Abstract

Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic (EO) modulators combine small footprint with low operating voltage and hence low power dissipation, thus lending themselves to on-chip integration of large-scale device arrays. Here we demonstrate an electrical packaging concept that enables high-density radio-frequency (RF) interfaces between on-chip SOH devices and external circuits. The concept combines high-resolution Al2O3 printed-circuit boards with technically simple metal wire bonds and is amenable to packaging of device arrays with small on-chip bond pad pitches. In a set of experiments, we characterize the performance of the underlying RF building blocks and we demonstrate the viability of the overall concept by generation of high-speed optical communication signals. Achieving line rates (symbols rates) of 128 Gbit/s (64 GBd) using quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation and of 160 Gbit/s (40 GBd) using 16-state quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16QAM), we believe that our demonstration represents an important step in bringing SOH modulators from proof-of-concept experiments to deployment in commercial environments.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (7)

S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (6)

H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, I. Cardea, I. Demirtzioglou, A. E. Khoja, L. Ke, D. J. Thomson, X. Ruan, F. Zhang, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “49.6 Gb/s direct detection DMT transmission over 40 km single mode fibre using an electrically packaged silicon photonic modulator,” Opt. Express 25(24), 29798–29811 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ruan, K. Li, D. J. Thomson, C. Lacava, F. Meng, I. Demirtzioglou, P. Petropoulos, Y. Zhu, G. T. Reed, and F. Zhang, “Experimental comparison of direct detection Nyquist SSB transmission based on silicon dual-drive and IQ Mach-Zehnder modulators with electrical packaging,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19332–19342 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, R. Aroca, L. Chen, L. Pellach, G. McBrien, and C. Doerr, “Demonstration of silicon photonics push–pull modulators designed for manufacturability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1127–1129 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Qi, X. Xiao, S. Hu, X. Li, H. Li, L. Liu, Z. Li, N. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “Co-Design and demonstration of a 25-Gb/s silicon-photonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with a CMOS-based high-swing driver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 131–140 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (6)

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with -0.58 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1999–2002 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. OKeefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, S. Ben-Ezra, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Monolithic GaAs electro-optic IQ modulator demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 760–765 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. Tekin, “Review of packaging of optoelectronic, photonic, and MEMS components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 704–719 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. Ben Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

E. Higurashi, T. Imamura, T. Suga, and R. Sawada, “Low-temperature bonding of laser diode chips on silicon substrates using plasma activation of Au films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1994–1996 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Elenius and L. Levine, “Comparing flip-chip and wire-bond interconnection technologies,” Chip Scale Review 4, 81 (2000).

Abbasi, A.

A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al Qubaisi, K.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altenhain, L.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aroca, R.

D. Vermeulen, R. Aroca, L. Chen, L. Pellach, G. McBrien, and C. Doerr, “Demonstration of silicon photonics push–pull modulators designed for manufacturability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1127–1129 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arz, U.

F. J. Schmückle, R. Doerner, G. N. Phung, W. Heinrich, D. Williams, and U. Arz, “Radiation, Multimode Propagation, and Substrate Modes in W-Band CPW Calibrations,” in 41st European Microwave Conference (2011), pp. 297–300.

Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baiocco, C. V.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barklund, A.

Bauwelinck, J.

A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, J.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

Ben Bakir, B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. Ben Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ben-Ezra, S.

Benight, S.

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. Ben Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Billah, M.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

Billah, M. R.

Blaicher, M.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Bolten, J.

Brosi, J.

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper P056.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caer, C.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cameron, N.

Cardea, I.

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

D. Vermeulen, R. Aroca, L. Chen, L. Pellach, G. McBrien, and C. Doerr, “Demonstration of silicon photonics push–pull modulators designed for manufacturability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1127–1129 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiang, P. Y.

