Abstract

In this study, we developed hybrid humidity sensing methods by incorporating silk fibroin protein onto metamaterials, operating in the terahertz (THz) frequencies; the resonant frequency shifted but saturated at a specific thickness due to the limited sensing volume of the metamaterial. From the saturated value, we extracted the dielectric constant for the silk films. We also observed additional resonance shifts when we applied humid air to silk-coated metamaterials, due to the increased water molecule numbers on the film. Frequency shifts depend linearly on relative humidity. Also, in situ THz spectroscopy measurements reveal that the time response is instantaneous within our detection limit, especially upon exposure to humid air, whereas the small slowly decaying component appeared when we applied dry air. The time taken by the slow component in the drying process was 10–50 s, depending on film thickness. This could optimize humidity sensors as a fast and efficient detection tool to measure air humidity.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

B. Li, G. Xiao, F. Liu, Y. Qiao, C. M. Li, and Z. Lu, “A flexible humidity sensor based on silk fabrics for human respiration monitoring,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(16), 4549–4554 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, “Biomedical Sensing with Conductively Coupled Terahertz Metamaterial Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 4700405 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Kolpakov, N. T. Gordon, C. Mou, and K. Zhou, “Toward a new generation of photonic humidity sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 3986–4013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Diao, X. Y. Liu, G. W. Toh, L. Shi, and J. Zi, “Multiple structural coloring of silk-fibroin photonic crystals and humidity-responsive color sensing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(43), 5373–5380 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk materials-A road to sustainable high technology,” Adv. Mater. 24(21), 2824–2837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. J.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

I. Al-Naib, “Biomedical Sensing with Conductively Coupled Terahertz Metamaterial Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 4700405 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ameen, A.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

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H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
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H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
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H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
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D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
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H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
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C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
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X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
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C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
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H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
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H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
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C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
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Han, M. Y.

B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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Hwang, K. C.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
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S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
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Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
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Jo, M.

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
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H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk materials-A road to sustainable high technology,” Adv. Mater. 24(21), 2824–2837 (2012).
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S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “New opportunities for an ancient material,” Science 329(5991), 528–531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. R.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, I. S.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, H. Jeon, and S. Kim, “A highly tunable and fully biocompatible silk nanoplasmonic optical sensor,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3358–3363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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B. Li, G. Xiao, F. Liu, Y. Qiao, C. M. Li, and Z. Lu, “A flexible humidity sensor based on silk fabrics for human respiration monitoring,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(16), 4549–4554 (2018).
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H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
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C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
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Lu, Z.

B. Li, G. Xiao, F. Liu, Y. Qiao, C. M. Li, and Z. Lu, “A flexible humidity sensor based on silk fabrics for human respiration monitoring,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(16), 4549–4554 (2018).
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X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
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H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
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S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
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S. A. Kolpakov, N. T. Gordon, C. Mou, and K. Zhou, “Toward a new generation of photonic humidity sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 3986–4013 (2014).
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C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
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H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
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H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
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D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
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D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
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Park, I.

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
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Park, J. K.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, A. R. Kim, J. T. Hong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Crystallization kinetics of lead halide perovskite film monitored by in situ terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(2), 401–406 (2017).
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S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
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S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. J. Park, I. Park, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric substrate effect on the metamaterial resonances in terahertz frequency range,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 14(4), 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
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Park, W. K.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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Peng, Y.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perry, H.

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qi, N.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qiao, Y.

B. Li, G. Xiao, F. Liu, Y. Qiao, C. M. Li, and Z. Lu, “A flexible humidity sensor based on silk fabrics for human respiration monitoring,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(16), 4549–4554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rill, E.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
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Rogers, J. A.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, B.

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Diao, X. Y. Liu, G. W. Toh, L. Shi, and J. Zi, “Multiple structural coloring of silk-fibroin photonic crystals and humidity-responsive color sensing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(43), 5373–5380 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shin, G. A.

Siebert, S. M.

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Slepian, M. J.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 062511 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, B. H.

S. J. Park, B. H. Son, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensitive detection of yeast using terahertz slot antennas,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30467–30472 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, J. T. Hong, J. K. Park, S. B. Choi, B. H. Son, F. Rotermund, S. Lee, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Resonant transmission of terahertz waves through metallic slot antennas on various dielectric substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(4), 753–757 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, J. K.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. M.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spitzberg, J. D.

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syassen, K.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tahar, J. B.

Tao, H.

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk materials-A road to sustainable high technology,” Adv. Mater. 24(21), 2824–2837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, A. N. Mitropoulos, J. D. Spitzberg, H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk inverse opals,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 818–823 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: Sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Toh, G. W.

