Abstract

Germanium (Ge) is capturing researchers’ interest as a possible optical gain medium implementable on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips. Band-gap engineering techniques, relying mainly on tensile strain, are required to overcome the indirect band-gap nature of bulk Ge and promote electron injection into the direct-gap valley. We used Ge on silicon on insulator (Ge-on-SOI) wafers with a high-crystalline-quality Ge layer to fabricate Ge micro-gears on silicon (Si) pillars. Micro-gears are created by etching a periodic grating-like pattern on the circumference of a conventional micro-disk, resulting in a gear shape. Thermal built-in stresses within the SiO2 layers that encapsulate the micro-gears were used to impose tensile strain on Ge. Biaxial tensile strain values ranging from 0.3–0.5% are estimated based on Raman spectroscopy measurements and finite-element method (FEM) simulations. Multiple sharp-peak resonances within the Ge direct-gap were detected at room temperature by photo-luminescence (PL) measurements. By investigating the micro-gears spectrum using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we identified vertically emitted optical modes with non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of OAM generation within a Ge light source.

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2018 (1)

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Burt, A. Al-Attili, Z. Li, F. Gardès, M. Sotto, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Oda, O. M. Querin, S. Saito, and R. Kelsall, “Enhanced light emission from improved homogeneity in biaxially suspended germanium membranes from curvature optimization,” Opt. Express 25, 22911–22922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24, 4365–4374 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap light emission from strained germanium nanowires coupled with high-Q nanophotonic cavities,” Nano Lett. 16, 2168–2173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, A. Z. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31, 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct band gap germanium microdisks obtained with silicon nitride stressor layers,” ACS Photon. 3, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, H. Arimoto, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, and S. Saito, “Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 052101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light. Sci. Appl. 4, e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from Ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, X. Wang, K. Nishida, K. Takabayashi, K. Sawano, Y. Shiraki, H. Li, J. Liu, and T. Maruizumi, “Ultralarge transient optical gain from tensile-strained, n-doped germanium on silicon by spin-on dopant diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092101 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Dangel, J. Hofrichter, F. Horst, D. Jubin, A. La Porta, N. Meier, I. M. Soganci, J. Weiss, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers,” Opt. Express 23, 4736–4750 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Koerner, M. Oehme, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, K. Kostecki, S. Bechler, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Electrically pumped lasing from Ge fabry-perot resonators on Si,” Opt. Express 23, 14815–14822 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y.-L. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Optica 2, 547–552 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, A. Samarelli, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, T. Dieing, and D. J. Paul, “Extending the emission wavelength of Ge nanopillars to 2.25 μm using silicon nitride stressors,” Opt. Express 23, 18193–18202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vučković, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using CMOS-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23, 33249–33254 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, S. David, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Strain engineering in germanium microdisks,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 89901C (2014).

S. Saito, F. Y. Gardes, A. Z. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV light sources to enable the convergence of photonics and electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J. H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vucković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13, 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
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X. Wang, H. Li, R. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, and J. Liu, “Infrared absorption of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si,” Opt. Lett. 38, 652–654 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338, 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
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J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 094006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k.p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 013710 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 124–131 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photon. 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnections to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
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C. Ortolland, Y. Okuno, P. Verheyen, C. Kerner, C. Stapelmann, M. Aoulaiche, N. Horiguchi, and T. Hoffmann, “Stress memorization technique—fundamental understanding and low-cost integration for advanced CMOS technology using a nonselective process,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1690–1697 (2009).
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J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1738–1740 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. C. Luan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013501 (2005).
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2004 (1)

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 (2004).
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2003 (2)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044–2046 (2003).
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K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, “Ultralow threshold and single-mode lasing in microgear lasers and its fusion with quasi-periodic photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1355–1360 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Fujita and T. Baba, “Microgear laser,” Appl. phys. lett. 80, 2051–2053 (2002).
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1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2234–2252 (1996).
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1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
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1989 (1)

C. G. V. de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871–1883 (1989).
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Aassime, A.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

Al-Attili, A.

D. Burt, A. Al-Attili, Z. Li, F. Gardès, M. Sotto, N. Higashitarumizu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Oda, O. M. Querin, S. Saito, and R. Kelsall, “Enhanced light emission from improved homogeneity in biaxially suspended germanium membranes from curvature optimization,” Opt. Express 25, 22911–22922 (2017).
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K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

Al-Attili, A. Z.

S. Saito, A. Z. Al-Attili, K. Oda, and Y. Ishikawa, “Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31, 043002 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from Ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, H. Arimoto, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, and S. Saito, “Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 052101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Y. Gardes, A. Z. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV light sources to enable the convergence of photonics and electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alpmann, C.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andrews, D. L.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aoulaiche, M.

