Abstract

A sensor’s spatial resolution has traditionally been a difficult concept to define, but all would agree that it is inextricably linked to the Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) and Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) of an imaging sensor system. As a measure of the geospatial quality of imagery, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the system is often used along with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, their calculation is not fully standardized. Further, consistent measurements and comparisons are often hard to obtain. Therefore, in the Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup of the Working Group on Calibration Validation (WGCV) of the Committee for Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), a team from various countries and professional entities who are involved in MTF measurement was established to address the issue of on-orbit MTF measurements and comparisons. As a first step, a blind comparison of MTF measurements based on the slanted edge approach has been undertaken. A set of both artificial and actual satellite edge images was developed and a first comparison of processing results was generated. In all, seven organizations contributed to the experiment and several significant results were generated in 2016. No single participant produced the best results for all test images as measured by either the closest to the mean result, or closest to the truth for the synthetic test images. In addition, close estimates of the MTF value at Nyquist did not ensure the accuracy of other MTF values at other spatial frequencies. Some algorithm results showed that the accuracy of their estimates depended upon the type of MTF curve that was being analyzed. After the initial analysis, participants were allowed to modify their methodology and reprocess the test images since, in several cases, the results contained errors. Results from the second iteration, in 2017, verified that the anomalies in the experiment’s first iteration were due to errors in either coding or methodology, or both. One organization implemented a third trial to fix software errors. This emphasizes the importance of fully understanding both methodology and implementation, in order to ensure accurate and repeatable results. To extend this comparison study, a reference data set, which is composed of edge images and corresponding MTF curves, will be built. A broader audience will be able to access the edge images through the CEOS CalVal Portal (http://calvalportal.ceos.org/). This paper, which is associated with the reference data set, can serve as a new tool to either implement or check, or both, the MTF measurement that relies on the slanted edge method.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Viallefont-Robinet and D. Léger, “Improvement of the edge method for on-orbit MTF measurement,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3531–3545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. Lei and H. J. Tiziani, “A comparison of methods to measure the modulation transfer function of aerial survey lens systems from image structures,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 54, 41–46 (1988).

1987 (1)

K. Maeda, M. Kojima, and Y. Azuma, “Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation methods for marine observation satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP),” Acta Astronaut. 15(6-7), 297–304 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

W. H. Carnahan and G. Zhou, “Fourier transform techniques for the evaluation of the Thematic Mapper line spread function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 52, 639–648 (1986).

1983 (1)

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

C. L. Norton, G. C. Brooks, and R. Welch, “Optical and modulation transfer function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 43, 613–636 (1977).

1965 (1)

Alhammoud, B.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Azuma, Y.

K. Maeda, M. Kojima, and Y. Azuma, “Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation methods for marine observation satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP),” Acta Astronaut. 15(6-7), 297–304 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bieniarz, J.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bouvet, M.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouzinac, C.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brooks, G. C.

C. L. Norton, G. C. Brooks, and R. Welch, “Optical and modulation transfer function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 43, 613–636 (1977).

Cadau, E.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carnahan, W. H.

W. H. Carnahan and G. Zhou, “Fourier transform techniques for the evaluation of the Thematic Mapper line spread function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 52, 639–648 (1986).

Chander, G.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.-W.

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clerc, S.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Collet, B.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Bonis, R.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, V.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Forshaw, M. R. B.

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

Francesconi, B.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gascon, F.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaudel-Vacaresse, A.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Goryl, P.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haskell, A.

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H.

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Isola, C.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jung, M.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kocaman Aksakal, S.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kohm, K.

K. Kohm, “Modulation transfer function measurement method and results for the Orbview-3 high resolution imaging satellite,” Proceedings of ISPRS, Istanbul, Turkey (2004).

Kojima, M.

K. Maeda, M. Kojima, and Y. Azuma, “Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation methods for marine observation satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP),” Acta Astronaut. 15(6-7), 297–304 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kwak, S.

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lafrance, B.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Languille, F.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Léger, D.

Lei, F.

F. Lei and H. J. Tiziani, “A comparison of methods to measure the modulation transfer function of aerial survey lens systems from image structures,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 54, 41–46 (1988).

Lonjou, V.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Louis, J.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maeda, K.

K. Maeda, M. Kojima, and Y. Azuma, “Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation methods for marine observation satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP),” Acta Astronaut. 15(6-7), 297–304 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mambimba, A.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martimort, P.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Massera, S.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miller, P. F.

