phonon generation by ultrafast light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 94(2), 020302 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

F. Chen, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Qi, H. Y. Hwang, N. C. Brandt, J. Lu, F. Quirin, H. Enquist, P. Zalden, T. Hu, J. Goodfellow, M.-J. Sher, M. C. Hoffmann, D. Zhu, H. Lemke, J. Glownia, M. Chollet, A. R. Damodaran, J. Park, Z. Cai, I. W. Jung, M. J. Highland, D. A. Walko, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, A. Vailionis, J. Larsson, K. A. Nelson, A. M. Rappe, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, L. W. Martin, H. Wen, and A. M. Lindenberg, “Ultrafast terahertz-field-driven ionic response in ferroelectric BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 94(18), 180104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

M. P. M. Dean, Y. Cao, X. Liu, S. Wall, D. Zhu, R. Mankowsky, V. Thampy, X. M. Chen, J. G. Vale, D. Casa, J. Kim, A. H. Said, P. Juhas, R. Alonso-Mori, J. M. Glownia, A. Robert, J. Robinson, M. Sikorski, S. Song, M. Kozina, H. Lemke, L. Patthey, S. Owada, T. Katayama, M. Yabashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Togashi, J. Liu, C. Rayan Serrao, B. J. Kim, L. Huber, C.-L. Chang, D. F. McMorrow, M. Först, and J. P. Hill, “Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4,” Nat. Mater. 15(6), 601–605 (2016).
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Loew, T.

R. Mankowsky, A. Subedi, M. Först, S. O. Mariager, M. Chollet, H. T. Lemke, J. S. Robinson, J. M. Glownia, M. P. Minitti, A. Frano, M. Fechner, N. A. Spaldin, T. Loew, B. Keimer, A. Georges, and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5,” Nature 516(7529), 71–73 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lowther, M. A.

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Since we are impinging on the air/silicon interface at normal incidence with a wavelength of ≈ 300 μ m, the amplitude of the electric field at z = 10 nm above the silicon substrate is almost equal to the amplitude of the transmitted electric field, because of the n^×(E→Si−E→Air)=0 boundary condition.

The discrepancy between the two values has to do with the fact that the single-cycle field is broadband, and different frequencies are amplified differently by a fixed-geometry design.

S. Grübel, J. A. Johnson, P. Beaud, C. Dornes, A. Ferrer, V. Haborets, L. Huber, T. Huber, A. Kohutych, T. Kubacka, M. Kubli, S. O. Mariager, J. Rittmann, J. I. Saari, Y. Vysochanskii, G. Ingold, and S. L. Johnson, “Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of a ferroelectric soft mode driven by broadband terahertz pulses,” arXiv:1602.05435v1 (2016).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Design of the dipole antenna for terahertz near-field enhancement in the gap between two metallic electrodes, covered with an anti-reflection coating for near-infrared and visible radiation. A single-cycle of the terahertz field, with the suitable polarization for the optimal coupling to the antenna, is sketched. The pink arrows schematically show the working principle of the anti-reflection coating for a metal, where destructive interference (zig-zag arrows within the top layer) is combined with the dielectric losses to compensate for the forbidden transmission through the metallic electrodes (crossed-out arrows in the metal layer), as described in detail in the text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (Solid curves: Calculated reflectance at the wavelength of 800 nm for the Air/α-Si/Au/Si(substrate)/Air multilayer, as a function of the α-Si thickness, for two different Au thicknesses at normal incidence. Dashed curve: Calculated reflectance at a wavelength of 800 nm for an ideal dielectric on top of a 100 nm Au layer, characterized by n = 3.9 and zero imaginary part of the refractive index.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental (symbols) and calculated (line) reflectance for a α-Si/Au/Si(substrate) sample based on a 20 nm-thick Au layer, at wavelengths of 800 nm (magenta) and 300 μm (black), the latter corresponding to the radiation frequency of 1 THz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Frequency-domain, finite element analysis of the enhancement map for a monochromatic electromagnetic field with frequency f = 1 THz incident on two gold plates separated by a gap. (b) Time-domain finite element simulations of the x-component of the electric field for a single-cycle (broadband) terahertz field at the center of the gap, without Au plates (solid black curve), with Au plates (solid gray curve) and with α-Si/Au plates (filled gray dots). In all the calculations, the electric field of the incident radiation is polarized along the x–axis, and the propagation direction is along the z–axis, normal to the sample plane.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polar Kerr ellipticity as a function of the magnetic field applied orthogonal to the sample plane, for the 800 nm and 550 nm wavelengths of the probing light. Symbols: average of 25 hysteresis loops for a 1 μm-wide, 100 μm-long CoNi wire. Solid curves: average of 4 hysteresis loops hysteresis loops for a 100 μm 100 × μm CoNi square, at the same wavelengths. Inset: Zoom in on the 550 nm wavelength hysteresis loop for the CoNi wire.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the ellipticity ratio between a CoNi wire and a CoNi square calculated according to Eq. (7).

Equations (7)

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R = | r 01 + r 12 exp ( 2 i δ 1 ) 1 + r 01 r 12 exp ( 2 i δ 1 ) | 2 ,
n 1 d 1 = λ 2 [ ( m + 1 ) α 12 2 π ] ,
R min = ( r 01 + ρ 12 1 + r 01 ρ 12 ) 2 ,
ρ 12 = | r 12 | = [ ( n 1 n 2 ) 2 + k 2 2 ( n 1 + n 2 ) 2 + k 2 2 ] 1 2 ,
α 12 = Arg ( r 12 ) = arctan ( 2 n 1 k 2 n 1 2 n 2 2 k 2 2 ) .
n 1 = ( n 2 + k 2 2 n 2 1 ) 1 2 .
ϵ K , wire ϵ K , square = A wire A wire + A Si R Si R CoNi + A CoatedAu R CoatedAu R CoNi ,

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