Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the implementation of 10 Gbps high-speed mid-infrared (MIR) free-space optical (FSO) communication, by means of our developed robust high-speed MIR transmitter and receiver modules. Such modules can enable frequency down- and up-conversion between 1550 nm and 3594 nm based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO: PPLN). The MIR transmitter generates 5.34 dBm power at 3594 nm for input powers of 33 dBm at 1550 nm and 37 dBm at 1083 nm. The MIR receiver regenerates −24.5 dBm power at 1550 nm for input powers of −1.2 dBm at 3594 nm and 36.7 dBm at 1083 nm. The eye diagram of regenerated 1550 nm signal is clear, and both for the on-off keying (OOK) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation, the power penalties compared with back to back (BTB) signals are lower than 3.5 dB measured at bit error ratio (BER) of 1E-6. According to our analyses, the system supports variable data rate, wavelength, and modulation format. Furthermore, the optical and electrical components are well integrated and fixed in MIR transmitter and receiver modules, which exhibit long-term stability and can be applied to field experiments.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (3)

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. J. Zondy, “The effects of focusing in type-I and type-II difference- frequency generations,” Opt. Commun. 149(1-3), 181–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. Mcelhanon, “Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2910–2912 (1995).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

Acef, O.

Adler, F.

Alatawi, A. A.

Albadri, A. M.

Alhamoud, A. A.

Alias, M. S.

Alic, N.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Alyamani, A. Y.

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arnulf, A.

Asobe, M.

Baillargeon, J. N.

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C.

Bethea, C. G.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Borlaug, D.

Boroson, D. M.

D. V. Murphy, M. I. Lincoln, D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, and B. S. Robinson, “The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD),” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, 23–28 (2009).

Bricard, J.

Buchter, D.

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Büchter, K. D.

Burns, W. K.

L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. Mcelhanon, “Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2910–2912 (1995).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Cao, J. C.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

Chan, V. W. S.

Chi, Y. C.

Cho, A. Y.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Corrigan, P.

Curé, E.

Curti, F. G.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Czichy, R.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dallmann, D.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duan, T.

Durán Retamal, J. R.

El-Desouki, M. M.

Erny, C.

Falciglia, J.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Farr, W.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Farr, W. H.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

K. D. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 470–472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Fu, Z. L.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. Mcelhanon, “Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2910–2912 (1995).
[Crossref]

Grabner, M.

Gregory, M.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, X. G.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Q.

He, J. H.

Heine, F.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heine, F. F.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, H.

K. D. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 470–472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Hill, C.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Hill, C. J.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, D. H.

Huang, K.

Hutchinson, A.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Jacobsen, G.

Jalali, B.

Janjua, B.

Jundt, D. H.

Kahn, J. M.

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Kakkar, A.

Kampfner, H.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Keo, S.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Keo, S. A.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kühlke, D.

Kuo, H. C.

Kvicera, V.

Lange, R.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langrock, C.

K. D. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 470–472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Leindecker, N.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, H.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

Li, Z. P.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G. R.

Lincoln, M. I.

D. V. Murphy, M. I. Lincoln, D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, and B. S. Robinson, “The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD),” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, 23–28 (2009).

Liu, H. C.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lourdudoss, S.

Lutzer, M.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Maisons, G.

Marandi, A.

Martini, R.

P. Corrigan, R. Martini, E. A. Whittaker, and C. Bethea, “Quantum cascade lasers and the Kruse model in free space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4355–4359 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mcelhanon, R. W.

L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. Mcelhanon, “Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2910–2912 (1995).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R.

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miyazawa, H.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moutzouris, K.

Muckherjee, J.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Muhlnikel, G.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. V.

D. V. Murphy, M. I. Lincoln, D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, and B. S. Robinson, “The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD),” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, 23–28 (2009).

Navarro, J. R.

Ng, T. K.

Nishida, Y.

Okishev, A. V.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Ozolins, O.

Paiella, R.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pang, X.

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popov, S.

Prabaswara, A.

Radic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Raghunathan, V.

Reinhardt, M.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Retamal, J. R. D.

Rice, R. R.

Richter, D.

D. Richter and P. Weibring, “Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 479–486 (2006).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. S.

D. V. Murphy, M. I. Lincoln, D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, and B. S. Robinson, “The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD),” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, 23–28 (2009).

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saucke, K.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schatz, R.

Scozzafava, J. J.

D. V. Murphy, M. I. Lincoln, D. M. Boroson, J. J. Scozzafava, and B. S. Robinson, “The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD),” 2009 Third IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, Pasadena, CA, 23–28 (2009).

Seel, S.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, C.

Sivco, D. L.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

K. D. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 470–472 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ip, D. Buchter, C. Langrock, J. M. Kahn, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, and M. M. Fejer, “QPSK transmission over free-space link at 3.8 μm using coherent detection with wavelength conversion,” 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, Brussels, 1–2, (2008).

Soibel, A.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Storck, J.

Suzuki, H.

Tadanaga, O.

Tan, L.

Tan, Z. Y.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Touahri, D.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

Udalcovs, A.

Véret, C.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wan, W. J.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wandernoth, B.

S. Seel, H. Kampfner, F. Heine, D. Dallmann, G. Muhlnikel, M. Gregory, M. Reinhardt, K. Saucke, J. Muckherjee, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “Space to Ground bidirectional optical communication link at 5.6 Gbps and EDRS connectivity outlook,” 2011 Aerospace Conference, MT, 1–7 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. X.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Y.

