Abstract

We present a novel procedure for manipulating the near-field of plasmonic nanoantennas using neural network-controlled laser pulse-shaping. For our model systems we numerically studied the spatial distribution of the second harmonic response of L-shaped nanoantennas illuminated by broadband laser pulses. We first show that a trained neural network can be used to predict the relative intensity of the second-harmonic hotspots of the nanoantenna for a given spectral phase and that it can be employed to deterministically switch individual hotspots on and off on sub-diffraction length scale by shaping the spectral phase of the laser pulse. We then demonstrate that a neural network trained on a 90 nm × 150 nm nano-L can, in addition, efficiently predict the hotspot intensities in an antenna with different aspect ratio, after minimal further training, for varying spectral phases. These results could lead to novel applications of machine-learning and optical control to nanoantennas and nanophotonics components.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (3)

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Farfan, J. Epstein, and D. B. Turner, “Femtosecond pulse compression using a neural-network algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 43, 5166–5169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Simoncelli, Y. Li, E. Cortés, and S. A. Maier, “Nanoscale control of molecular self-assembly induced by plasmonic hot-electron dynamics,” ACS Nano 12, 2184–2192 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

S. S. Travessa and W. P. Carpes, “Use of an Artificial Neural Network-based Metamodel to Reduce the Computational Cost in a Ray-tracing Prediction Model,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectronics Electromagn. Appl. 15, 418–427 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Kojima, Y. Masaki, and F. Kannari, “Control of ultrafast plasmon pulses by spatiotemporally phase-shaped laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, 2437–2444 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Piatkowski, N. Accanto, and N. F. van Hulst, “Ultrafast meets ultrasmall: controlling nanoantennas and molecules,” ACS Photonics 3, 1401–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Lecun, Y. Bengio, and G. Hinton, “Deep learning,” Nature 521, 436–444 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, “Optical storage arrays: A perspective for future big data storage,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Ashall, J. F. López-Barberá, É. McClean-Ilten, and D. Zerulla., “Highly efficient broadband ultrafast plasmonics,” Opt. Express 21, 27383–27391 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Brinks, M. Castro-Lopez, R. Hildner, and N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonic antennas as design elements for coherent ultrafast nanophotonics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 18386–18390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

U. Hohenester and A. Trügler, “Mnpbem - a matlab toolbox for the simulation of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 370–381 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Piredda, C. Gollub, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and A. Hartschuh, “Controlling near-field optical intensities in metal nanoparticle systems by polarization pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 195–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Particle plasmon resonances in L-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 16601–16606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, “Analytic coherent control of plasmon propagation in nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 14235–14259 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Accanto, N.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Piatkowski, N. Accanto, and N. F. van Hulst, “Ultrafast meets ultrasmall: controlling nanoantennas and molecules,” ACS Photonics 3, 1401–1414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ashall, B.

Bachelier, G.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bäck, T.

M. Emmerich, A. Giotis, M. Özdemir, T. Bäck, and K. Giannakoglou, “Metamodel—Assisted Evolution Strategies,” in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature — PPSN VII, J. J. M. Guervós, P. Adamidis, H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefe, and J. L. Fernández-Villacañas, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 361–370.

Barton, D. R.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bayer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bengio, Y.

Y. Lecun, Y. Bengio, and G. Hinton, “Deep learning,” Nature 521, 436–444 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benichou, E.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boriskina, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brevet, P.-F.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brinks, D.

D. Brinks, M. Castro-Lopez, R. Hildner, and N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonic antennas as design elements for coherent ultrafast nanophotonics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 18386–18390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, “Analytic coherent control of plasmon propagation in nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 14235–14259 (2009).
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J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Butet, J.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
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Cao, Y.

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, “Optical storage arrays: A perspective for future big data storage,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carbó-Argibay, E.

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
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Carpes, W. P.

S. S. Travessa and W. P. Carpes, “Use of an Artificial Neural Network-based Metamodel to Reduce the Computational Cost in a Ray-tracing Prediction Model,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectronics Electromagn. Appl. 15, 418–427 (2016).
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Castro-Lopez, M.

D. Brinks, M. Castro-Lopez, R. Hildner, and N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonic antennas as design elements for coherent ultrafast nanophotonics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 18386–18390 (2013).
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Cortés, E.

S. Simoncelli, Y. Li, E. Cortés, and S. A. Maier, “Nanoscale control of molecular self-assembly induced by plasmonic hot-electron dynamics,” ACS Nano 12, 2184–2192 (2018).
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Cunovic, S.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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Czaplicki, R.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Roque, P. M.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Vivie-Riedle, R.

G. Piredda, C. Gollub, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and A. Hartschuh, “Controlling near-field optical intensities in metal nanoparticle systems by polarization pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 195–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dimler, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Dmitriev, A.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorfmüller, J.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutta, A.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Emmerich, M.

M. Emmerich, A. Giotis, M. Özdemir, T. Bäck, and K. Giannakoglou, “Metamodel—Assisted Evolution Strategies,” in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature — PPSN VII, J. J. M. Guervós, P. Adamidis, H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefe, and J. L. Fernández-Villacañas, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 361–370.