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

Norton, C. L.

C. L. Norton, G. C. Brooks, and R. Welch, “Optical and modulation transfer function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 43, 613–636 (1977).

Park, W.

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pessiot, L.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pflug, B.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Santer, R.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saunier, S.

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stanley, D. J.

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tatian, B.

Thépaut, O.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tiziani, H. J.

F. Lei and H. J. Tiziani, “A comparison of methods to measure the modulation transfer function of aerial survey lens systems from image structures,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 54, 41–46 (1988).

Townshend, J. R. G.

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

Trémas, T.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

van den Bergh, F.

F. van den Bergh, “On the rendering of synthetic images with specific point spread functions,” 23rd Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa (PRASA), Pretoria, South Africa (2012).

Viallefont, F.

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

Viallefont-Robinet, F.

Welch, R.

C. L. Norton, G. C. Brooks, and R. Welch, “Optical and modulation transfer function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 43, 613–636 (1977).

Zhou, G.

W. H. Carnahan and G. Zhou, “Fourier transform techniques for the evaluation of the Thematic Mapper line spread function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 52, 639–648 (1986).

Acta Astronaut. (1)

K. Maeda, M. Kojima, and Y. Azuma, “Geometric and radiometric performance evaluation methods for marine observation satellite-1 (MOS-1) verification program (MVP),” Acta Astronaut. 15(6-7), 297–304 (1987).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. R. B. Forshaw, A. Haskell, P. F. Miller, D. J. Stanley, and J. R. G. Townshend, “Spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery - a review paper,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 4(3), 497–520 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. (3)

W. H. Carnahan and G. Zhou, “Fourier transform techniques for the evaluation of the Thematic Mapper line spread function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 52, 639–648 (1986).

C. L. Norton, G. C. Brooks, and R. Welch, “Optical and modulation transfer function,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 43, 613–636 (1977).

F. Lei and H. J. Tiziani, “A comparison of methods to measure the modulation transfer function of aerial survey lens systems from image structures,” Photogram. Eng. Rem. S. 54, 41–46 (1988).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Hwang, Y.-W. Choi, S. Kwak, M. Kim, and W. Park, “MTF assessment of high resolution satellite images using ISO 12233 slanted-edge method,” Proc. SPIE 7109, 710905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. (1)

F. Gascon, C. Bouzinac, O. Thépaut, M. Jung, B. Francesconi, J. Louis, V. Lonjou, B. Lafrance, S. Massera, A. Gaudel-Vacaresse, F. Languille, B. Alhammoud, F. Viallefont, B. Pflug, J. Bieniarz, S. Clerc, L. Pessiot, T. Trémas, E. Cadau, R. De Bonis, C. Isola, P. Martimort, and V. Fernandez, “Copernicus Sentinel-2A Calibration and Products Validation Status,” Remote Sens. 9(6), 584 (2017).
[Crossref]

TGRS (1)

S. Saunier, P. Goryl, G. Chander, R. Santer, M. Bouvet, B. Collet, A. Mambimba, and S. Kocaman Aksakal, “Radiometric, geometric and image quality assessment of the ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors,” TGRS 48(10), 3855–3866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

U. M. Leloglu and E. Tunali, “On orbit modulation transfer function estimation for Bilsat Imagers,” in Proc. ISPRS, Paris, France, B, T04–18.1 (2006)

F. van den Bergh, “On the rendering of synthetic images with specific point spread functions,” 23rd Annual Symposium of the Pattern Recognition Association of South Africa (PRASA), Pretoria, South Africa (2012).

ISO 12233:2017(E), “Photography – Electronic still picture imaging – Resolution and spatial frequency responses”, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, CH (2017).

D. Williams and P. D. Burns, “Evolution of slanted edge gradient SFR measurement,” IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, International Society for Optics and Photonics, San Francisco, California, USA (2014).

K. Kohm, “Modulation transfer function measurement method and results for the Orbview-3 high resolution imaging satellite,” Proceedings of ISPRS, Istanbul, Turkey (2004).

M. Estribeau and P. Magnan, “Fast MTF measurement of CMOS imagers using ISO 12233 slanted-edge methodology”, in Proc. SPIE 5251, Detectors and Associated Signal Processing, 243–253 (2004).

Satellite imagery. From acquisition principles to processing of optical images for observing the earth (Cepadues Editions 2012).