Weibring, P.

D. Richter and P. Weibring, “Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 479–486 (2006).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E.

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E. A.

P. Corrigan, R. Martini, E. A. Whittaker, and C. Bethea, “Quantum cascade lasers and the Kruse model in free space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4355–4359 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wright, M.

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Wright, M. W.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

Yang, K.

Yang, R. Q.

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yu, S.

Zeng, H.

Zhai, C.

Zhao, C.

Zhou, T.

H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

Zlatanovic, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zondy, J. J.

J. J. Zondy, “The effects of focusing in type-I and type-II difference- frequency generations,” Opt. Commun. 149(1-3), 181–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zondy, J.-J.

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Richter and P. Weibring, “Ultra-high precision mid-IR spectrometer I: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 479–486 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Goldberg, W. K. Burns, and R. W. Mcelhanon, “Wide acceptance bandwidth difference frequency generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(20), 2910–2912 (1995).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Martini, R. Paiella, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. A. Whittaker, H. C. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed digital data transmission using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(21), 1290 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Martini, C. Gmachl, J. Falciglia, F. G. Curti, C. G. Bethea, F. Capasso, E. Whittaker, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-speed modulation and free-space optical audio/video transmission using quantum cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 37(3), 191 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Soibel, M. W. Wright, W. H. Farr, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Midinfrared Interband Cascade Laser for Free Space Optical Communication,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(2), 121–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. J. Zondy, “The effects of focusing in type-I and type-II difference- frequency generations,” Opt. Commun. 149(1-3), 181–206 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Gregory, F. F. Heine, H. Kampfner, R. Lange, M. Lutzer, and R. Meyer, “Commercial optical inter-satellite communication at high data rates,” Opt. Eng. 51(3), 031202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

A. V. Okishev and J. D. Zuegel, “Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a mid IR, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12169–12173 (2006).
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V. Raghunathan, D. Borlaug, R. R. Rice, and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a Mid-infrared silicon Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14355–14362 (2007).
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P. Corrigan, R. Martini, E. A. Whittaker, and C. Bethea, “Quantum cascade lasers and the Kruse model in free space optical communication,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4355–4359 (2009).
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N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6296–6302 (2011).
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B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. Durán Retamal, T. K. Ng, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Wang, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. R. Lin, J. H. He, and B. S. Ooi, “Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18746–18753 (2015).
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J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies (1)

A. Soibel, M. Wright, W. Farr, S. Keo, C. Hill, R. Q. Yang, and H. C. Liu, “Free space optical communication utilizing mid-infrared interband cascade laser,” Proc. SPIE 7587. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXII, 75870S (2010).
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H. Li, W. J. Wan, Z. Y. Tan, Z. L. Fu, H. X. Wang, T. Zhou, Z. P. Li, C. Wang, X. G. Guo, and J. C. Cao, “6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3452 (2017).
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Other (5)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental configuration diagram of 10 Gbps DPSK transmission system over the mid-infrared; (b) photographs of the MIR transmitter and receiver modules.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The 10 Gbps DPSK signal (a) optical spectrum with a center wavelength of 1550.118 nm and an OSNR of 55.32 dB; (b) eye diagram.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Slope efficiencies of the DC-EDFA for 1550 nm and DC-YDFA for 1083 nm; (b) output power stability of the 1550 nm and 1083 nm amplifiers in 35 minutes;
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The generated 10 Gbps MIR DPSK spectrum with an OSNR of 35.66 dB; (b) output power stability of the MIR signal in 35 minutes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation and experimental results of the DFG output power versus the operation temperature of the PPLN crystal. Dots represent the measured results and lines represent the numerical calculations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical spectrum of CW, 1Gbps, 6Gbps and 10Gbps signal with (a) OOK modulation in C-band; (b) DPSK modulation in C-band; (c) OOK modulation in MIR; (d) DPSK modulation in MIR. (e) Output power of 1550 nm and 3594 nm signals as functions of the data rate. (f) Spectrum broadening ratios of 1550 nm and 3594 nm signals as functions of the data rate.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical spectrum of the regenerated 10 Gbps DPSK signal at 1550 nm. (b) Output power of regenerated OOK and DPSK signals as functions of the data rate. (c) Optical spectrum of regenerated CW and OOK signals; (b) Optical spectrum of the regenerated CW and DPSK signals.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The measured CE of MIR transmitter and MIR receiver as functions of data rate.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The measured demodulation eye diagrams for: (a) 1 Gbps OOK; (b) 6 Gbps OOK; (c) 10 Gbps OOK; (d) 1 Gbps DPSK; (e) 6 Gbps DPSK; (f) 10 Gbps DPSK.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The measured performance parameters: (a) ER; (b) SNR; (c) RMS timing jitter.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Measured BERs as functions of the received power for: (a) the regenerated 10 Gbps OOK, DPSK and two BTB signals; (b) DPSK signal at different data rates; (c) OOK signal at different data rates.

Equations (2)

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η D F G λ s λ i L 2 P P ( 0 ) sin c 2 ( Δ β D F G L 2 )
Δ β D F G = 2 π ( n e ( T , λ p ) λ p n e ( T , λ i ) λ i n e ( T , λ s ) λ s 1 Λ )

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