Abstract

Metamaterial absorbers typically consist of a metamaterial layer, a dielectric spacer layer, and a metallic ground plane. We have investigated the dependence of the metamaterial absorption maxima on the spacer layer thickness and the reflection coefficient of the metamaterial layer obtained in the absence of the ground plane layer. Specifically, we employ interference theory to obtain an analytical expression for the spacer thickness needed to maximize the absorption at a given frequency. The efficacy of this simple expression is experimentally verified at terahertz frequencies through detailed measurements of the absorption spectra of a series of metamaterials structures with different spacer thicknesses. Using an array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) as the metamaterial layer and SU8 as the spacer material we observe that the absorption peaks redshift as the spacer thickness is increased, in excellent agreement with our analysis. Our findings can be applied to guide metamaterial absorber designs and understand the absorption peak frequency shift of sensors based on metamaterial absorbers.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

22 January 2018: Typographical corrections were made to the abstract, body text, and funding section.


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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Fan, G. Duan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers using GaAs,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A16–A21 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  24. F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. Q. Y. Wen, Y. S. Xie, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. X. Li, and Y. L. Liu, “Transmission line model and fields analysis of metamaterial absorber in the terahertz band,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20256–20265 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. N. Ghalichechian and K. Sertel, “Permittivity and loss characterization of SU-8 films for mmW and terahertz applications,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 723–726 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. A. Tretyakov and C. R. Simovski, “Dynamic model of artificial reactive impedance surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17(1), 131–145 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Fan, G. Duan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers using GaAs,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A16–A21 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ghalichechian and K. Sertel, “Permittivity and loss characterization of SU-8 films for mmW and terahertz applications,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 723–726 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “A metamaterial emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1047–1051 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

S. Bhattacharyya and K. V. Srivastava, “Triple band polarization-independent ultra-thin metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064508 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

T. Maier and H. Brueckl, “Multispectral microbolometers for the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3766–3768 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Wen, Y. S. Xie, H. W. Zhang, Q. H. Yang, Y. X. Li, and Y. L. Liu, “Transmission line model and fields analysis of metamaterial absorber in the terahertz band,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20256–20265 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. A. Tretyakov and C. R. Simovski, “Dynamic model of artificial reactive impedance surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17(1), 131–145 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Fan, G. Duan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers using GaAs,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A16–A21 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, S.

S. Bhattacharyya and K. V. Srivastava, “Triple band polarization-independent ultra-thin metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueckl, H.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 945–947 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Costa, F.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Dai, N.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, G.

Fan, K.

X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Fan, G. Duan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers using GaAs,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A16–A21 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Genovesi, S.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghalichechian, N.

N. Ghalichechian and K. Sertel, “Permittivity and loss characterization of SU-8 films for mmW and terahertz applications,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 723–726 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, J.

Gu, J.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “A metamaterial emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1047–1051 (2015).
[Crossref]

Güney, D. O.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gwamuri, J.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hien, N. T.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hossain, M. M.

M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “A metamaterial emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1047–1051 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “A metamaterial emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1047–1051 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khalid, A.

Krishna, S.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, A.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, V. D.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, L. N.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. P.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. X.

Lipworth, G.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. L.

Luo, S.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Maier, T.

Manara, G.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metcalfe, G. D.

Miao, Z.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minh, N. Q.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Montoya, J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pala, N.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearce, J. M.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, C.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, K.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramani, S.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reiten, M. T.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saha, S.

Saha, S. C.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sertel, K.

N. Ghalichechian and K. Sertel, “Permittivity and loss characterization of SU-8 films for mmW and terahertz applications,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 723–726 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. K.

S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shrekenhamer, D.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Simovski, C. R.

S. A. Tretyakov and C. R. Simovski, “Dynamic model of artificial reactive impedance surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17(1), 131–145 (2003).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sleasman, T.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, K. V.

S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Bhattacharyya and K. V. Srivastava, “Triple band polarization-independent ultra-thin metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trang, P. T.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tretyakov, S. A.

S. A. Tretyakov and C. R. Simovski, “Dynamic model of artificial reactive impedance surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17(1), 131–145 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tuong, P. V.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viet, D. T.

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vora, A.

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, L.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wen, Q. Y.

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wraback, M.

Xiao, S.

S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y. S.

Xu, G.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
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Yang, Q. H.

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X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zang, Y.

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. W.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, W.

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhao, J. Zhang, K. Fan, G. Duan, G. D. Metcalfe, M. Wraback, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Nonlinear terahertz metamaterial perfect absorbers using GaAs,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A16–A21 (2016).
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X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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Zhang, Y.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zhao, Y.

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), OP98 (2012).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “A metamaterial emitter for highly efficient radiative cooling,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1047–1051 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Shen, Y. Yang, Y. Zang, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Triple-band terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment, and physical interpretation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 154102 (2012).
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L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 101102 (2012).
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S. K. Sharma, S. Ghosh, and K. V. Srivastava, “An ultra-thin triple-band polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber for S, C and X band applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 122(12), 1071 (2016).
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N. Ghalichechian and K. Sertel, “Permittivity and loss characterization of SU-8 films for mmW and terahertz applications,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 723–726 (2015).
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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

F. Costa, S. Genovesi, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “A circuit-based model for the interpretation of perfect metamaterial absorbers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(3), 1201–1209 (2013).
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S. Bhattacharyya and K. V. Srivastava, “Triple band polarization-independent ultra-thin metamaterial absorber using electric field-driven LC resonator,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(6), 064508 (2014).
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S. A. Tretyakov and C. R. Simovski, “Dynamic model of artificial reactive impedance surfaces,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 17(1), 131–145 (2003).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

