Abstract

An ultracompact TE-pass 1 × 2 power splitter, using subwavelength grating (SWG) couplers and hybrid plasmonic gratings (HPGs), is proposed and analyzed in detail. As the input strip waveguide is tapered to a narrow wire, where TE mode is cutoff, the launched TE-mode can be evenly divided with high efficiency with the help of the SWG couplers, which are placed between the central silicon wire and two nearby output branches. The injected TM-mode will be perfectly reflected by the carefully designed HPG, whose periodically varied metal layer is located above the bottom strip and SWG waveguides. Consequently, a single device combining both the functions of polarization selection and power division can be realized. This is valuable for highly dense integrated circuits. Results show that, with a period number of 4 in HPG, the present device is only ~6.2-μm-long with an extinction ratio (ER) and an insertion loss (IL) of 25.4 and 0.53 dB at 1.55 μm, respectively, and its bandwidth of ER > 20 dB is ~180 nm with the IL < 0.8 dB, showing a broadband property. Besides, fabrication tolerances to the key dimensions are analyzed and modal field evolution through the device is also presented.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (6)

S. Wu and J. Xiao, “Compact polarization rotator for silicon-based cross-slot waveguides using subwavelength gratings,” Appl. Opt. 56(17), 4892–4899 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, M. Berciano, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, E. Cassan, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Dispersion control of silicon nanophotonic waveguides using sub-wavelength grating metamaterials in near- and mid-IR wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19468–19478 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ni and J. Xiao, “A compact silicon-based TE-pass polarizer using three-guide directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1631–1634 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Hu and J. Wang, “Ultrabroadband compact graphene-silicon TM-pass polarizer,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Bai, L. Liu, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low loss, compact TM-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 607–610 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Ni and J. Xiao, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter using an asymmetrical directional coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

D. W. Kim, M. H. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “Ultracompact transverse magnetic mode-pass filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystals with subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 24(19), 21560–21565 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lin, X. Xi, W. Qiu, Y. Ai, Q. Wang, Q. Liu, and Z. Ouyang, “Star-type polarizer with equal-power splitting function for each polarization based on polarization-dependent defects in two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(21), 23917–23924 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu and J. Xiao, “Design and numerical study of a compact, broadband and low-loss TE-pass polarizer using transparent conducting oxides,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15373–15382 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, M. Mojahedi, and J. S. Aitchison, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide-based ultra-low insertion loss transverse electric-pass polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 41(17), 4020–4023 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yun, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, Z. Lu, S. Lin, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Broadband 2 × 2 adiabatic 3 dB coupler using silicon-on-insulator sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3041–3044 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xiao and Y. Xu, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based strip-to-slot mode converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1414–1417 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Q. Deng, and Z. Zhou, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted broadband polarization-independent directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1648–1651 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Xiong, D.-D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “High extinction ratio and broadband silicon TE-pass polarizer using subwavelength grating index engineering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Design of a SiO₂ top-cladding and compact polarization splitter-rotator based on a rib directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4137–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guan, P. Chen, S. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Low-loss ultracompact transverse-magnetic-pass polarizer with a silicon subwavelength grating waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4514–4517 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. N. Caspers and M. Mojahedi, “Measurement of a compact colorless 3 dB hybrid plasmonic directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3262–3265 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “A Compact Hybrid Plasmonic Polarization Rotator for Silicon-Based Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(16), 1609–1612 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Gaun, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Ultra-compact and ultra-broadband TE-pass polarizer with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880U (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-Compact and Low-Loss Polarization Rotator Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2081–2084 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, H. Xu, X. Xiao, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Compact and low-loss silicon power splitter based on inverse tapers,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4220–4223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(7), 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Q. Wang and S.-T. Ho, “Ultracompact TM-pass silicon nanophotonic waveguide polarizer and design,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(1), 49–56 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Won and M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. Xiao, H. Ni, and X. Sun, “Full-vector mode solver for bending waveguides based on the finite-difference frequency-domain method in cylindrical coordinate systems,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1848–1850 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Aers, G. C.

Ai, Y.

Aimin Wu,

Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Alloatti, L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Atwater, H. A.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, L. Liu, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low loss, compact TM-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 607–610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benedikovic, D.

Berciano, M.

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caspers, J. N.

Cassan, E.

Cassan, É.

Chao Qiu,

Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, D.-D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “High extinction ratio and broadband silicon TE-pass polarizer using subwavelength grating index engineering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Chen, R.

B. Bai, L. Liu, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low loss, compact TM-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 607–610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chrostowski, L.

Dai, D.

Dalton, L. R.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Deng, Q.

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(7), 648–651 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
[Crossref]

El-Fiky, E.

Freude, W.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Fuwan Gann,

Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
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D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
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P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
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Harris, J. S.

L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-Compact and Low-Loss Polarization Rotator Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2081–2084 (2013).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
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L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-Compact and Low-Loss Polarization Rotator Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2081–2084 (2013).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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Kim, K. H.

Kim, Y.

Kitayama, K.

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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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Lee, M. H.

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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Li, X.

Li, Z.

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Lin, S.

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B. Bai, L. Liu, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low loss, compact TM-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 607–610 (2017).
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L. Liu, Q. Deng, and Z. Zhou, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted broadband polarization-independent directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1648–1651 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Long, Q.

Lu, Z.

Mao, D.

Marris-Morini, D.

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D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
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B. Ni and J. Xiao, “A compact silicon-based TE-pass polarizer using three-guide directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1631–1634 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Ni and J. Xiao, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter using an asymmetrical directional coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1 (2017).
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Niu, B.