Y. Y. Diao, X. Y. Liu, G. W. Toh, L. Shi, and J. Zi, “Multiple structural coloring of silk-fibroin photonic crystals and humidity-responsive color sensing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(43), 5373–5380 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsukruk, V. V.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vigeland, L.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viventi, J.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319–5331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, K.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Won, S. M.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, G.

B. Li, G. Xiao, F. Liu, Y. Qiao, C. M. Li, and Z. Lu, “A flexible humidity sensor based on silk fabrics for human respiration monitoring,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 6(16), 4549–4554 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yook, J. G.

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S. A. N.

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, K. J.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Q.

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakin, M. R.

S. W. Hwang, H. Tao, D. H. Kim, H. Cheng, J. K. Song, E. Rill, M. A. Brenckle, B. Panilaitis, S. M. Won, Y. S. Kim, Y. M. Song, K. J. Yu, A. Ameen, R. Li, Y. Su, M. Yang, D. L. Kaplan, M. R. Zakin, M. J. Slepian, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, and J. A. Rogers, “A physically transient form of silicon electronics,” Science 337(6102), 1640–1644 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, and J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. Q.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Li, N. Qi, Y. Peng, Y. Zhang, L. Shi, X. Zhang, Y. Lai, K. Wei, I. S. Kim, and K. Q. Zhang, “Sub-micron silk fibroin film with high humidity sensibility through color changing,” RSC Advances 7(29), 17889–17897 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, Y. Li, J. Yin, X. Ma, and J. Zhao, “High performance graphene oxide-based humidity sensor integrated on a photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(15), 151107 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Q. Yuan, L. Fang, X. Gan, and J. Zhao, “High-performance humidity sensor based on a polyvinyl alcohol-coated photonic crystal cavity,” Opt. Lett. 41(23), 5515–5518 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

S. A. Kolpakov, N. T. Gordon, C. Mou, and K. Zhou, “Toward a new generation of photonic humidity sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 3986–4013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zi, J.

Y. Y. Diao, X. Y. Liu, G. W. Toh, L. Shi, and J. Zi, “Multiple structural coloring of silk-fibroin photonic crystals and humidity-responsive color sensing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(43), 5373–5380 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Jo, K. Min, B. Roy, S. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Park, and S. Kim, “Protein-Based Electronic Skin Akin to Biological Tissues,” ACS Nano 12(6), 5637–5645 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Y. Y. Diao, X. Y. Liu, G. W. Toh, L. Shi, and J. Zi, “Multiple structural coloring of silk-fibroin photonic crystals and humidity-responsive color sensing,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(43), 5373–5380 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical properties of robust ultrathin silk fibroin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (5)

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and micropatterning of optically transparent, mechanically robust, biocompatible silk fibroin films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk materials-A road to sustainable high technology,” Adv. Mater. 24(21), 2824–2837 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, H. Wang, W. R. Leow, Y. Cai, X. J. Loh, M. Y. Han, and X. Chen, “Silk Fibroin for Flexible Electronic Devices,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4250–4265 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial silk composites at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, M. A. Brenckle, M. Yang, J. Zhang, M. Liu, S. M. Siebert, R. D. Averitt, M. S. Mannoor, M. C. McAlpine, J. A. Rogers, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Silk-based conformal, adhesive, edible food sensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1067–1072 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the hybrid THz humidity sensors. The silk fibroin film was deposited on the THz metamaterials.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Microscopy image of the metamaterials before and after the deposition of a silk fibroin film with d silk = 8.1 μm. (b) Transmission amplitudes for different silk film thickness from d silk = 0 – 15 μm. (c) Plot of the frequency shift as a function of d silk extracted from (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission amplitude for different humidity conditions from 12.5 – 78% for d silk = 15 μm. (b) Frequency shift as a function of humidity, extracted from (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) In situ THz spectroscopy results recorded for THz transmission as a function of spectrum (x-axis) and time (y-axis) with d silk = 3.6 μm. Initially, the humidity was measured at 12% and we applied humid air with 73% humidity for 23 min. (b) In situ THz spectroscopy results when the humidity was changed from 25% and 74% repeatedly ( d silk = 3.9 μm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Frequency shift as a function of time extracted from in situ THz spectroscopy for d silk = 340 nm (black) and 3.9 μm (red). (b) Plot of the rise (black) and decay (red) time constants as a function of d silk . (c) Plot of the maximum frequency shift as a function of film thickness.

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