Abstract

To support the bandwidth-hungry applications and ubiquitous services, cloud radio access network (C-RAN) provides the large bandwidth connecting hundreds of terminals for different demands. Applying the technology of radio over fiber (RoF), cloud radio over fiber network (C-RoFN) migrates the processing and calculation functions of the base station to processing unit (PU) which simplifies the system complexity and reduces the data flood caused by digitization in 5G and beyond. The flexible allocation of multi-dimensional resources including radio and optical resources is necessary for C-RoFN to enhance the resource utilization and the quality of services. However, there is a lack of effective method to adjust spectral resources occupied by the RoF signal in C-RoFN. In our previous work, we realized multi-stratum resources optimization between processing and optical resources for C-RoFN from the perspective of network layer. In view of this, this work extends to consider the elastic switching architecture in the physical layer of C-RoFN and the scheduling of radio and optical spectral resources based on the proposed architecture. We propose a novel flexible switching and scheduling mechanism for multi-dimensional resources allocation in software defined C-RoFN. The main contributions on this work are twofold. 1) According to the flexible control demand of multi-dimensional resources, a reconfigurable radio-wavelength selective switch (RWSS) architecture is designed in a C-RoFN scenario to realize the tunability of spectral resources occupied by the RoF signal in optical network layer, which aims to break the restrictions of wavelength consistency and wavelength conflict. 2) Based on the proposed RWSS architecture, a routing, radio and wavelength assignment (RRWA) algorithm considering wavelength-frequency unsaturation is provided to implement the flexibility and allocation of radio and optical spectral resources. The feasibility and efficiency of the architecture are demonstrated on the testbed including date plane using software defined optical and wireless nodes experimentally. The performances of RRWA algorithm under heavy traffic load scenario are also quantitatively evaluated compared with the other algorithm in terms of resource utilization rate, blocking probability, and provisioning latency.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (7)

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xu and S. Wang, “Baseband unit pool planning for cloud radio access networks: An approximation algorithm,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(2), 358–361 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Chitimalla, K. Kondepu, L. Valcarenghi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “5G fronthaul-latency and jitter studies of CPRI over ethernet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 9(2), 172–182 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, M. Zhang, J. Li, Z. Li, J. Li, C. Song, and X. Chen, “Intelligent constellation diagram analyzer using convolutional neural network-based deep learning,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17150–17166 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Li, W. Pan, X. Zou, L. Yan, B. Luo, and B. Lu, “Tunable microwave photonic duplexer for full-duplex radio-over-fiber access,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4145–4154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (9)

F. Musumeci, C. Bellanzon, N. Carapellese, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, and S. Gosselin, “Optimal BBU placement for 5G C-RAN deployment over WDM aggregation networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1963–1970 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, G. Shen, and L. Peng, “Protection lightpath-based hitless spectrum defragmentation for distance adaptive elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4497–4511 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Park, C. Chae, and S. Bahk, “Large-scale antenna operation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: a partial centralization approach,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(3), 32–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Alvizu, R.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amaya, N.

Ansari, N.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Azcorra, A.

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

Bahk, S.

S. Park, C. Chae, and S. Bahk, “Large-scale antenna operation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: a partial centralization approach,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(3), 32–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, W.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Bartelt, J.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bellanzon, C.

Bi, M.

Capello, A.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carapellese, N.

Cavazzoni, C.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chae, C.

S. Park, C. Chae, and S. Bahk, “Large-scale antenna operation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: a partial centralization approach,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(3), 32–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chitimalla, D.

Chung, Y.

Clark, T.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

de la Oliva, A.

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fettweis, G.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Forchheimer, R.

Fu, Y.

Gamage, P.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gosselin, S.

Han, J.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, L.

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

He, Y.

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez, J. A.

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

R. Wang, H. Hu, and X. Yang, “Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks,” IEEE Access 2, 1187–1195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Ji, Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jin, D.

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

Kim, H.

Kondepu, K.

Kukreja, N.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Larrabeiti, D.

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lessmann, J.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, L.

Li, P.

Li, X.

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Lim, C.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, B.

Lu, W.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, B.

Luo, K.

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maier, G.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mao, S.

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mao, Z.

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Melis, B.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miao, X.

Morro, R.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

Muhammad, A.

Mukherjee, B.

Musumeci, F.

Nanzer, J.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nirmalathas, A.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Niu, Y.

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

Park, S.

S. Park, C. Chae, and S. Bahk, “Large-scale antenna operation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: a partial centralization approach,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(3), 32–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pattavina, A.

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Musumeci, C. Bellanzon, N. Carapellese, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, and S. Gosselin, “Optimal BBU placement for 5G C-RAN deployment over WDM aggregation networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1963–1970 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peng, L.

Peng, M.

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rost, P.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, G.

Simeonidou, D.

Song, C.

Su, L.

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tornatore, M.

Valcarenghi, L.

Vasilakos, A.

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, G. Shen, and L. Peng, “Protection lightpath-based hitless spectrum defragmentation for distance adaptive elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4497–4511 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, R.

R. Wang, H. Hu, and X. Yang, “Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks,” IEEE Access 2, 1187–1195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Xu and S. Wang, “Baseband unit pool planning for cloud radio access networks: An approximation algorithm,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(2), 358–361 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Waterhouse, R.

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wubben, D.