Epstein, J.

Esteban, R.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farfan, C. A.

Fischer, A.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, “Analytic coherent control of plasmon propagation in nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 14235–14259 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gerber, G.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Giannakoglou, K.

M. Emmerich, A. Giotis, M. Özdemir, T. Bäck, and K. Giannakoglou, “Metamodel—Assisted Evolution Strategies,” in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature — PPSN VII, J. J. M. Guervós, P. Adamidis, H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefe, and J. L. Fernández-Villacañas, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 361–370.

Giotis, A.

M. Emmerich, A. Giotis, M. Özdemir, T. Bäck, and K. Giannakoglou, “Metamodel—Assisted Evolution Strategies,” in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature — PPSN VII, J. J. M. Guervós, P. Adamidis, H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefe, and J. L. Fernández-Villacañas, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 361–370.

Gollub, C.

G. Piredda, C. Gollub, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and A. Hartschuh, “Controlling near-field optical intensities in metal nanoparticle systems by polarization pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 195–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Groß, P.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, “Optical storage arrays: A perspective for future big data storage,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guler, U.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Han, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Han and K.-S. Zhang, “Surrogate-Based Optimization,” in Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms, O. Roeva, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 343–362.

Hancu, I. M.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hartschuh, A.

G. Piredda, C. Gollub, R. de Vivie-Riedle, and A. Hartschuh, “Controlling near-field optical intensities in metal nanoparticle systems by polarization pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 195–206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hildner, R.

D. Brinks, M. Castro-Lopez, R. Hildner, and N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonic antennas as design elements for coherent ultrafast nanophotonics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 18386–18390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hinton, G.

Y. Lecun, Y. Bengio, and G. Hinton, “Deep learning,” Nature 521, 436–444 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenester, U.

U. Hohenester and A. Trügler, “Mnpbem - a matlab toolbox for the simulation of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 370–381 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. S.

J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
[Crossref]

Husu, H.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Particle plasmon resonances in L-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 16601–16606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonin, C.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 235403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kannari, F.

Kauranen, M.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Particle plasmon resonances in L-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 16601–16606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kern, K.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinsey, N.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kling, M. F.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kojima, Y.

Krishnamoorthy, H. N. S.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuittinen, M.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Particle plasmon resonances in L-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 16601–16606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laukkanen, J.

Lawrence, M.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lecun, Y.

Y. Lecun, Y. Bengio, and G. Hinton, “Deep learning,” Nature 521, 436–444 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lehtolahti, J.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

M. Gu, X. Li, and Y. Cao, “Optical storage arrays: A perspective for future big data storage,” Light. Sci. Appl. 3, e177 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Simoncelli, Y. Li, E. Cortés, and S. A. Maier, “Nanoscale control of molecular self-assembly induced by plasmonic hot-electron dynamics,” ACS Nano 12, 2184–2192 (2018).
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Lienau, C.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Liz-Marzán, L. M.

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
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López-Barberá, J. F.

MacDonald, K. F.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Maier, S. A.

S. Simoncelli, Y. Li, E. Cortés, and S. A. Maier, “Nanoscale control of molecular self-assembly induced by plasmonic hot-electron dynamics,” ACS Nano 12, 2184–2192 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mäkitalo, J.

R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
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H. Husu, J. Mäkitalo, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Particle plasmon resonances in L-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 16601–16606 (2010).
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Masaki, Y.

McClean-Ilten, É.

Melchior, P.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
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Meyer-Baese, A.

A. Meyer-Baese and V. Schmid, “Genetic algorithms,” in Pattern recognition and signal analysis in medical imaging, (Elsevier, 2014), pp. 135–149.
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
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Ndukaife, J.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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M. Emmerich, A. Giotis, M. Özdemir, T. Bäck, and K. Giannakoglou, “Metamodel—Assisted Evolution Strategies,” in Parallel Problem Solving from Nature — PPSN VII, J. J. M. Guervós, P. Adamidis, H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefe, and J. L. Fernández-Villacañas, eds. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 361–370.

Pastoriza-Santos, I.

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
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Pérez-Juste, J.

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the optical response of highly faceted metal nanoparticles with a fully 3D boundary element method,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4288–4293 (2008).
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Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
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M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, “Analytic coherent control of plasmon propagation in nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 14235–14259 (2009).
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T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
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Piatkowski, L

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Piatkowski, L.

L. Piatkowski, N. Accanto, and N. F. van Hulst, “Ultrafast meets ultrasmall: controlling nanoantennas and molecules,” ACS Photonics 3, 1401–1414 (2016).
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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Rockstuhl, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
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Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Savinov, V.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Schmid, V.