C. Ortolland, Y. Okuno, P. Verheyen, C. Kerner, C. Stapelmann, M. Aoulaiche, N. Horiguchi, and T. Hoffmann, “Stress memorization technique—fundamental understanding and low-cost integration for advanced CMOS technology using a nonselective process,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 1690–1697 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and S. Saito, “Tensile strain engineering of germanium micro-disks on free-standing SiO2 beams,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EH02 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from Ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, H. Arimoto, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, and S. Saito, “Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 052101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, F. Y. Gardes, A. Z. Al-Attili, K. Tani, K. Oda, Y. Suwa, T. Ido, Y. Ishikawa, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Group IV light sources to enable the convergence of photonics and electronics,” Front. Mater. 1, 15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, H.

K. Debnath, H. Arimoto, M. K. Husain, A. Prasmusinto, A. Al-Attili, R. Petra, H. M. H. Chong, G. T. Reed, and S. Saito, “Low-loss silicon waveguides and grating couplers fabricated using anisotropic wet etching technique,” Front. Mater. 3, 10 (2016).

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. K. Husain, F. Y. Gardes, H. Arimoto, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, and S. Saito, “Spin-on doping of germanium-on-insulator wafers for monolithic light sources on silicon,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 052101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Al-Attili, S. Kako, M. Husain, F. Gardes, N. Higashitarumizu, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, Y. Ishikawa, H. Arimoto, K. Oda, T. Ido, and S. Saito, “Whispering gallery mode resonances from Ge micro-disks on suspended beams,” Front. Mater. 2, 43 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

Ashrafi, S.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

K. Nozaki, A. Nakagawa, D. Sano, and T. Baba, “Ultralow threshold and single-mode lasing in microgear lasers and its fusion with quasi-periodic photonic crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1355–1360 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita and T. Baba, “Microgear laser,” Appl. phys. lett. 80, 2051–2053 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baker, M.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballabio, A.

Balram, K.

Banzer, P.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Bao, S.

S. Bao, D. Kim, C. Onwukaeme, S. Gupta, K. Saraswat, K. H. Lee, Y. Kim, D. Min, Y. Jung, H. Qiu, H. Wang, E. A. Fitzgerald, C. S. Tan, and D. Nam, “Low-threshold optically pumped lasing in highly strained germanium nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1845 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, A.

Baudot, C.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct band gap germanium microdisks obtained with silicon nitride stressor layers,” ACS Photon. 3, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, S. David, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Strain engineering in germanium microdisks,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 89901C (2014).

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Belmonte, A.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berry, M. V.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520, 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bigelow, N. P.

H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, A. Forbes, M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, D. L. Andrews, M. Mansuripur, C. Denz, C. Alpmann, P. Banzer, T. Bauer, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, M. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, N. M. Litchinitser, N. P. Bigelow, C. Rosales-Guzmán, A. Belmonte, J. P. Torres, T. W. Neely, M. Baker, R. Gordon, A. B. Stilgoe, J. Romero, A. G. White, R. Fickler, A. E. Willner, G. Xie, B. McMorran, and A. M. Weiner, “Roadmap on structured light,” J. Opt. 19, 013001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct band gap germanium microdisks obtained with silicon nitride stressor layers,” ACS Photon. 3, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, S. David, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Strain engineering in germanium microdisks,” Proc. SPIE 8990, 89901C (2014).

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Petykiewicz, D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, S. Buckley, A. Y. Piggott, J. Vučković, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap light emission from strained germanium nanowires coupled with high-Q nanophotonic cavities,” Nano Lett. 16, 2168–2173 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, J. Petykiewicz, S. Gupta, D. Kim, S. Woo, Y. Kim, J. Vučković, K. C. Saraswat, and D. Nam, “Ge microdisk with lithographically-tunable strain using CMOS-compatible process,” Opt. Express 23, 33249–33254 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J. H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain,” Photon. Res. 2, A8–A13 (2014).
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ACS Photon. (1)

M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, A. Ghrib, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Picardi, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Direct band gap germanium microdisks obtained with silicon nitride stressor layers,” ACS Photon. 3, 443–448 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

APL Photon. (1)

A. Elbaz, M. El Kurdi, A. Aassime, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, I. Sagnes, C. Baudot, F. Boeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Germanium microlasers on metallic pedestals,” APL Photon. 3, 106102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

X. Xu, X. Wang, K. Nishida, K. Takabayashi, K. Sawano, Y. Shiraki, H. Li, J. Liu, and T. Maruizumi, “Ultralarge transient optical gain from tensile-strained, n-doped germanium on silicon by spin-on dopant diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