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D. González-Andrade, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. V. Velasco, A. Ortega-Moñux, A. Herrero-Bermello, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, and P. Cheben, “Ultra-broadband mode converter and multiplexer based on sub-wavelength structures,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(2), 1 (2018).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Palmer, R.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(2), e255 (2015).
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Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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R. Won and M. Paniccia, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
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Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(7), 648–651 (2013).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
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Y. Xiong, D.-D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “High extinction ratio and broadband silicon TE-pass polarizer using subwavelength grating index engineering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1 (2015).
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X. Guan, P. Chen, S. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Low-loss ultracompact transverse-magnetic-pass polarizer with a silicon subwavelength grating waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4514–4517 (2014).
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X. Gaun, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Ultra-compact and ultra-broadband TE-pass polarizer with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880U (2014).
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Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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Smith, D. R.

P. Cheben, R. Halir, J. H. Schmid, H. A. Atwater, and D. R. Smith, “Subwavelength integrated photonics,” Nature 560(7720), 565–572 (2018).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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B. Ni and J. Xiao, “A compact silicon-based TE-pass polarizer using three-guide directional couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(19), 1631–1634 (2017).
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B. Ni and J. Xiao, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter using an asymmetrical directional coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1 (2017).
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Y. Xu, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “A Compact Hybrid Plasmonic Polarization Rotator for Silicon-Based Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(16), 1609–1612 (2014).
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Y. Xiong, D.-D. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “High extinction ratio and broadband silicon TE-pass polarizer using subwavelength grating index engineering,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1 (2015).
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Xu, D.-X.

Xu, H.

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Y. Ding, H. Ou, J. Xu, and C. Peucheret, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit mode multiplexer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(7), 648–651 (2013).
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Xu, L.

Xu, P.

X. Guan, P. Chen, S. Chen, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Low-loss ultracompact transverse-magnetic-pass polarizer with a silicon subwavelength grating waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4514–4517 (2014).
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X. Gaun, P. Xu, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Ultra-compact and ultra-broadband TE-pass polarizer with a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89880U (2014).
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Xu, Y.

J. Xiao and Y. Xu, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based strip-to-slot mode converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(13), 1414–1417 (2016).
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Y. Xu and J. Xiao, “Design and numerical study of a compact, broadband and low-loss TE-pass polarizer using transparent conducting oxides,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15373–15382 (2016).
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Y. Xu, J. Xiao, and X. Sun, “A Compact Hybrid Plasmonic Polarization Rotator for Silicon-Based Slot Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(16), 1609–1612 (2014).
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Zhen Sheng, Zhiqi Wang, Chao Qiu, A. Le Li, Pang, Aimin Wu, Xi Wang, Shichang Zou, and Fuwan Gann, “A compact and low-loss MMI coupler fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(6), 2272–2277 (2012).
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Zhou, Z.

B. Bai, L. Liu, R. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Low loss, compact TM-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 29(7), 607–610 (2017).
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L. Liu, Q. Deng, and Z. Zhou, “Subwavelength-grating-assisted broadband polarization-independent directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1648–1651 (2016).
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L. Gao, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and Z. Zhou, “Ultra-Compact and Low-Loss Polarization Rotator Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2081–2084 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Ni and J. Xiao, “Ultracompact and broadband silicon-based polarization beam splitter using an asymmetrical directional coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 316–324 (2010).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed TE-pass 1 × 2 power splitter as well as the enlarged views of input/output SWG-based transitions and hybrid plasmonic grating. The substrate of silicon is not shown here for clarity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diagrams of a typical (a) silicon nanowire and (b) silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated mode overlap ratio between silicon NW and HPW for both polarizations. The insets depict the field profiles of the fundamental modes guided in the NW and HPW. The corresponding dimensions are also labeled.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Wavelength dependence of the Bragg period ΛBragg for different duty ratios, where the length difference between the Bragg period ΛBragg and selected SWG pitch (Λ = 200 nm) is also given, i.e., 92 nm for a/Λ = 1/2 at 1.55 μm. (b) The calculated effective indices of the supported modes in a silicon NW as a function of its width.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 IL and RL of the bottom silicon structure as functions of (a) the period number n2 of the SWG waveguide and (b) the length L2 of the tapered strip wire when the TE mode is input.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 IL and RL of the bottom silicon structure with respect to (a) the length L4 of the narrow silicon NW and (b) the length L1 of the additional tapered section when the TE mode is input.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Effective indices (real part) of the guided modes in the HPW with a varied thickness of SiO2 layer. Field profiles of the modes in the HPW with the selected SiO2 thicknesses (60, and 140 nm) are plotted, respectively. (b) Device performance with the length a1 of the thin metal in a period for both two polarizations. TR: Transmittance.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Wavelength dependence of the device performance for both TE and TM polarizations, where the period number n5 of the HPG is 4.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Device performance of the proposed TE-pass 1 × 2 power splitter as functions of (a) SWG width variation Δw, (b) silica height deviation of HPG Δh2, (c) longitudinal metal shift Δz, and (d)-(e) lateral metal shift Δx, respectively.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Field evolution of dominant components of (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode along the propagation distance through the present device. The field profiles are evaluated at the center plane of the silicon structure, i.e., y = 0.125 μm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of device with several different period numbers of HPG.

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Table 2 Design parameters of present TE-pass power splitter.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IL(dB)=10 log 10 P TE O P TE I ,
RL(dB)=10 log 10 P TE R P TE I ,
ER(dB)=10 log 10 P TE O P TM O .
Γ= | E 1 * E 2 dxdy | 2 | E 1 | 2 dxdy | E 2 | 2 dxdy ,
n B 2 a Λ n C 2 + Λa Λ n Cl 2 ,
n 1 a 1 + n 2 ( Λ 1 a 1 )= λ 0 2 ,

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