N. Qi, X. Xiao, S. Hu, X. Li, H. Li, L. Liu, Z. Li, N. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “Co-Design and demonstration of a 25-Gb/s silicon-photonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with a CMOS-based high-swing driver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 131–140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Collins, S.

L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dangel, R.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

Danziger, S.

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Keulenaer, T.

A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirtzioglou, I.

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, P.-I.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

Ding, R.

Ding, Y.

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doerner, R.

F. J. Schmückle, R. Doerner, G. N. Phung, W. Heinrich, D. Williams, and U. Arz, “Radiation, Multimode Propagation, and Substrate Modes in W-Band CPW Calibrations,” in 41st European Microwave Conference (2011), pp. 297–300.

Doerr, C.

D. Vermeulen, R. Aroca, L. Chen, L. Pellach, G. McBrien, and C. Doerr, “Demonstration of silicon photonics push–pull modulators designed for manufacturability,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1127–1129 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dottermusch, S.

Dreschmann, M.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

Dumon, P.

Duperron, M.

L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eason, C.

L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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Hoessbacher, C.

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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Hoose, T.

P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
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N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multicore fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
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L. Carroll, J.-S. Lee, C. Scarcella, K. Gradkowski, M. Duperron, H. Lu, Y. Zhao, C. Eason, P. Morrissey, M. Rensing, S. Collins, H. Hwang, and P. O’Brien, “Photonic packaging: transforming silicon photonic integrated circuits into photonic devices,” Appl. Sci. (Basel) 6(12), 426 (2016).
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E. Higurashi, T. Imamura, T. Suga, and R. Sawada, “Low-temperature bonding of laser diode chips on silicon substrates using plasma activation of Au films,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1994–1996 (2007).
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Jen, A. K.-Y.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

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Kehayas, E.

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M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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Khoja, A. E.

Kieninger, C.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

Kikuchi, T.

Koeber, S.

Koehnle, K.

Koenig, S.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

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S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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P.-I. Dietrich, M. Blaicher, I. Reuter, M. Billah, T. Hoose, A. Hofmann, C. Caer, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, U. Troppenz, M. Moehrle, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration,” Nat. Photonics 12(4), 241–247 (2018).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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C. Koos, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, W. Bogaerts, A. L. Giesecke, M. Lauermann, A. Melikyan, S. Koeber, S. Wolf, C. Weimann, S. Muehlbrandt, K. Koehnle, J. Pfeifle, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, S. Ummethala, R. Palmer, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, T. Wahlbrink, and J. Bolten, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) and plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 256–268 (2016).
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N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. P. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multicore fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(4), 755–760 (2015).
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P. C. Schindler, D. Korn, C. Stamatiadis, M. F. OKeefe, L. Stampoulidis, R. Schmogrow, P. Zakynthinos, R. Palmer, N. Cameron, Y. Zhou, R. G. Walker, E. Kehayas, S. Ben-Ezra, I. Tomkos, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Monolithic GaAs electro-optic IQ modulator demonstrated at 150 Gbit/s with 64QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 760–765 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon–organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper P056.

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Kutuvantavida, Y.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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Lange, S.

Lauermann, M.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2007), paper P056.

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A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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Salamin, Y.

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Schindler, P. C.

Schmid, R.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. Ben Bakir, J. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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Takenaka, M.

J. Fujikata, M. Noguchi, J. Han, S. Takahashi, M. Takenaka, and T. Nakamura, “Record-high modulation-efficiency depletion-type Si-based optical modulator with in-situ B doped strained SiGe layer on Si waveguide for 1.3 um wavelength,” in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) (2016), paper Tu.3.A.4.

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Vaernewyck, R.

A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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Walker, R. G.

Wang, I.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
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Wehrli, S.

C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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Weimann, C.

Wieland, J.

Williams, D.

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Winter, M.

W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

Witzens, J.

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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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S. Lange, S. Wolf, J. Lutz, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, R. Kaiser, M. Schell, C. Koos, and S. Randel, “100 GBd intensity modulation and direct detection with an InP-based monolithic DFB laser Mach–Zehnder modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(1), 97–102 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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Wu, N.