T. Choi, “IKONOS satellite in orbit, modulation transfer function measurement using edge and pulse methods”, MSc Thesis, South Dakota State University (2002).

D. Léger, F. Viallefont, P. Déliot, and C. Valorge, “On-orbit MTF assessment of satellite cameras,” in Post-launch calibration of satellite sensors (Morain and Budge ed., Taylor and Francis group, 2004).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principle of 1-D oversampled edge response (L represents the radiance).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An alternative method of constructing the oversampled ESF. The edge (1) is identified during the edge modeling step. A vector perpendicular to the edge (2) is constructed. Each point (3) in the ROI is projected onto the perpendicular vector (4).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Location of the edge and angle assessment.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured edge after truncation and extension and corresponding MTF curve.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illustration of SDSU LSF/MTF estimation process.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of Airbus DS operational MTF measurement tool.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Edge Spread Function from Edge data by KARI.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Constraint in KARI implementation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 As the initial step, the operator identifies suitable key marks which will be used to estimate parameters of the two edge lines (depicted in yellow). Key marks are select at each side of the image. The location of a given edge line is estimated at two distinct points (depicted in blue) and then line parameters computed. The main objective of this procedure is to compute the angle between Along-track (AL), Across-track (AC) directions, respectively, and the vertical/horizontal directions.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 ESF parametric function (depicted in green) with parameters estimated by using the non-equally spaced ESF data points (depicted in blue).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) LSF produced with the first derivative of ESF curve, (b) MTF normalized modulus produced from the LSF.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Overview of the data set.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Results for the StdSystem_1 edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from first 2017 runs, (c) deviation to the model from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the model from first 2017 runs.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Last 2017 results for the StdSystem_1 edge: (a) MTF, (b) deviation to the model.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Results for the StdSystem_30 edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from first 2017 (2017a) runs, (c) deviation to the model from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the model from first 2017 (2017a) runs.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Last 2017 (2017b) results for the StdSystem_30 edge: (a) MTF, (b) deviation to the model.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Results for the apnn edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from 2017 runs, (c) deviation to the model from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the model from 2017 runs.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Results for the cgpnn edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from 2017 runs, (c) deviation to the model from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the model from 2017 runs.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 Results for the 14oct_P3 edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from 2017 runs, (c) deviation to the mean from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the mean from 2017 runs.
Fig. 20
Fig. 20 Results for the 15aug_P3 edge: (a) MTF curves from 2016 runs, (b) MTF curves from 2017 runs, (c) deviation to the mean from 2016 runs, (d) deviation to the mean from 2017 runs.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Result submission history

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Table 2 Results at Nyquist frequency for StdSystem_1 edges.

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Table 3 Results at Nyquist frequency for StdSystem_30 edges (without D for 2017)

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Table 4 Results at Nyquist frequency for apnn edge (without D for 2017).

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Table 5 Results at Nyquist frequency for cgpnn edge

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Table 6 Results at Nyquist frequency for 14oct_P3 edges (without D for 2017)

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Table 7 Results at Nyquist frequency for 15aug_P3 edges (without D for 2017).

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i(x,y)=l(x,y)h(x,y)
i(x,y)=[ l(x,y)h(x,y) ]comb(x/ p x ,y/ p y )
I( f x , f y )=[ L( f x , f y )H( f x , f y ) ]comb( f x / f sx , f y / f sy )
l(x,y)=ahea(x)unit(y)+bunit(x)unit(y)
i(x,y)=[ ahea(x)unit(y)h(x,y)+bunit(x)unit(y) ]comb(x/ p x ,y/ p y )
i(x,y)=i(x)=[ ahea(x)LSF(x)+bunit(x) ]comb(x/ p x )
i(z)=ahea(z)LSF(z)+bunit(z)
z=[ xe(y) ]cos(θ)
z= n ( p x,y p x 0 , y 0 )
i(z)=[ ahea(z)LSF(z)+bunit(z) ]w(z)
I( f z )=[ aHea( f z )H( f z ,0)+bδ( f z ) ]W( f z )
I( f z )/[ aHea( f z )W( f z ) ]H( f z ,0)
f(x)=d+ bd 1+ e s(xe(y))
e= x,y f[ z(x,y) m k ]i(x,y) x,y f[ z(x,y) m k ]
f(x)= a 1 erf[ x a 3 σ 2 ]+ a 2
esf(z)=f(z)+w(z a 3 ) j=1 3 c j (z a 3 ) 2j1

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