Abstract

High speed back-to-back transmission of NRZ data at 12.5 Gbit/s was achieved over a repeaterless optical network without the use of forward error correction or optical clock recovery using a hybrid integrated silicon photonics optical interconnect. The interconnect comprises an electroabsorption modulator based on dilute nitride multiple quantum well material on GaAs substrate optically coupled to large core silicon waveguide using passive alignment and flip-chip bonding.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  2. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)
  4. T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)
  5. V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  6. C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)
  9. A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, W. Soenen, F. Falconi, C. Porzi, T. Aalto, J. Rosskopf, J. Bauwelinck, and A. Bogoni, “Optical transmitter based on a 1.3-μm VCSEL and a SiGe driver circuit for short-reach applications and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1527–1536 (2018)
    [Crossref]
  10. T. B. Bahder, “Eight-band k · p model of strained zinc-blende crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 41(11992), 11992 (1990)
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Kudrawiec, “Alloying of GaNx As1−x with InNx As1−x: A simple formula for the bandgap parameterization of Ga1−y Iny Nx As1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023522 (2007)
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Lindsay and E. O’Reilly, “Influence of nitrogen resonant states on the electronic structure of GaNx As1−x,” Sol. State Comm. 118(6), 313–317 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)
  16. I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  17. I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)
  18. S. L. Chuang, The Physics of Optoelectronic Devices, (Wiley), (1995)
  19. D. W. Winston, “Physical Simulation of Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices,” PhD Thesis, (1996)
  20. C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
    [Crossref]
  21. R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

2018 (1)

2013 (1)

C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
[Crossref]

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

2007 (1)

R. Kudrawiec, “Alloying of GaNx As1−x with InNx As1−x: A simple formula for the bandgap parameterization of Ga1−y Iny Nx As1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023522 (2007)
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)

A. Lindsay and E. O’Reilly, “Influence of nitrogen resonant states on the electronic structure of GaNx As1−x,” Sol. State Comm. 118(6), 313–317 (2001)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. B. Bahder, “Eight-band k · p model of strained zinc-blende crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 41(11992), 11992 (1990)
[Crossref]

Aalto, T.

A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, W. Soenen, F. Falconi, C. Porzi, T. Aalto, J. Rosskopf, J. Bauwelinck, and A. Bogoni, “Optical transmitter based on a 1.3-μm VCSEL and a SiGe driver circuit for short-reach applications and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1527–1536 (2018)
[Crossref]

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Aho, A.

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

Azzarello, F.

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

Bahder, T. B.

T. B. Bahder, “Eight-band k · p model of strained zinc-blende crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 41(11992), 11992 (1990)
[Crossref]

Bank, S. R.

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, W. Soenen, F. Falconi, C. Porzi, T. Aalto, J. Rosskopf, J. Bauwelinck, and A. Bogoni, “Optical transmitter based on a 1.3-μm VCSEL and a SiGe driver circuit for short-reach applications and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1527–1536 (2018)
[Crossref]

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Birner, S.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

Broderick, C. A.

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, The Physics of Optoelectronic Devices, (Wiley), (1995)

Corbett, B.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Daunt, C. L. M.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Fahy, S.

M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
[Crossref]

Falconi, F.

Galluppi, M.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Geelhaar, L.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Grau, A.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

Haring, K.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Harjanne, M.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Harris, J. S

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

Hetterich, M.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

Isoaho, R.

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

Kanonakis, K.

C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
[Crossref]

Kapulainen, M.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Karppinen, M.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Kitatani, T.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Kondow, M.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Korpijärvi, V-M

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

Kudrawiec, R.

R. Kudrawiec, “Alloying of GaNx As1−x with InNx As1−x: A simple formula for the bandgap parameterization of Ga1−y Iny Nx As1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023522 (2007)
[Crossref]

Langer, F.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

Lee, K. H.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Lindsay, A.

A. Lindsay and E. O’Reilly, “Influence of nitrogen resonant states on the electronic structure of GaNx As1−x,” Sol. State Comm. 118(6), 313–317 (2001)
[Crossref]

Lordi, V.

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

Malacarne, A.

A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, W. Soenen, F. Falconi, C. Porzi, T. Aalto, J. Rosskopf, J. Bauwelinck, and A. Bogoni, “Optical transmitter based on a 1.3-μm VCSEL and a SiGe driver circuit for short-reach applications and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1527–1536 (2018)
[Crossref]

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)

Mikhrin, V.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Misiewicz, J.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

Neumeyr, C.

A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, W. Soenen, F. Falconi, C. Porzi, T. Aalto, J. Rosskopf, J. Bauwelinck, and A. Bogoni, “Optical transmitter based on a 1.3-μm VCSEL and a SiGe driver circuit for short-reach applications and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(9), 1527–1536 (2018)
[Crossref]

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Niwa, A.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

O’Callaghan, J.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, E.

A. Lindsay and E. O’Reilly, “Influence of nitrogen resonant states on the electronic structure of GaNx As1−x,” Sol. State Comm. 118(6), 313–317 (2001)
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, E. P.

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
[Crossref]

Pelucchi, E.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
[Crossref]

Peters, F. H.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

Porzi, C.

Puustinen, J.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)

Riechert, H.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Rosskopf, J.

Ryczko, K.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

S?k, G.

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

Schmidtchen, J.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
[Crossref]

Seifikar, M.

M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
[Crossref]

Sheehan, R. N.

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

Sitomaniemi, A.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Soenen, W.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
[Crossref]

Stolz, W.

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

Sweeney, S. J.

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

Thomas, K.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
[Crossref]

Tukiainen, A.