A. Meyer-Baese and V. Schmid, “Genetic algorithms,” in Pattern recognition and signal analysis in medical imaging, (Elsevier, 2014), pp. 135–149.
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Schneider, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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R. Czaplicki, J. Mäkitalo, R. Siikanen, H. Husu, J. Lehtolahti, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles: resonance enhancement versus particle geometry,” Nano Lett. 15, 530–534 (2015).
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S. Simoncelli, Y. Li, E. Cortés, and S. A. Maier, “Nanoscale control of molecular self-assembly induced by plasmonic hot-electron dynamics,” ACS Nano 12, 2184–2192 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Soci, C.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Solomon, M. L.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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Spindler, C.

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, J. Schneider, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Ultrafast adaptive optical near-field control,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125437 (2006).
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Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19, 22029–22106 (2011).
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Strehle, M.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Strüber, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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Travessa, S. S.

S. S. Travessa and W. P. Carpes, “Use of an Artificial Neural Network-based Metamodel to Reduce the Computational Cost in a Ray-tracing Prediction Model,” J. Microwaves, Optoelectronics Electromagn. Appl. 15, 418–427 (2016).
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Trügler, A.

U. Hohenester and A. Trügler, “Mnpbem - a matlab toolbox for the simulation of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 370–381 (2012).
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Tuchscherer, P.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, A. Fischer, P. Melchior, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, C. Strüber, P. Tuchscherer, and D. V. Voronine, “Optimal open-loop near-field control of plasmonic nanostructures,” New J. Phys. 14, 033030 (2012).
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J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
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P. Tuchscherer, C. Rewitz, D. V. Voronine, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, and T. Brixner, “Analytic coherent control of plasmon propagation in nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 14235–14259 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, D. B.

Vadai, M.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
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van Hulst, N. F.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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L. Piatkowski, N. Accanto, and N. F. van Hulst, “Ultrafast meets ultrasmall: controlling nanoantennas and molecules,” ACS Photonics 3, 1401–1414 (2016).
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D. Brinks, M. Castro-Lopez, R. Hildner, and N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonic antennas as design elements for coherent ultrafast nanophotonics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 18386–18390 (2013).
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M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States Am. 107, 5329–5333 (2010).
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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20, 043001 (2018).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

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J. S. Huang, D. V. Voronine, P. Tuchscherer, T. Brixner, and B. Hecht, “Deterministic spatiotemporal control of optical fields in nanoantennas and plasmonic circuits,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 195441 (2009).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Flow diagram of the training phase of the neural network using the population generated by a genetic algorithm. A random initial population of 20 spectral phases is chosen. At each iteration, the fitness is calculated according to a pre-specified goal. The current GA population is used to incrementally train the NN (green box and arrow). The optimization procedure proceeds as follows: The fittest individuals are kept unchanged and the rest undergo mutation or cross-over. The least fit individuals are optimized by the NN using back-propagation (red box and arrow). (b) Convergence history of the GA without assistance from the NN. The graph reports the fitness of the best and worst individuals, and the average fitness. The fitness function (vertical axis) was chosen to maximize the relative SHG flux at a target hotspot of a 90 nm × 250 nm gold L-shaped nanoantenna, indicated by an arrow in the inset. (c) Similar to (b) but with the GA assisted by an un-trained NN which is incrementally trained as the GA proceeds. (d) similar to (b) but with the GA assisted by a pre-trained NN: The fitness of the best individuals converges after just one iteration, the fitness of the worst individual remains lower due to the random mutations introduced by the GA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Hotspot switching in a 90 nm × 250 nm gold nanoantenna. (a) Spectral phases which maximizes the relative flux intensity of two hotspots (labeled ’1’ and ’2’ and indicated with arrows in panel (b)) as found by the GA-NN algorithm. The spectral phases are indicated in the graph as follows: black dashed line (hotspot 1), red dashed line (hotspot 1 magnified 20 times), solid black line (hotspot 2), solid blue line (hotspot 2 magnified 20 times). The laser spectrum (orange shaded area) and the nanoantenna absorption spectrum (green shaded area) are also shown. (b)–(d) SHG flux intensities at the outer surface of the antenna for a flat phase laser pulse (b) and for the phases optimized for maximum relative flux intensity at hotspots '1' (c) and '2' (d), using the spectral phases reported in (a). Panels (e) reports similar information as panel (a) but with a different optimization goal: to maximize the absolute, rather than the relative, SH flux intensity at a specific hotspot. (f)–(g) difference between the optimized SH fluxes using the spectral phases reported in (e) and the reference SH flux obtained using a flat phase laser pulse, shown in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Relative SH flux intensity for a target hotspot of a gold L-shaped nanoantenna with size 90 nm × 250 nm for different spectral phase profiles of the incident laser pulse. The blue line refers to the simulated value, the red dashed line refers to the value predicted by the NN. The inset shows the nanoantenna with target hotspots marked. Panels (b) and (c) shows the performance of the same NN but used to predict the SHG hotspot intensities for a nanoantenna with different size: 90 nm × 150 nm with no further training, and after training only the output layer of the NN for 10 epochs. Panels (d)–(f) report similar results as panels (a)–(c) but for a different hotspot. The figure illustrates the flexibility of the NN with respect to the nanoantenna size and aspect ratio.

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