N. Qi, X. Xiao, S. Hu, X. Li, H. Li, L. Liu, Z. Li, N. Wu, and P. Y. Chiang, “Co-Design and demonstration of a 25-Gb/s silicon-photonic Mach–Zehnder modulator with a CMOS-based high-swing driver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 131–140 (2016).
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M. Billah, J. N. Kemal, M. Blaicher, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, H. Zwickel, P.-I. Dietrich, S. Wolf, T. Hoose, Y. Xu, U. Troppenz, M. Möhrle, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Four-channel 784 Gbit / s transmitter module enabled by photonic wire bonding and silicon-organic hybrid modulators,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2017), paper Th.PDP.C.1.

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A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, L. A. Shiramin, M. Verplaetse, T. De Keulenaer, R. Vaernewyck, R. Pierco, A. Vyncke, X. Yin, G. Torfs, G. Morthier, J. Bauwelinck, and G. Roelkens, “100-Gb/s electro-absorptive duobinary modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(12), 1095–1098 (2018).
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H. Miura, F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, T. Kashino, T. Kikuchi, M. Ozawa, H. Nawata, K. Odoi, and S. Yokoyama, “High thermal stability 40 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28643–28649 (2017).
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Zhang, B.

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Zhao, Y.

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Zhou, Y.

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Zwick, T.

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Zwickel, H.

S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Kieninger, L. Altenhain, R. Schmid, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit/s on-off keying,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2598 (2018).
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S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, M. Lauermann, W. Hartmann, Y. Kutuvantavida, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Coherent modulation up to 100 GBd 16QAM using silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices,” Opt. Express 26(1), 220–232 (2018).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
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H. Zwickel, S. Wolf, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, T. de Keulenaer, A. Vyncke, R. Vaernewyck, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. Freude, J. Bauwelinck, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulators for intensity-modulation / direct-detection links with line rates of up to 120 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23784–23800 (2017).
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W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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ACS Photonics (1)

