Abstract

We present an optically transparent broadband microwave absorber based on the concept of metasurface Salisbury screen (MSS). The metasurface with optimized reflection phase profiles is used as the ground plane to excite multi-MSS resonances that are required for achieving continuous wide absorption bandwidth. Meanwhile, by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) film and glass dielectric substrate, high optical transparency and wideband microwave absorption can be obtained simultaneously. Both full-wave electromagnetic simulations and experiments demonstrate that the transparent MSS can perform an efficient absorption over 89% in an ultra-wide frequency band ranging from 4.1 GHz to 17.5 GHz with a sub-wavelength thickness. In addition, good angular performances are observed for all wave polarizations. The proposed MSS may provide a powerful platform for efficiently designing broadband absorption in microwave region with advantages of light weight, thin thickness, and high optical transparency, which could further find potential uses in many real-world applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Jin, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, and S. He, “Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11114–11119 (2011).
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  19. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Grande, G. V. Bianco, M. A. Vincenti, D. de Ceglia, P. Capezzuto, V. Petruzzelli, M. Scalora, G. Bruno, and A. D’Orazio, “Optically transparent microwave screens based on engineered graphene layers,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22788–22795 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), 98–120 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, and S. He, “Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11114–11119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Yang and Z. Shen, “A thin and broadband absorber using double-square loops,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. IEEE 6, 388–391 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anantha Ramakrishna, S.

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balci, O.

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, J.

S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G. V.

Boltasseva, A.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruno, G.

Cai, T.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capezzuto, P.

Chen, H. B.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-B.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Cheng, Q.

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

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J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
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K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
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C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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Cui, T.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
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S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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de Ceglia, D.

DeVault, C.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
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J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
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D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
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S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
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Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

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G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, L. H.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.-H.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

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F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Gu, S.

S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Guan, F.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hand, T.

S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, and S. He, “Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11114–11119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J. G.

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, T.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jia, N.

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.-X.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.-B.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, and S. He, “Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11114–11119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
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O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, L.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, D.

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. W.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.-W.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), 98–120 (2012).
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Liu, X.-X.

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Luukkonen, O.

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lv, Y.-L.

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Ma, H.

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, H.-F.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. J.

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
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F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Milne, W. I.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Monticone, F.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

Naeem, M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
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C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), 98–120 (2012).
[PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Petruzzelli, V.

Polat, E. O.

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
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S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
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K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qo, S.

Qu, S.

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ra’di, Y.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramkumar, J.

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ran, L.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saikia, M.

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Shalaev, V. M.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
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Shen, L.

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

Shen, Z.

J. Yang and Z. Shen, “A thin and broadband absorber using double-square loops,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. IEEE 6, 388–391 (2007).
[Crossref]

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H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
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T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

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K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
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Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Singh, G.

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, K. V.

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sui, S.

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tuncer, H. M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vincenti, M. A.

Wang, G.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

Y. Shen, J. Zhang, L. Shen, S. Sui, Y. Pang, J. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Qo, “Transparent and broadband absorption-diffusion-integrated low-scattering metamaterial by standing-up lattice,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28363–28375 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), 98–120 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wen, Q.-Y.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, P.-H.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Xia, S.

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, and S. He, “Arbitrarily thin metamaterial structure for perfect absorption and giant magnification,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11114–11119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.-H.

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

Yang, J.

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yang and Z. Shen, “A thin and broadband absorber using double-square loops,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. IEEE 6, 388–391 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.-Q.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, D.

D. Ye, Z. Wang, K. Xu, H. Li, J. Huangfu, Z. Wang, and L. Ran, “Ultrawideband dispersion control of a metamaterial surface for perfectly-matched-layer-like absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(18), 187402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, H.

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. Cui, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and B. Zhu, “Coding metasurface for broadband microwave scattering reduction with optical transparency,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5571–5579 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, J. Zhao, P. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Zhu, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Metasurface Salisbury screen: achieving ultra-wideband microwave absorption,” Opt. Express 25(24), 30241–30252 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Kim, S. Choudhury, C. DeVault, Y. Zhao, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Alù, and A. Boltasseva, “Controlling the polarization state of light with plasmonic metal oxide metasurface,” ACS Nano 10(10), 9326–9333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

T. Jang, H. Youn, Y. J. Shin, and L. J. Guo, “Transparent and flexible polarization-independent microwave broadband absorber,” ACS Photonics 1(3), 279–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24(23), 98–120 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, F. Monticone, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, T. Jiang, L. Zhang, Y. Kim, X. Ding, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “A reconfigurable active huygens’ metalens,” Adv. Mater. 29(17), 1606422 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. S. Dong, J. Yang, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. H. Gao, S. J. Ma, S. Liu, H. B. Chen, Q. He, W. W. Liu, Z. Fang, L. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Terahertz broadband low‐reflection metasurface by controlling phase distributions,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1405–1410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. (2)

O. Luukkonen, F. Costa, C. R. Simovski, A. Monorchio, and S. A. Tretyakov, “A thin electromagnetic absorber for wide incidence angles and both polarizations,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 57(10), 3119–3125 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” Antennas Propagation, IEEE Trans. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. IEEE (1)

