Abstract

In this paper, we propose a new super-resolution imaging technique based on fluorescence blinking (SRFB). Contrary to structured illumination microscopy (SIM), SRFB considers the time-varying fluorescence distribution under a suitable density as the varying illuminated speckle pattern, and therefore, external speckle patterns or diffusers are not required. With several images recorded at different times, a super-resolution image can be obtained through an iterative algorithm modified from Fourier ptychography. Recorded image sequences in a microscopy imaging experiment based on photo switching or fluorescence blinking effects, such as STORM and SOFI, can be handled with SRFB and used to recover a super-resolution image. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the SRFB scheme can surpass the diffraction limit by a factor greater than two.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

L. H. Yeh, L. Tian, and L. Waller, “Structured illumination microscopy with unknown patterns and a statistical prior,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 695–711 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2012 (2)

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agard, D. A.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allain, M.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babcock, H.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkebir, K.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cande, W. Z.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlton, P. M.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chhun, B. B.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitnis, A. B.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colyer, R.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combs, C. A.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cremer, C.

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dedecker, P.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dertinger, T.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deschout, H.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

Enderlein, J.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Feletti, L.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, R. S.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, B.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Girard, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Golubovskaya, I. N.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffis, E. R.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, K.

Gustafsson, M. G.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heintzmann, R.

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofkens, J.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iyer, G.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

Kner, P.

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuang, C.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lasser, T.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Moal, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leutenegger, M.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukes, T.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mione, M.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mudry, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanda, P.

Nicoletti, C.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nogare, D. D.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parekh, S. H.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radenovic, A.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramchandran, K.

Rego, E. H.

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savatier, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sedat, J. W.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sentenac, A.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shao, L.

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharipov, A.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiradkar, R.

Shroff, H.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temprine, K.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, L.

Vandenberg, W.

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waller, L.

Wang, C. J.

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winoto, L.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, P.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiu, P.

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, L. H.

York, A. G.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Chen, R. Li, Z. Liu, K. Sun, Z. Sun, D. Chen, G. Xu, P. Xi, C. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Small photoblinking semiconductor polymer dots for fluorescence nanoscopy,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604850 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

M. G. Gustafsson, L. Shao, P. M. Carlton, C. J. Wang, I. N. Golubovskaya, W. Z. Cande, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Three-dimensional resolution doubling in wide-field fluorescence microscopy by structured illumination,” Biophys. J. 94(12), 4957–4970 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(2), 82–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

Y. Fang, Y. Chen, C. Kuang, P. Xiu, Q. Liu, B. Ge, and X. Liu, “Saturated pattern-illuminated Fourier ptychography microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(1), 015602 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Deschout, T. Lukes, A. Sharipov, D. Szlag, L. Feletti, W. Vandenberg, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Leutenegger, T. Lasser, and A. Radenovic, “Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (4)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shao, P. Kner, E. H. Rego, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution 3D microscopy of live whole cells using structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 8(12), 1044–1046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. D. Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 312–315 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dertinger, R. Colyer, G. Iyer, S. Weiss, and J. Enderlein, “Fast, background-free, 3D super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI),” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(52), 22287–22292 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Leutenegger, “Balanced SOFI toolbox,” (EPFL). http://documents.epfl.ch/users/l/le/leuteneg/www/BalancedSOFI/index.html

Biomedical Imaging Group, “Benchmarking of Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy Software” (EPFL, Lausanne, 2015). http://bigwww.epfl.ch/smlm/

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Speckle pattern in fluorescence blinking.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of iterative algorithm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation results of the line structure sample. (a) Wide-field imaging, (b) second-order SOFI, and (c) SRFB results. The scale is 500nm. Profiles of the projection through the (d) long lines and (e) short lines in (a)–(c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between second-order SOFI and SRFB when N = 50 and 200 frames. (a) Second-order SOFI and (b) SRFB with N = 50 frames. (c) Second-order SOFI and (d) SRFB with N = 200 frames. The white scale bars represent 500nm. (e) Profiles of the projection through the long lines in (a) and (b). (f) Profiles of the projection through the long lines in (c) and (d). (g) Curve of the FWHM versus number of frames N.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison between second-order SOFI and SRFB using SOFI experiment results. (a)–(c) Wide-field image, second-order SOFI and SRFB result, respectively. (d)–(f) Magnified view of the areas in the squares of (a)–(c), respectively. (g, h) Intensity profiles through the solid line and dotted line in (d)–(f) respectively. The scale bars in (d)–(f) represent 800nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison between second-order SOFI and SRFB using STORM experiment results. (a) Wide-field image. Second-order SOFI with (b) N = 25 and (c) N = 50. SRFB with (d) N = 25 and (e) N = 50. (f)–(j) Magnified views of the areas in the squares of (a)–(e). (k, l) Intensity profiles through line “1” and “2” in (f)–(j), respectively. The white scale bar represents 1μm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I n (r)=[ S(r) P n (r) ]PSF(r)= F 1 { F[ S(r) P n (r) ]OTF(k) },
I ˜ n = O ˜ n OTF,n=1,...,N,
O ˜ n,g update = O ˜ n,g +OTF[ I ˜ n OTF O ˜ n,g ].
O n,g update = F 1 ( O ˜ n,g update ).
S g update =| S g + P n,g [ max( P n,g ) ] 2 ( O n,g update S g P n,g ) I ¯ |,
P n,g update =| P n,g + S g [ max( S g ) ] 2 ( O n,g update S g P n,g ) |,

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