W. Heni, Y. Kutuvantavida, C. Haffner, H. Zwickel, C. Kieninger, S. Wolf, M. Lauermann, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. F. Tillack, L. E. Johnson, D. L. Elder, B. H. Robinson, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and L. R. Dalton, “Silicon-organic and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonics,” ACS Photonics 4(7), 1576–1590 (2017).
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C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, Y. Fedoryshyn, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, C. Haffner, M. Zahner, H. Chen, D. L. Elder, S. Wehrli, D. Hillerkuss, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Optical interconnect solution with plasmonic modulator and Ge photodetector array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(21), 1760–1763 (2017).
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W. Freude, R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, and J. Leuthold, “Quality metrics for optical signals: Eye diagram, Q-factor, OSNR, EVM and BER,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) (IEEE, 2012), paper Mo.B1.5.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. N. Kemal, H. Zwickel, H. Miura, S. Randel, W. Freude, S. Yokoyama, and C. Koos, “Demonstration of long-term thermal stability of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator at 85°C,” Opt. Express26, 27955–27964 (2018).
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H. Zwickel, J. N. Kemal, C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, M. Lauermann, J. Rittershofer, R. Pajković, D. Lindt, S. Randel, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Electrically Packaged Silicon-Organic Hybrid Modulator for Communication and Microwave Photonic Applications,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA, 2018), paper SM3B.1.
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device concept and operation of an SOH Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). (a) Artist’s view of the MZM: The organic EO cladding (green) is shown in one arm only. Aluminum vias connect the doped thin Si slabs to the traveling-wave electrodes and to the bond pads on the top metal layer. (b) Schematic of traveling-wave MZM with electrodes that form a ground-signal-ground coplanar transmission line having bond pads at both ends. (c, d) Colour plot of the dominant x-component of the RF electric field and the optical electric field. The strong overlap leads to efficient modulation. (e-1) to (e-3): Poling of the modulator. (e-1) Prior to poling, the molecular dipoles (green arrows) in the organic EO material are randomly oriented such that no macroscopic Pockels effect can be observed. (e-2) At elevated temperatures, a poling voltage induces a poling field Epol which aligns the molecular dipoles predominantly along the electric field. This molecular orientation is frozen when the material is cooled down to room temperature. (e-3) In push-pull operation, the modulating RF voltage is applied to the center signal electrode thereby leading to a modulating field Emod that is oriented parallel to the poling direction in one arm and anti-parallel in the other one. This allows for pure amplitude or intensity modulation without residual phase modulation (chirp-free) [12].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of the RF building blocks. (a) Micrograph of a coplanar TL with dimensions matching the bond pads on the Si chip. The TL has been fabricated on gold-plated ceramic substrates using direct laser writing and wet etching. (b) Micrograph of a tapered section of the TL. The left-hand side corresponds to the TL shown in (a), the right-hand side matches the TL shown in (c). (c) Test structure to characterize the transition from a surface-mounted coaxial connectors to a TL. (d) Characteristic impedance Z0 (dark red: mean value from a set of 10 measurements, light red: corresponding standard deviation) and power propagation loss α (light blue dots: measurement data; blue line: moving average as a guide to the eye) extracted from S-parameters of TL with the small cross-section shown in (a). The characteristic impedance Z0 is well matched to 50 Ω, and the losses stay below 2 dB/cm. (e) S-parameters of a test structure comprising a 9 mm long TL with large cross section as shown in (c), terminated by a pair of tapers as shown in (b). The measurements exhibit the high transmission and reflection quality of the tapers. (f) S-parameters obtained from a test structure comprising a 7.8 mm long TL terminated by a pair of coaxial SMP-M connectors as shown in (c). The measurement also comprised the influence of two semi-flexible cable assemblies converting from the 1.85 mm VNA connectors to the SMP-M interface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electrical packaging. (a) Artist’s view of the module connecting two silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM) to surface-mounted SMP-M connectors on a ceramic printed circuit board (PCB). The external electrical circuit used for experiments is depicted schematically in red for one of the MZM (b) Two MZM, connected by bond wires. (c) Image of the complete module. (d) Micrograph of the SiP chip. Wire bonds are used for connecting the chip to the traces on the two ceramic PCB.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Small-signal characterization of the MZM module. (a) Electrical S-parameters of the unpackaged modulator measured with microwave probes (dashed line), and of the electrically packaged modulator measured by connecting the VNA ports directly to the SMP-M connectors on the ceramic PCB (solid lines). (b) Electro-optical-electrical (EOE) bandwidth of the unpackaged modulator (dashed line), and of the electrically packaged modulator (solid line). Both S-parameters traces are normalized to the respective value measured at 40 MHz. At frequencies beyond 20 GHz, a slight roll-off is observed for the packaged device with respect to the unpacked device. The electro-optic 3 dB (6 dB) bandwidth for the electrically packaged modulator is 21 GHz (31 GHz).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical signaling using various modulation formats. (a) Eye diagrams for 20 Gbit/s OOK and (b) 40 Gbit/s OOK without pre-compensation or post-processing using a pulse-pattern generator and an equivalent-time sampling oscilloscope. (c) Eye diagrams for 40 Gbit/s OOK with an adaptive equalizer applied on the recorded data using a real-time sampling oscilloscope and offline DSP. Pulses with a raised-cosine spectrum and a roll-off factor of β = 1 were used. (d) Eye diagram for 40 GBd (80 Gbit/s) PAM4 using pulse shaping with β = 0.3 and offline DSP. (e-h) Constellation diagrams for (e) 28 GBd 16QAM, (f) 40 GBd 16QAM, (g) 56 GBd QPSK and (h) 64 GBd QPSK.

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