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A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ge micro-gears. (a) Top-view schematic of a micro-gear structure showing the design parameters, namely the inner radius (Rin), outer radius (Rout) and the number of periods (m). (b) Optical Microscopy (OM) image of a Ge micro-gear after dry-etching. A visible optical mode is seen in the gears region. (c) Focused-Ion Beam (FIB) image showing birds-eye view of a Ge micro-gear encapsulated by buried (bottom) and PECVD (top) SiO2 on a Si pillar. (d) Scanning-Electron Microscopy (SEM) side-view of a Ge micro-gear. The pyramidal shape of the Si pillar is obvious due to anisotropic TMAH etching. Crystallographic directions of the wafer are annotated on the bottom right corner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication process of Ge micro-gears on Si pillars. (a) Cleaning of Ge-on-SOI wafers using HF and HCl acids. (b) Dry-etching of Ge-on-SOI micro-gears patterned with electron-beam lithography with different designs. (c) Deposition of PECVD SiO2 layer to protect Ge and SOI from the following steps and impose tensile strain on Ge. (d) Dry-etching of SiO2 to form a disk structure surrounding the Ge micro-gear. (e) Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP) dry-etching of bulk Si to form a 1-μm-high pedestal, followed by (f) TMAH etching of bulk Si to form a pyramidal-shaped pillar.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Tuning of the TMAH wet-etching process to form a Si pillar with approximately 500-nm-wide tip holding the Ge micro-gear on top. The tuning process was done by under-etching 300-nm-thick SiO2 micro-disks on Si using TMAH and observing the under-etch distance using optical microscopy after (a) zero, (b) 20, (c) 40, (d) 60, (e) 80 and (f) 95 minutes of wet etching. Inset of (f) shows the tip of the Si pillar in focus.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulation of volumetric strain distribution across a Ge micro-gear on a Si pillar. The micro-gear has an outer diameter of 4 μm, gear depth of 50 nm, and 18 periods. (a) Three-dimensional distribution, and (b) two-dimensional cross-section of the strain in the micro-gear. Higher tensile strain values are expected at the bottom side of the gear compared to the top side due to the higher thermal stresses in the buried SiO2 (bottom) compared to PECVD SiO2 (top).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Raman spectroscopy measurements of Ge micro-gears on Si pillars. (a) Raman spectrum of bulk Ge (blue) and a 4-μm-diameter Ge micro-gear (red) with 18 periods and 50 nm gear depth (RoutRin). A Raman shift of 1.4 cm−1 is observed at an excitation power of 218 μW. (b) Power dependence of Raman peak position for bulk Ge (blue) and the Ge micro-gear (red). Ge micro-gears are sensitive to heating due to encapsulation with SiO2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photo-luminescence study of a 4-μm-diameter Ge micro-gear (red) with 18 periods and 50 nm gear depth (RoutRin). Spectra are experimentally measured by exciting the micro-gear from the top with 0.4 mW and 2 mW laser beams. Sharp peak resonances are observed as the excitation power is increased. Modes at 1.671, 1.728 and 1.793 μm are TE20,1, TE19,1 and TE18,1 whispering gallery modes, respectively. Surface plots on top of the spectra represent the simulated absolute (|Eρ|) and real (Re(Eρ)) values in addition to the phase (∠(Eρ)) of the in-plane radial component of the electric field (Eρ), monitored at a distance of 2 μm above the gear surface. Annular field intensity, and the vortex-shaped wave-front noticed in the real value and phase plots, indicate that TE20,1 and TE19,1 modes have an orbital angular momentum number () of ±2 and ±1, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Far-field projections of the resonant modes TE20,1, TE19,1 and TE18,1. Azimuthal angle represents the in-plane angle around the micro-gear, while the polar angle represents the deviation from the vertical direction (direction [001] in Fig. 1(d)). Polar angle spread of the modes indicates their upwards propagation direction, with the higher wavelength modes being more directional.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spatial evolution of the helical wave-fronts of (a) TE20,1 at 1.671 μm, and (b) TE19,1 at 1.728 μm. Each plot shows the phase (∠(Eρ)) and the real (Re(Eρ)) value of the in-plane radial electric field component (Eρ) as seen at a distance of 4, 4.5 and 5 μm above the micro-gear surface. Arrows on the phase plots specify the phase transition edge as it changes from −π to π. The rotation of the optical vortex for each mode is evident as it propagates upwards. Sketches on the right side of (a) and (b) plot a corresponding schematic of a wave with OAM of 2 and 1, respectively.

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