Abstract

A crosstalk-suppressed dense multi-view light-field display based on real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction is demonstrated, which is capable of realizing high view density in the horizontal direction with low crosstalk between micro-pitch viewing zones. The micro-pinhole unit array and the vertically-collimated backlight are specially developed and used, instead of refraction-based optical components like lenticular lens, to avoid aberrations and to suppress crosstalk for accurately projecting multiple view perspectives into each eye pupil of the viewer. Additionally, the spatial information entropy is defined and investigated to improve 3D image perception for balancing resolution, which can be generally applicable to better-reconstructed 3D images with the limited number of resolution pixels. To enlarge the viewing angle of 3D images with smooth motion parallax, the novel high-efficient light-field pickup and reconstruction method based on the real-time position of the viewer’s pupils is implemented with an eye tracker to scan 750 view perspectives with the correct geometric occlusion in real time at the frame rate of 40 fps. In the experiment, a floating horizontal-parallax 3D light-field image with the view density of 0.75 mm−1 and the micro-pitch crosstalk of less than 7% can be perceived with the clear floating focus depth of 10 cm and the high resolution of 1920 × 1080 in the viewing angle of 70°.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2015 (1)

F.-C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

T. Bando, A. Iijima, and S. Yano, “Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images and the search for the requirement to prevent them: a review,” Displays 33(2), 76–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” IEEE CS 38(8), 31–36 (2005).

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “Épreuves réversibles: photographies intégrals,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Baik, I.-S.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bando, T.

T. Bando, A. Iijima, and S. Yano, “Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images and the search for the requirement to prevent them: a review,” Displays 33(2), 76–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Ma, and Y.-P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

F.-C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chernyshov, O. O.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. Y.

Chung, I.-J.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” IEEE CS 38(8), 31–36 (2005).

Dou, W.

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, F. C.

Gao, C.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hua, H.

Huang, F.-C.

F.-C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Ma, and Y.-P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iijima, A.

T. Bando, A. Iijima, and S. Yano, “Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images and the search for the requirement to prevent them: a review,” Displays 33(2), 76–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Jeong, W.-N.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, C. C.

Jung, H.-J.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kakeya, H.

H. Kakeya, “A Full-HD Super-Multiview Display with Time-Division Multiplexing Parallax Barrier,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers49, 259–262 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. Y.

Kim, S. K.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. R.

Lee, C. H.

Lee, J.-H.

Li, H.

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).

Li, Y.

Lin, C.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “Épreuves réversibles: photographies intégrals,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Liu, B.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).

Ma, C.-Y.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Ma, and Y.-P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Corral, M.

Nakamura, J.

Nam, D.

Park, D.-S.

Park, J.

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roh, S.-D.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Shin, J.-K.

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Son, J. Y.

Stern, A.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

Wetzstein, G.

F.-C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xiao, X.

Xing, S.

Xu, D.

Yan, B.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yano, S.

T. Bando, A. Iijima, and S. Yano, “Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images and the search for the requirement to prevent them: a review,” Displays 33(2), 76–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Yu, X.

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

ACM Trans. Graph. (2)

F.-C. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “Épreuves réversibles: photographies intégrals,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Displays (1)

T. Bando, A. Iijima, and S. Yano, “Visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic images and the search for the requirement to prevent them: a review,” Displays 33(2), 76–83 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE CS (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” IEEE CS 38(8), 31–36 (2005).

Inf. Disp. (1)

X. Liu and H. Li, “The progress of light field 3-D displays,” Inf. Disp. 30(6), 6–14 (2014).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, B. Liu, L. Liu, S. Yang, B. Yan, J. Du, and C. Gao, “Demonstration of a large-size horizontal light-field display based on the LED panel and the micro-pinhole unit array,” Opt. Commun. 414, 140–145 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-density directional display for generating natural three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

H. Kang, S.-D. Roh, I.-S. Baik, H.-J. Jung, W.-N. Jeong, J.-K. Shin, and I.-J. Chung, “A novel polarizer glasses-type 3D displays with a patterned retarder,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Ma, and Y.-P. Huang, “Crosstalk suppression by image processing in 3D display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers10, 124–127 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kakeya, “A Full-HD Super-Multiview Display with Time-Division Multiplexing Parallax Barrier,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers49, 259–262 (2018).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The floating 3D perspective of letter A and B is displayed to present clear floating light-field depth cues of 10cm.
» Visualization 2       The 3D image of the medical data of human heart and sternum displayed with the prototype is presented.
» Visualization 3       The 3D image of the geographic data of city model displayed with the prototype is presented.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of the proposed light-field display prototype. (a) The system configuration of the display prototype. (b) The schematic of the MPUA assisted with the LCD panel under the illumination of the VC-BL. The simulations of the radiation energy pattern of (c) the VC-BL and of (d) one period of viewing zones of 6 view perspectives produced by the MPUA and the VC-BL at viewing distance.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The schematic diagram of the occurrence of high crosstalk between viewing zones of different view perspectives with the use of the MPUA and stray backlight.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The schematic diagram of low crosstalk between viewing zones of different view perspectives with the use of the MPUA and the VC-BL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of modulation transfer function for the optimized aspheric lens combination and the standard lens combination.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The simulation results of the recovered view 1 of a 3D image by using the sampled view 1 with different spatial information entropy values, which are measured with PSNR within the viewing zone. (b) The PSNR curve of the recovered view 1 with different average spatial information entropy values.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of presentation results of the recovered view 1 of 3D image of city model with balancing resolution and the HFS or not. (a) The original view 1. (b) The result without both. (b) The result with balancing resolution and without the HFS. (c) The result with the HFS and without balancing resolution. (d) The result with both.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Ray model for the proposed retina-based light-field pickup method.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The principle of reconstruction with the anti-pseudoscopic image mapping method based on backward ray-trace.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The process of the real-time light-field pickup and reconstruction.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The flow chart of the proposed pupil-tracking algorithm
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) The setup of the demonstrated light-field display prototype (b) The MPUA and its microscopic image.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The displayed 3D scene consisting of letter A and letter B. (a) The arrangement of the experimental target scene. (b) The presentation of clear focus cues (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Illustration of the systematic crosstalk measurement. (a) The crosstalk measurement setup. (b) The luminance and crosstalk distributions for 6 view perspectives with a longitudinal range of 0-9 mm at the heights of y1 and y2 at viewing plane.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 3D light-field display of human heart and sternum (see Visualization 2).
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 3D light-field display of city model (see Visualization 3).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Configuration of experiments

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ =arc tan ( W p H p 2 g )
H i = k = 0 255 P k log 2 P k
[ u i v i ] = [ f 2 f z p 0 0 f z p f ] [ y x ] + [ f z p 2 f z p 0 0 0 ] [ d i 1 ]
d i = { d 1 + W p 2 ( i 1 ) , i = 1 , 2 , 3 d 1 + D p + W p 2 ( i 4 ) , i = 4 , 5 , 6
[ u i v i ] = [ f 2 f z p 0 0 f z p f ] [ y x ] + [ f z p 2 f z p 0 0 0 ] [ d i I 1 ] + ( m x 0 ) T
[ s t ] = [ g + D f 0 0 1 ] [ u i v i ] + [ g + D f 0 0 p R v ] [ d i 1 ] + [ ( m 1 ) mod 2 0 0 0 ] [ b 1 ]
{ k = f l o o r [ s p ] + k 0 m = f l o o r [ t p ] + m 0

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