J. Yang and Z. Shen, “A thin and broadband absorber using double-square loops,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. IEEE 6, 388–391 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Zhu, Z. Ma, W. Sun, F. Ding, Q. He, L. Zhou, and Y. Ma, “Ultra-broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 21102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sui, H. Ma, J. Wang, M. Feng, Y. Pang, S. Xia, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Symmetry-based coding method and synthesis topology optimization design of ultra-wideband polarization conversion metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(1), 014104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband metamaterial for optical transparency and microwave absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(14), 143511 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Cui, X. Ge, Y. Jin, and S. He, “Ultra-broadband microwave metamaterial absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 103506 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Access (1)

Z. Zhou, K. Chen, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and Y. Li, “Ultra-Wideband Microwave Absorption by Design and Optimization of Metasurface Salisbury Screen,” IEEE Access 6, 26843–26853 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys (1)

Y. Pang, Y. Shen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Xu, and S. Qu, “Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.  123, 155106 (2018).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

H. Sheokand, S. Ghosh, G. Singh, M. Saikia, K. V. Srivastava, J. Ramkumar, and S. Anantha Ramakrishna, “Transparent broadband metamaterial absorber based on resistive films,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(10), 105105 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gu, J. Barrett, T. Hand, B.-I. Popa, and S. Cummer, “A broadband low-reflection metamaterial absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064913 (2010).
[Crossref]

G.-H. Yang, X.-X. Liu, Y.-L. Lv, J.-H. Fu, Q. Wu, and X. Gu, “Broadband polarization-insensitive absorber based on gradient structure metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 523 (2014).

S. Li, J. Gao, X. Cao, W. Li, Z. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “Wideband, thin, and polarization-insensitive perfect absorber based the double octagonal rings metamaterials and lumped resistances,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 43710 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Chen, N. Jia, B. Sima, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Microwave absorber based on permeability-near-zero metamaterial made of Swiss roll structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(45), 455304 (2015).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), 324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (2)

Y. Ra’di, C. R. Simovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Thin perfect absorbers for electromagnetic waves: theory, design, and realizations,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(3), 037001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. Wang, S. Tang, H. Xu, J. Duan, H. Guo, F. Guan, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Sci. Rep. (3)

D. Lee, J. G. Hwang, D. Lim, T. Hara, and S. Lim, “Incident angle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber using circular sectors,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27155 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, Y. Feng, Z. Yang, L. Cui, J. Zhao, B. Zhu, and T. Jiang, “Geometric phase coded metasurface: from polarization dependent directive electromagnetic wave scattering to diffusion-like scattering,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 35968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Other (1)

W. W. Salisbury, “Absorbent body for electromagnetic waves,” U.S. patent 2,599,944 (10 June 1952).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the optically transparent MSS for ultra-wideband backward reflection suppression. (b) The MSS element configuration. (c) The equivalent circuit model of the MSS element.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The structure configuration of metasurface element (a) “1”, (b) “2”, (c) “3”, (d) “4”, and (e) “5”. Middle panels show the corresponding reflection phase response, while the right panels show the amplitude response of the MSS elements. The dashed lines represent   2 ( β 1 t + β 0 d ) φ ( f ) = 2 n π ,   n = 0 , 1 , 2   The intersections of the dashed lines and phase curves show the resonance frequencies, which are in accordance with the zero dips of the reflection amplitude curves shown in right panel.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated backward RCS reduction of the MSS and the CSS. (b) Simulated absorption, reflection and scattering results of the MSS.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Backward scattering patterns of the MSS under the normal illumination of x-polarized EM wave at (a) 4.75 GHz, (b) 10 GHz, and (c) 16.75 GHz. Backward scattering patterns for a same-sized metallic slab at (d) 4.75 GHz, (e) 10 GHz, and (f) 16.75 GHz. The corresponding 2D results in E -plane are shown in (g) - (i).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Photograph of the fabricated sample. (b) Simulated and measured reflection of the MSS under the normal illumination of x-polarized plane wave (up-panel) and y-polarized plane wave (bottom-panel).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured specular reflection for (a) x-polarized and (b) y-polarized TE incidence, and (c) x-polarized and (d) y-polarized TM incidence.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured E -plane backward scattering patterns under the normal illumination of (a) x- and (b) y-polarized incidence.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison with other optically transparent microwave absorbers

Equations (5)

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Γ = Z i n Z 0 Z i n + Z 0 = 1 e i [ 2 ( β 1 t + β 0 d ) φ ( f ) ] 1 + 3 e i [ 2 ( β 1 t + β 0 d ) φ ( f ) ] .
2 ( β 1 t + β 0 d ) φ ( f ) = 2 n π , n = 0 , 1 , 2...
| E s ¯ ( f ) | = k E 0 a 2 4 π r g ( θ , φ ) | x = 1 X y = 1 Y Γ x , y ( f ) e j k ( sin ( θ ) cos ( φ ) x a + sin ( θ ) sin ( φ ) y a ) | ,
g ( θ , φ ) = ( 1 + cos ( θ ) ) sin ( k a 2 sin ( θ ) cos ( φ ) ) k a 2 sin ( θ ) cos ( φ ) sin ( k a 2 sin ( θ ) sin ( φ ) ) k a 2 sin ( θ ) sin ( φ ) ,
G ( m ¯ ) = M a x { 20 lg ( | i m i Γ i ( f ) | ) , f ( f l , f h ) } , 0 m i & i m i = 1.

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