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

S. Xu and S. Wang, “Baseband unit pool planning for cloud radio access networks: An approximation algorithm,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(2), 358–361 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

R. Wang, H. Hu, and X. Yang, “Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks,” IEEE Access 2, 1187–1195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, Q.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, A.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zervas, G.

Zhang, J.

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, Y. He, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, W. Bai, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources optimization with network functions virtualization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8666–8678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhao, Y.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Wu, Y. Lin, J. Han, and Y. Lee, “Performance evaluation of multi-stratum resources integrated resilience for software defined inter-data center interconnect,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13384–13398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

IEEE Access (2)

R. Wang, H. Hu, and X. Yang, “Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks,” IEEE Access 2, 1187–1195 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, W. Bai, A. Yu, Q. Yao, J. Zhang, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “Bandwidth compression protection against collapse in fog-based wireless and optical networks,” IEEE Access 6, 54760–54768 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (2)

M. Peng, Y. Sun, X. Li, Z. Mao, and C. Wang, “Recent advances in cloud radio access networks: system architectures, key techniques, and open issues,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 18(3), 2282–2308 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Alvizu, G. Maier, N. Kukreja, A. Pattavina, R. Morro, A. Capello, and C. Cavazzoni, “Comprehensive survey on T-SDN: software-defined networking for transport networks,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 19(4), 2232–2283 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

S. Xu and S. Wang, “Baseband unit pool planning for cloud radio access networks: An approximation algorithm,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 21(2), 358–361 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (5)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, and Y. Lee, “C-RoFN: multi-stratum resources optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(8), 118–125 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. de la Oliva, J. A. Hernandez, D. Larrabeiti, and A. Azcorra, “An overview of the CPRI specification and its application to C-RAN-based LTE scenarios,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 152–159 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Ji, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(8), 130–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, T. Jiang, K. Luo, and S. Mao, “Green heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: potential techniques, performance trade-offs, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(11), 33–39 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Han, Y. Lin, and Y. Lee, “SUDOI: software defined networking for ubiquitous data center optical interconnection,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(2), 86–95 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, P. Gamage, T. Clark, M. Dennis, and J. Nanzer, “Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 52(1), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Wirel. Commun. (2)

J. Bartelt, P. Rost, D. Wubben, J. Lessmann, B. Melis, and G. Fettweis, “Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(5), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Park, C. Chae, and S. Bahk, “Large-scale antenna operation in heterogeneous cloud radio access networks: a partial centralization approach,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(3), 32–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

Z. Zhu, X. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Lu, L. Gong, S. Yu, and N. Ansari, “Impairment- and splitting-aware cloud-ready multicast provisioning in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 25(2), 1220–1234 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Opt. Express (6)

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Ji, Y. He, and Y. Lee, “Experimental demonstration of multi-dimensional resources integration for service provisioning in cloud radio over fiber network,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirel. Netw. (1)

Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).
[Crossref]

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B. Huang, Y. Chiang, and W. Liao, “Remote radio head (RRH) deployment in flexible C-RAN under limited fronthaul capacity,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2017), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
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M. Raza, M. Fiorani, A. Rostami, B. Skubic, P. Oehlen, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dynamic resource sharing for C-RANs with joint orchestration of radio and transport,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2016), (Optical Society of America, 2016), pp. 1001–1003.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand for transparent optical networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2011), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.
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M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on Demand: Synthesis and Scalability,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM 2012), (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–6.

W. Bai, H. Yang, A. Yu, L. He, Y. Zhao, and J. Zhang, “Flexible intelligence cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks based on reconfigurable wavelength-frequency selective switch,” in Proceedings of OECC2017, (OSA, 2017), pp. 1–4.
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B. Kim, K. Tanaka, T. Kobayashi, A. Bekkali, K. Nishimura, H. Kim, M. Suzuki, and Y. Chung, “Transmission experiment of LTE signals by IF-over-fiber using commercial base station and deployed optical fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2016), (OSA, 2016), pp. 1–3.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, A. Nirmalathas, C. Jayasundara, and C. Lim, “5G C-RAN architecture: a comparison of multiple optical fronthaul networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM 2017), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–6.
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K. Tanaka and A. Agata, “Next-generation optical access networks for C-RAN,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2015), (Optical Society of America, 2015), pp. Tu2E.1.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The architecture of C-RoFN.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The schematic diagram of spectrum in C-RoFN.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Multi-dimensional resources in C-RoFN.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of radio and wavelength switching: (a) signals with different wavelengths and (b) signals with the same wavelength in C-RoFN.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reconfigurable radio-wavelength selective switch.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 An example of radio signal exchange based on RWSS: (a) the migration of radio signals between different optical carriers, (b) separation of multiple radio signals on the same carrier.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Allocation results and spectrum occupancy of (a, b) RWA and (c, d) RRWA.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental setup for RWSS spectral resource allocation in C-RoFN.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The spectrum occupancy collected at point A.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The spectrum occupancy collected at point B.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The spectrum occupancy collected at point C.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The emulation topology.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The contrast of (a) resource utilization, (b) blocking probability rate and (c) provisioning latency between RWA and RRWA algorithms.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm 1. Pseudo code of RRWA algorithm.

Equations (2)

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W F S = i = 1 L j = 1 W k = 1 F Φ ( i , j , k ) L · W · F
Φ ( i , j , k ) = { 1 i f ( φ ( i , j , x ) = 0 ) & & ( φ ( i , j , x ) = 1 ) , x [ 1 , F ] 0 e l s e

Metrics