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

Uomi, K.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Usman, M.

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

Vehmas, T.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

Viheriälä, J.

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)

Watahiki, S.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Winston, D. W.

D. W. Winston, “Physical Simulation of Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices,” PhD Thesis, (1996)

Yang, H.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

Yazawa, Y.

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Ylinen, S.

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Young, R. J.

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Yuen, H. B.

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Lordi, H. B. Yuen, S. R. Bank, and J. S Harris, “Quantum confined Stark effect in GaInNAs(Sb) quantum wells at 1300 – 1600 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 902–904 (2004)
[Crossref]

K. Ryczko, G. Sȩk, J. Misiewicz, F. Langer, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “On the oscillator strength in dilute nitride quantum wells on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123503 (2012)

IEEE Comms. Mag. (1)

C. Kachris, K. Kanonakis, and I. Tomkos, “Optical interconnection networks in data centres: Recent trends and future challenges,” IEEE Comms. Mag. 51(9), 39–45 (2013)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib wave-guides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27(8), 1971–1974 (1991)
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for nitrogen containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 5815–5875 (2003)
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(11), 3675–3696 (2001)

R. Kudrawiec, “Alloying of GaNx As1−x with InNx As1−x: A simple formula for the bandgap parameterization of Ga1−y Iny Nx As1−x alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023522 (2007)
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kondow, K. Uomi, A. Niwa, T. Kitatani, S. Watahiki, and Y. Yazawa, “GaInNAs: A novel material for long wavelength-range laser diodes with excellent high temperature performance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(2S), 1273 (1996)
[Crossref]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. L. M. Daunt, J. O’Callaghan, K. H. Lee, H. Yang, R. J. Young, K. Thomas, E. Pelucchi, B. Corbett, and F. H. Peters, “Compact electroabsorption modulators for photonic integrated circuits, using an isolated pedestal contact scheme,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 54(5), 356–358 (2012)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Galluppi, L. Geelhaar, H. Riechert, M. Hetterich, A. Grau, S. Birner, and W. Stolz, “Bound-to-bound and bound-to-free transitions in surface photovoltage spectra: Determination of the band offsets for InxGa1−x As and InxGa1−x As1−y Ny quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(15), 155324 (2005)
[Crossref]

T. B. Bahder, “Eight-band k · p model of strained zinc-blende crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 41(11992), 11992 (1990)
[Crossref]

Physica Status Solidi (B) (1)

M. Seifikar, E. P. O’Reilly, and S. Fahy, “Analysis of band-anticrossing model in GaNAs near localised states,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 248(5), 1176–1179 (2011)
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, M. Guina, K. Haring, J. Puustinen, and V. Mikhrin, “GaAs-SOI integration as a path to low-cost optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7941, 79410S1 (2011)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. A. Broderick, M. Usman, S. J. Sweeney, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Band engineering in dilute nitride and bismide semiconductor lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094011 (2012)
[Crossref]

Sol. State Comm. (1)

A. Lindsay and E. O’Reilly, “Influence of nitrogen resonant states on the electronic structure of GaNx As1−x,” Sol. State Comm. 118(6), 313–317 (2001)
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. L. Chuang, The Physics of Optoelectronic Devices, (Wiley), (1995)

D. W. Winston, “Physical Simulation of Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices,” PhD Thesis, (1996)

M. Guina, R. Isoaho, J. Viheriälä, A. Aho, and A. Tukiainen, “Quantum-well laser emitting at 1.2 μm–1.3 μm window monolithically integrated on Ge substrate,” Proc. ECOC Stockholm, (2017)

T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, T. Vehmas, M. Karppinen, A. Sitomaniemi, A. Malacarne, C. Neumeyr, and J. Bauwelinck, “Transceivers for 400G based on hybrid integrated thick SOI and III/V chips,” Proc. ECOC 2017 Invited Paper M.2.C.1, Stockholm, (2017)

R. N. Sheehan, M. Yang, F. Azzarello, V-M Korpijärvi, F. H. Peters, and M. Guina, “InGaAsN-GaAsN electroabsorption modulator: Material and process development,” Proc. ECIO, Warszawa, (2016)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Measured (dots) and simulated (solid lines) PL emission wavelength of single quantum wells versus quantum well width for In0.3Ga0.7N0.02 As0.98, In0.3Ga0.7 As and GaAs. Measured data is taken from [14]. Good agreement between our model and the known measured data is observed.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM image of fabricated high speed EAM array with RF contacts for arranged in SG configuration. Also shown is the electrically isolated SOA section with DC contacts.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Schematic illustrating optical coupling between silicon waveguide and EAM b) EAM flip chip bonded onto silicon interposer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Schematic of set up used to characterise fabricated EAMs. b) Microscope image of device under test. Device is 400 μm long.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Measured photocurrent generated in the EAM epitaxial structure while QWs were illuminated by light with different wavelengths. b) Optical power transmitted through EAM at different EAM reverse bias. ER of 7.5 dB possible at 1300 nm at −10 V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) EAM capacitance as a function of waveguide width for 200 μm long EAMs. b) EAM bandwidth estimated from the measured EAM capacitance.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental configuration of high speed transmission testing, with EAM bar flip chip mounted inside Si interposer.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured BER of the hybrid integrated EAM. Data rate is 10 Gbps. Input power to EAM is 6.5 dBm. PRBS length is 1031. Vpp across EAM is 7.5 V.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 BtB eye diagrams showing transmitted NRZ data with PRBS length 231 − 1

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Epitaxy design for dilute nitride based electroabsorption modulator.

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