X. Hu, G. Xu, L. Wen, H. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, D. R. S. Cumming, and Q. Chen, “Metamaterial absorber integrated microfluidic terahertz sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 962–969 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. M. Watts, D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, G. Lipworth, J. Hunt, T. Sleasman, S. Krishna, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Terahertz compressive imaging with metamaterial spatial light modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 605–609 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. T. Viet, N. T. Hien, P. V. Tuong, N. Q. Minh, P. T. Trang, L. N. Le, Y. P. Lee, and V. D. Lam, “Perfect absorber metamaterials: Peak, multi-peak, and broadband absorption,” Opt. Commun. 322, 209–213 (2014).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ma, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Resonant modes in metal/insulator/metal metamaterials: An analytical study on near-field couplings,” Phys. Rev. B 93(4), 045305 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

X. Zhang, N. Xu, K. Qu, Z. Tian, R. Singh, J. Han, G. S. Agarwal, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10737 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vora, J. Gwamuri, N. Pala, A. Kulkarni, J. M. Pearce, and D. O. Güney, “Exchanging Ohmic losses in metamaterial absorbers with useful optical absorption for photovoltaics,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The simulated reflection and transmission coefficients S11, S21, S22, S12 in the absence of a ground plane. (a) Amplitude spectra and (b) Phase spectra. The inset shows the geometry of the SRR unit cell. The periodicity is 90 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Color plot of the absorption as a function of frequency and spacer thickness. The bare LC and dipole resonant frequencies are marked by the vertical dashed lines. The horizontal dashed line highlights the spacer thickness of 20 μm. The multiples of 2π phase delay accumulated in the spacer at the bare LC resonant frequency are highlighted with stars. The black arrowed dashed line indicates the trend of the absorption peak frequency redshift with increase in spacer thickness. (b) The analytical relation between the absorption peak frequency and the spacer thickness with different values of the integer m, also showing the transition of the contributing resonant modes as the frequency increases with shaded color.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A fabricated metamaterial absorber sample. (b) Microscope image of the unit cells.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The absorption spectra comparison among experiment, simulation, and interference theory. Results of metamaterial absorbers with spacer thickness of 10 μm, 16 μm, 28 μm, 70 μm, 90 μm, and 105 μm for (a) to (f). The absorption peaks are labeled with m values related to the corresponding m-curves in Fig. 5(a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) m-curves with absorption peak frequencies plotted for SU8 spacer metamaterial absorbers with different spacer thicknesses (10 μm, 16 μm, 28 μm, 70 μm, 90 μm, and 105 μm) from experiment, interference theory, and simulation. The vertical green dashed line demarks the bare LC resonant frequency. (b) The simulated absorption spectra showing the absorption band shifting with different spacer thicknesses.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The current distribution of the SRRs (70 μm spacer thickness) at the absorption peak frequencies of (a) 0.4376 THz, (b) 0.9578 THz, and (c) 1.586 THz with red arrows indicating the current direction.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The m-curves (m = 0). (a) Varying εr with εi = 0.182. (b) Varying εi with εr = 2.8. The inset of (b) depicts the m-curves in a larger frequency range.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The total absorption of the metamaterial absorbers versus the spacer thickness at the frequencies of 0.632 THz, 0.678 THz, and 0.724 THz with label spacer thicknesses for the absorption peaks. (b) The phase of first and secondary reflection versus the spacer thickness with labeled phase differences.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r = r 12 t 12 t 21 r 21 + exp ( i 2 β )
d 0 = arc tan ( a n r n i b + exp ( 2 π m n i / n r ) b + n r n i a ) 2 n r k + m π n r k
d 0 arc tan ( b a ) 2 n r k + m π n r k
| r | 2 = A 2 + 2 cos θ A B + B 2
A = r 12 r 12 ¯ B = t 12 t 21 t 12 t 21 ¯ [ ( r 21 + exp ( 2 β i i 2 β r ) ] [ ( r 21 ¯ + exp ( 2 β i +i 2 β r ) ]
| r | 2 A 2 2 A B + B 2
( B A ) d B d d = 0
1 2 [ r 21 + exp ( 2 β i i 2 β r ) ] [ r 21 ¯ + exp ( 2 β i + i 2 β r ) ] t 12 t 21 t 12 t 21 ¯ d{[ r 21 + exp ( 2 β i i 2 β r ) ] [ r 21 ¯ + exp ( 2 β i + i 2 β r ) ] } d d = 0
d{[ r 21 + exp ( 2 β i i 2 β r ) ] [ r 21 ¯ + exp ( 2 β i + i 2 β r ) ] } d d = 0
a cos ( 2 β r ) b sin ( 2 β r ) n r n i [ a sin ( 2 β r ) + b cos ( 2 β r ) ] + exp ( 2 β i ) = 0
a b tan ( 2 β r ) n r n i [ a tan ( 2 β r ) + b ] + exp ( 2 β i ) cos ( 2 β r ) = 0
a n r n i b + exp ( 2 β i ) cos ( 2 β r ) = ( b + n r n i a ) tan ( 2 β r )
a n r n i b + exp ( 2 π m n i / n r ) = ( b + n r n i a ) tan ( 2 β r )
2 β r = arc tan ( a n r n i b + exp ( 2 π m n i / n r ) b + n r n i a ) + 2 m π
d 0 = arc tan ( a n r n i b + exp ( 2 π m n i / n r ) b + n r n i a ) 2 n r k + m π n r k

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